Takahiro Toda

Hoshi University, Japan

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Publications (30)60.88 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We had previously revealed that drug metabolism, as well as the expression level of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), a drug-metabolizing enzyme, increase 12 weeks after gastrectomy in mice. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism of the increased CYP3A expression. The levels of lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis) and LCA in the colon did not show a significant increase up to 4 weeks after gastrectomy compared to the sham operation group. In contrast, at 12 and 24 weeks post-gastrectomy, the levels of Bacteroides fragilis and LCA were significantly higher in the gastrectomy group than in the sham operation group. At 12 and 24 weeks after gastrectomy, the hepatic nuclear translocation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) had also increased. The hepatic CYP3A11 mRNA expression and nuclear translocation of PXR after intraperitoneal administration of LCA to normal mice was significantly higher than those of the control group. The intraperitoneal administration of taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), a taurine conjugate of LCA, caused no change in the expression level of CYP3A11. We suggest that the increase in the expression level of CYP3A after gastrectomy is caused by an increase in the nuclear translocation of PXR, which is triggered by an increase in LCA-producing bacteria.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 11/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with gastrectomy, it is possible that drug effectiveness is reduced compared to healthy subjects due to the increased of the drug-metabolizing enzyme, Cytochrome P450 (CYP). The purpose of this study is to verify this possibility. Gastrectomy model mice were prepared to evaluate the expression level of various CYPs in the liver from 2 to 24 weeks post-operation. No significant differences were observed in the protein expression levels of CYP3A, CYP1A, CYP2C, and CYP2D between the sham operation group and the gastrectomy group up to 4 weeks after the gastrectomy. On the other hand, significant increases in the protein expression levels of any CYPs were observed in the gastrectomy group compared to the sham operation group from 12 weeks after the gastrectomy onward. These increases in expression levels were maintained until 24 weeks after the gastrectomy. The examination of metabolic activity in the liver in the gastrectomy group using triazolam revealed that the metabolic activity at 12 weeks after the gastrectomy was significantly increased in the gastrectomy group. The administration of the anticancer drug imatinib, which is a substrate of CYP3A, to mice at 12 weeks after gastrectomy resulted in an increase in the metabolic rate, suggesting a possible decrease in drug effectiveness. It has been revealed that drug effectiveness may be reduced after gastrectomy because the expression levels of various CYPs in the liver were increased over a prolonged period. The results of this study can serve as valuable fundamental knowledge for drug therapy in patients with gastrectomy.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the expression level and activity of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver are caused by various factors and affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the expression of CYP3A is affected by a high-fat diet. In addition, we examined whether the type of diet given to mice could produce changes in the expression level and activity of CYP3A. Mice were fed a purified diet containing 10 kcal% lard (control group) or 60 kcal% lard (HF group) or regular mouse chow containing 13 kcal% of fat (MF group) for 4 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the hepatic CYP3A protein expression level between the HF group and the control group. The CYP3A protein expression in the MF group was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. In the MF group, the area under the curve (AUC) of intraperitoneally administered triazolam was lower. Because lithocholic acid (LCA) is known to increase hepatic CYP3A expression, the levels of Clostridium sordellii and LCA in the feces were measured. In the MF group, the levels of Clostridium sordellii and LCA were higher. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet does not cause any changes in hepatic CYP3A expression. In addition, the different diets caused alterations in the enteric environment, which triggered changes in CYP3A expression. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully consider the type of feed while performing animal experiments to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 02/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been recently reported that the consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy exerts various effects on fetuses and newborn mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy on the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the livers of offspring. Mouse dams were fed a high-fat diet during pregnancy from the time of conception. After their birth, the newborn mice were fed a normal diet until 12 weeks of age. In the livers of the infant male mice that consumed a high-fat diet, the protein expression of CYP3A and CYP2C was decreased, and the protein expression of CYP1A and CYP2E was increased at 6 and 12 weeks of age. However, almost no changes were observed in the CYP proteins at 6 and 12 weeks of age in the livers of the infant female mice that consumed a high-fat diet. The amount of pregnane X receptor (PXR) translocated into the nucleus was reduced in the livers of infant male mice that consumed a high-fat diet. However, there was neither an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-1β nor a decrease in lithocholic acid. These data suggested that CYP3A and CYP2C might decrease as a result of the decrease in the amount of nuclear PXR in infant male mice that consumed a high-fat diet. The results of this study suggested that the consumption of a high-fat diet by pregnant mothers may be one explanation for individual differences in pharmacokinetics.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compound 1 (IT-M-07000) was previously reported as a candidate prodrug of Am80 (Tamibarotene; used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia), and shown to be efficiently metabolized to Am80 via β-oxidation. Here, we describe in detail the synthesis of 1, together with another tetradeuterated candidate prodrug, IT-YA-00616 (2), as well as two congeners, and several metabolic intermediates of 1 previously detected in mouse plasma.
    Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 01/2013; 61(8):846-52. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Firefly luciferase (Luc) is widely used as a reporter enzyme in cell-based assays for gene expression. A novel aromatic carboxylic acid, F-53, reported here for the first time, substantially inhibited the enzymatic activity of Luc in a Luc reporter screening. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses showed that F-53 modifies Luc at lysine-529 via amidation of the F-53 carboxyl group. The lysine-529 residue of Luc, which plays a regulatory catalytic role, can be acetylated. Luc also has a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthase activity. An in vitro assay that involved both recombinant Luc and mouse liver microsomes identified F-53-CoA as the reactive form produced from F-53. However, whereas the inhibitory effect of F-53 is observed in Hela cells that transiently expressed Luc, it is not observed in an in vitro assay that involves recombinant Luc alone. Therefore, insights into the activities of certain mammalian transferases can be translated to better understand the acylation by F-53. The insights from this study about the novel inhibitory modification mechanism might help not only to avoid misinterpretation of the results of Luc-based reporter screening assays but also to explain the pharmacological and toxicological effects of carboxylic acid-containing drugs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75445. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain condition resulting from neuronal damage, and is usually treated with pregabalin or gabapentin, which are structurally related to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and are originally developed as anticonvulsant drugs. Here, we report the synthesis and pharmacology of (R)- and (S)-4-amino-3-(trimethylsilyl)methylbutanoic acids (1a and 1b), which showed analgesic activity as potent as that of pregabalin in the Chung spinal nerve ligation model. However, unlike pregabalin, 1a and 1b do not have antiepileptic effects, and they are therefore promising candidates for selective therapeutic agents to treat neuropathic pain without central nervous system-related side effects.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 10/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that a high-fat diet during pregnancy exerts various effects on the foetus and newborn. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy on the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 3a in offspring in mice. The protein expression level and activity of Cyp3a in the livers of 6-week-old mice born to mothers that were given a high-fat diet during pregnancy (HF group) decreased significantly compared with the Control group. Triazolam, which is a substrate of Cyp3a, was intraperitoneally administered to the mice in the HF group. Compared with the Control group, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and a decrease in total clearance were observed in the HF group. The hepatic constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) mRNA expression level in the HF group was significantly lower than that in the Control group. An increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was also observed in the HF group. The results of this study revealed that a high-fat diet during pregnancy causes an increase in ERK phosphorylation and a decrease in the expression level of CAR in the livers of offspring, which leads to decreased Cyp3a expression and activity. The results suggest that individual differences in pharmacokinetics may not only be expressed by genetic predisposition but also by a mother's living environment during pregnancy.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2012; 47(1):108-16. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporin (AQP) 3, which is predominantly expressed in the colon, is considered to play an important role in regulating the fecal water content in the colon. In this study, the role of AQP3 in the colon was examined using HgCl(2) and CuSO(4), which are known to inhibit AQP3 function. The fecal water content was measured up to 1 h after the rectal administration of HgCl(2) or CuSO(4) to rats. The results showed that the fecal water content in the HgCl(2) administration group increased significantly to approximately 4 times that in the control group, and severe diarrhea was observed. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA expression level of the osmoregulatory genes (sodium myo-inositol transporter and taurine transporter) and the level and distribution of AQP3 protein expression, as determined 1 h after the administration of HgCl(2). Comparable results were observed in the CuSO(4) administration group. The results of this study indicated that the inhibition of AQP3 function in the colon caused diarrhea. Therefore, it has been revealed that the fecal water content in the colon is controlled by the transport of water from the luminal side to the vascular side, which is mediated by AQP3. Our findings suggest that a drug that modulates the function or expression of AQP3 in the colon may represent a new target for the development of laxatives.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2012; 35(6):957-62. