Marcel Tanner

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (522)2098.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The presentation of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Roadmap for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in January 2012 raised optimism that many NTDs can indeed be eliminated. To make this happen, the endemic, often low-income countries with still heavy NTD burdens must substantially strengthen their health systems. In particular, they need not only to apply validated, highly sensitive diagnostic tools and sustainable effective control approaches for treatment and transmission control, but also to participate in the development and use of surveillance-response schemes to ensure that progress made also is consolidated and sustained. Surveillance followed-up by public health actions consisting of response packages tailored to interruption of transmission in different settings will help to effectively achieve the disease control/elimination goals by 2020, as anticipated by the WHO Roadmap. Risk-mapping geared at detection of transmission hotspots by means of geospatial and other dynamic approaches facilitates decision-making at the technical as well as the political level. Surveillance should thus be conceived and developed as an intervention approach and at the same time function as an early warning system for the potential re-emergence of endemic infections as well as for new, rapidly spread epidemics and pandemics.
    Acta Tropica. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background In the past decade, decreases in clinical episodes and deaths due to malaria have been mainly associated with the expansion of vector-control measures, such as insecticide-treated bednets and indoor residual spraying. Malaria indicator surveys gather information about key malaria indicators through national representative household surveys. We aimed to estimate changes in risk of malaria parasitaemia at high spatial resolution in sub-Saharan Africa, and to quantify the effects of malaria interventions at national and subnational levels. Methods In this spatial and temporal analysis, we analysed data from the six sub-Saharan countries that had publicly available data from two malaria indicator or demographic and health surveys with malaria measurements done in 2006–08 and 2010–12: Angola, Liberia, Mozambique, Senegal, Rwanda, and Tanzania. We used Bayesian geostatistical models to estimate the present malaria risk and to establish the change relative to the period between the last two national surveys. We applied Bayesian variable selection procedures to select the most relevant insecticide-treated-bednet measure for reducing malaria risk, and did spatial kriging over the study region to produce intervention coverage maps. We estimated the contribution of bednets and indoor residual spraying on changes in malaria risk, after adjustment for climatic and socioeconomic factors. Spatially varying coefficients of intervention coverage enabled estimation of their effects at subnational level. Findings In all countries, the probability of decrease in parasitaemia varied substantially between regions. Insecticide-treated bednets were an important intervention for reducing malaria risk, according to different definitions of coverage. An overall effect of insecticide-treated bednets at country level was significant only in Angola (–0·64, 95% credible interval −0·98 to −0·30) and Senegal (–0·34, −0·64 to −0·05); however, in all countries, we detected significant effects of bednets and indoor residual spraying at local level. Interpretation The described methodology is useful for the identification of regions where changes in malaria risk have taken place, and to describe the geographical pattern of malaria. Intervention effects vary in space, which might be driven by local endemicity levels. The produced maps provide a visual aid for national malaria control programmes to identify where targeted strategies and resources are most needed or likely to have the greatest effect on reducing the risk of parasitaemia. Funding Swiss Programme for Research on Global Issues for Development.
    The Lancet Global Health. 10/2014; 2(10):e601–e615.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermia contributes to neonatal morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, yet little is known about thermal care practices in rural African settings. We assessed adoption and community acceptability of recommended thermal care practices in rural Tanzania.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 08/2014; 14(1):267. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite has been used to assess new anti-malaria interventions in > 1,500 volunteers since development of methods for infecting mosquitoes by feeding on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) gametocyte cultures. Such CHMIs have never been used in Africa. Aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Pf sporozoites, PfSPZ Challenge, were used to infect Dutch volunteers by intradermal injection. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess safety and infectivity of PfSPZ Challenge in adult male Tanzanians. Volunteers were injected intradermally with 10,000 (N = 12) or 25,000 (N = 12) PfSPZ or normal saline (N = 6). PfSPZ Challenge was well tolerated and safe. Eleven of 12 and 10 of 11 subjects, who received 10,000 and 25,000 PfSPZ, developed parasitemia. In 10,000 versus 25,000 PfSPZ groups geometric mean days from injection to Pf positivity by thick blood film was 15.4 versus 13.5 (P = 0.023). Alpha-thalassemia heterozygosity had no apparent effect on infectivity. PfSPZ Challenge was safe, well tolerated, and infectious.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Sub-Saharan Africa over one million newborns die annually. We developed a sustainable and scalable home-based counselling intervention for delivery by community volunteers in rural southern Tanzania to improve newborn care practices and survival. Here we report the effect on newborn care practices one year after full implementation.
    BMC Pediatrics 07/2014; 14(1):187. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sleeping under a net, particularly a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN), is associated with reduced malaria morbidity and mortality, but requires high coverage and adherence. In this study, parasitologically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum infection and a clinical indicator (i.e. fever) were measured among children in three villages of central Cote d'Ivoire (Bozi, N'Dakonankro and Yoho) and associations with net coverage explored. In Bozi and Yoho, LLINs were provided by the national malaria control programme, prior to the study and an additional catch-up coverage was carried out in Bozi. In N'Dakonankro, no net intervention was conducted.
    Parasites & Vectors 07/2014; 7(1):306. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular.Case description: The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales.Discussion and evaluation: The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme.
    Malaria Journal 06/2014; 13(1):245. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-communicable diseases dominate the public health arena in China, yet neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are still widespread and create a substantial burden. We review the geographical distribution, prevalence, and epidemic characteristics of NTDs identified in China caused by helminths, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Lymphatic filariasis was eliminated in 2007, but schistosomiasis still affects up to 5% of local village residents in some endemic counties with around 300 000 people infected. China harbours more than 90% of the world's burden of alveolar echinococcosis and food-borne zoonoses are emerging. In 2010, the overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm was 11·4%, with 6·8% of these infections caused by A lumbricoides. Corresponding figures for food-borne trematodiasis, echinococcosis, and cysticercosis are more than 5%. Dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, rabies, and trachoma exist in many areas and should not be overlooked. Transmission of vector-borne diseases can be interrupted; nevertheless, epidemics occur in remote areas, creating a challenge for surveillance and control. Rigorous surveillance, followed by immediate and integrated response packages tailored to specific social and ecological systems, is essential for progress towards the elimination of NTDs in China.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 05/2014; · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is an effective malaria control strategy. However, there are challenges to achieve high coverage, such as distribution sustainability, and coverage keep-up. This study assessed the effect of LLINs coverage and contextual factors on entomological indicators of malaria in rural Cote d'Ivoire. The study was carried out between July 2009 and May 2012 in three villages (Bozi, N'Dakonankro and Yoho) of central Cote d'Ivoire. In Bozi and Yoho, LLINs were distributed free of charge by the national malaria control programme in 2008. In Bozi, an additional distribution was carried out in May 2011. No specific interventions were done in N'Dakonankro. Entomological surveys were conducted in July 2009 and July 2010 (baseline), and in August and November 2011 and in February 2012. Frequency of circumsporozoite protein was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Regression models were employed to assess the impact of LLINs and changing patterns of irrigated rice farming on entomological parameters, and to determine associations with LLINs coverage and other contextual factors. In Bozi, high proportion of LLIN usage was observed (95-100%). After six months, 95% of LLINs were washed at least once and 79% were washed up to three times within one year. Anopheles gambiae was the predominant malaria vector (66.6% of all mosquitoes caught). From 2009 to 2012, in N'Dakonankro, the mean annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) increased significantly from 116.8 infectious bites/human/year (ib/h/y) to 408.8 ib/h/y, while in the intervention villages, the EIR decreased significantly from 514