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the inhibitory effect of polyphenol-rich aqueous extract from the bark of Acacia mearnsii (PrA) on itching associated with atopic dermatitis (AD). HR-1 mice were fed a normal diet, special diet (AD group), or special diet containing 3% PrA (PrA group) for 6 weeks. In the AD group, itching frequency and transepidermal water loss increased compared to the control group. In the PrA group, an improvement in atopic dermatitis symptoms was observed. Ceramide expression in the skin decreased in the AD group compared to the control group, but no decrease was observed in the PrA group. mRNA expression of ceramidase decreased in the PrA group compared to the AD group. The results of this study have revealed that PrA inhibits itching in atopic dermatitis by preventing the skin from drying. It is considered that the mechanism by which PrA prevents the skin from drying involves the inhibition of increased ceramidase expression associated with atopic dermatitis.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:120389. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the anti-fatigue effect of Conclevan, which is mainly composed of liver hydrolysate, via a forced swimming test using mice. Conclevan was administered to mice for 6 weeks, and a forced swimming test was conducted to measure swimming time. After six weeks, the blood ammonia and glutamine concentrations were measured. In the Conclevan administration group, swimming time increased significantly compared to the swimming control group. In the swimming control group, an increase in blood ammonia and a decrease in blood glutamine were observed, relative to the non-swimming control group. In the Conclevan administration group, the increased blood ammonia and decreased blood glutamine induced by swimming were significantly reduced, compared to the swimming control group. The mRNA expression levels of the hepatic enzymes of the urea cycle (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase, and arginase) and glutamine synthesis (glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase) were significantly increased in the Conclevan administration group, compared to the swimming control group. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-fatigue effects of Conclevan. This product may inhibit an increase in the fatigue-inducing ammonia concentration in the blood by increasing the expression of hepatic enzymes, which convert ammonia to urea, leading to increased swimming time. In addition, Conclevan may prolong swimming time by increasing the hepatic synthesis of glutamine, which is an important amino acid for supplying energy in muscles.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2012; 35(2):231-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Living organisms eliminate foreign low-antigenic substances, such as drugs and environmental pollutants, by detoxification mediated by metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP). We have examined the possible regulation of CYP expression by enteric bacteria. Cyp mRNA expression levels, Cyp3a protein expression level, and the activity of Cyp3a in hepatic microsomal fractions were compared in germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. We evaluated hepatic Cyp3a11 mRNA expression levels and Cyp3a metabolic activity in GF and SPF mice after five days of antibiotic administration. The fecal levels of lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria and hepatic taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) were also measured. Cyp mRNA expression levels, Cyp3a protein expression level, and the activity of Cyp3a in SPF mice were higher than those in GF mice, indicating that enteric bacteria increases hepatic Cyp3a expression. The effects of enteric bacteria-reducing antibiotics on Cyp3a expression were examined. We observed that decreasing enteric bacteria with antibiotics in SPF mice caused a significant decrease in the hepatic Cyp3a11 mRNA expression, TLCA, and fecal LCA-producing bacteria compared to the group that did not receive antibiotics. No change in Cyp3a11 expression was observed in GF mice that were treated with antibiotics. Administration of LCA to GF mice showed an increase in Cyp3a11 expression similar to that of SPF mice. The enzymes of the enteric bacteria are believed to metabolize and detoxify drugs by either reduction or hydrolysis. The results of this study indicate that changes in enteric bacteria may alter the expression and activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and pharmacokinetics. Therefore, enteric bacteria should be closely monitored to ensure the safe use of drugs.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 01/2012; 132(3):301-10. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that Byakkokaninjinto improves cutaneous pruritus by increasing the expression level of aquaporin-3 (AQP3). In this study, we examined the effect of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO(4)), which is the main component of Byakkokaninjinto, on the cutaneous AQP3 expression level. KKAy mice were given a diet containing 0.3% Gypsum fibrosum extract, or a diet containing 0.3% CaSO(4) for 4 weeks. The urine volume, plasma glucose levels, cutaneous AQP3 protein expression, and the Ca(2+) content were measured. The 24-h urine volumes and the plasma glucose levels in the Gypsum fibrosum extract group were not significantly different from those in the control group. In the Gypsum fibrosum extract group, the cutaneous AQP3 protein levels increased significantly, by approximately 3.2-fold, compared to the control group. The cutaneous Ca(2+) content in the control group was approximately 35μg/g. In the Gypsum fibrosum extract group, the Ca(2+) content increased to approximately 51μg/g, which was significant compared to the control group. In the CaSO(4) group, an increase in the AQP3 protein expression levels and Ca(2+) content were observed; the extent of these increases were similar to those in the Gypsum fibrosum extract group. The results of this study suggest that Gypsum fibrosum plays an important role in the increased levels of cutaneous AQP3 expression enhanced by Byakkokaninjinto. The results also indicate that the increase in AQP3 caused by Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to an increase in the cutaneous Ca(2+) content from its main component, CaSO(4).
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2011; 139(2):409-13. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with severe constipation are treated with combinations of several different laxatives. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the concomitant use of different laxatives enhances the laxative effect, using an osmotic laxative, magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄), and a stimulant laxative, bisacodyl. The faecal water content of rats, to which MgSO₄ and bisacodyl were coadministered, was lower than that in the MgSO₄ group, while the change in the faecal water content over time was very similar to that in the bisacodyl group. The mRNA expression of the osmotic pressure marker, sodium/myo-inositol transporter, in the coadministration group 5h after the administration was significantly higher than that in the control group and almost equal to that in the MgSO₄ group. The protein expression level of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), which plays an important role in water transfer, in the coadministration group decreased compared to the control group, as was the case in the bisacodyl group. The results of this study indicates that the coadministration of MgSO₄ and bisacodyl does not enhance the laxative effect because the expression level of AQP3 in the colon in the coadministration group was almost equal to that in the bisacodyl group.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 11/2011; 45(1-2):73-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of aquaporin3 (AQP3) in the colon in the laxative effect of bisacodyl. After oral administration of bisacodyl to rats, AQP3, macrophages, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were examined in the colon. The mechanism by which bisacodyl decreases the expression of AQP3 was examined using HT-29 and Raw264.7 cells. When diarrhea occurred, a significant increase in the expression of PGE(2) and a decrease in AQP3 expression were observed. Immunostaining showed COX2 expression only in macrophages. The PGE(2) concentration increased significantly 30 min after the addition of bisacodyl to Raw264.7 cells. Thirty minutes after PGE(2) addition to HT-29 cells, the AQP3 expression level decreased to 40% of the control. When pretreated with indomethacin, bisacodyl did not induce an increase in the colon PGE(2) level, a decrease in the AQP3 expression level, or diarrhea. The results suggest that bisacodyl may decrease the expression of AQP3 in the colon, which inhibits water transfer from the luminal to the vascular side and leads to a laxative effect. This study also showed that direct activation of colon macrophages by bisacodyl increases the secretion of PGE(2), which acts as a paracrine factor and decreases AQP3 expression in colon mucosal epithelial cells.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 08/2011; 301(5):G887-95. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major cause of metabolic syndrome and is due to an increase in the number and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Accordingly, inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of adipocytes may be used in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effects of 50 commonly used Kampo medicines on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to search for a drug with an antiobesity effect. Kampo medicines were screened, and the strongest differentiation-inhibitory effect was noted with Orengedokuto. To explore the active ingredients in Orengedokuto, the effects of four crude drug components of Orengedokuto were investigated. It was found that the differentiation-inhibitory effect of Orengedokuto was accounted for by Coptidis rhizome and Phellodendri cortex. Furthermore, berberine, a principal ingredient common to Coptidis rhizome and Phellodendri cortex, showed a differentiation-inhibitory effect. The effect of berberine involves an inhibition of the mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα). Moreover, berberine inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes. These findings suggest that an antiobesity effect could be a new indication for Orengedokuto and that its active ingredient is berberine, with a mechanism involving the inhibition of PPARγ and C/EBPα expression.
    Phytotherapy Research 05/2011; 26(1):91-100. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, digoxin is mainly eliminated through the kidneys unchanged, and renal clearance represents approximately 70% of the total clearance. In this study, we used the mouse models to examine digoxin pharmacokinetics in polyuria induced by diabetes mellitus and lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)) administration, including mechanistic evaluation of the contribution of glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption. After digoxin administration to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, digoxin CL/F increased to approximately 2.2 times that in normal mice. After treatment with Li(2)CO(3) (0.2%) for 10 days, the CL/F increased approximately 1.1 times for normal mice and 1.6 times for STZ mice. Creatinine clearance (CLcr) and the renal mRNA expression levels of mdr1a did not differ significantly between the normal, STZ, and Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice. The urine volume of STZ mice was approximately 26 mL/day, 22 times that of normal mice. The urine volume of Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice increased approximately 7.3 times for normal mice and 2.3 times for STZ mice. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of digoxin may be significantly reduced in the presence of polyuria either induced by diabetes mellitus or manifested as an adverse effect of Li(2)CO(3) in diabetic patients, along with increased urine volume.
    Xenobiotica 02/2011; 41(6):486-93. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporin (AQP) 3 plays an important role in regulating faecal water content in the colon. We investigated the role of AQP3 in the colon in the laxative effect of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)), a widely used osmotic laxative. Rats were administered MgSO(4), after which faecal water content, the colon mRNA expression levels of sodium myo-inositol transporter (SMIT) and taurine transporter (TauT), the colon protein expression levels of AQP3 were examined. Faecal water content increased over time after MgSO(4) administration, and severe diarrhoea was observed between 4 and 8 h after administration. The mRNA expression levels of SMIT and TauT, which are indicators of variations in osmotic pressure, were highest at 2 h after the administration of MgSO(4) and were still elevated at 8 h after administration when compared to immediately after the administration. The immunostaining analysis showed that AQP3 is a dominant AQP in the rat colon. The protein expression levels of AQP3 in the colon increased over time following the administration of MgSO(4) and at 8 h after administration were approximately 8 times higher than baseline levels. Previously, osmotic laxatives were believed to induce diarrhoea by elevating the osmotic pressure in the intestinal tract. The results of the present study suggest that the laxative effect of MgSO(4) is not simply caused by a change in the osmotic pressure in the intestinal tract, but could be a response to increased expression of AQP3.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2011; 34(2):238-42. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acacia polyphenol (AP) extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii) is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPARα, PPARδ, CPT1, ACO and UCP3) was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS) in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2011; 2011:952031. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have suggested that an osmotic laxative, magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)), may act as a cathartic in a very rational manner by increasing the aquaporin 3 (AQP3) expression level and by changing osmotic pressure in the colon. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which MgSO(4) increases the intestinal AQP3 expression level by using the human colon cancer HT-29 cell line. After the addition of MgSO(4) to HT-29 cells, the expression levels of AQP3 mRNA and protein were measured using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The intracellular Mg(2+) concentration, adenylate cyclase (AC) activity and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were also determined. The phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression levels were determined by western blotting. The AQP3 mRNA expression level started to increase significantly at 1 h after MgSO(4) addition and peaked at 9 h, at a level 3 times as high as the control levels. The AQP3 protein expression level started to increase 6 h after the addition and reached a level almost twice as high as the control levels by hour 12. In the HT-29 cells treated with MgSO(4), there was a 1.4-fold increase in the intracellular Mg(2+) concentration, a 1.5-fold increase in AC activity, a 1.6-fold increase in PKA activity, and a significant increase in phosphorylation of the CREB. These results suggest that the AC activation caused by an increase in the intracellular Mg(2+) concentration may trigger CREB phosphorylation through PKA activation and promote AQP3 gene transcription.
    Life sciences 01/2011; 88(3-4):194-200. · 2.56 Impact Factor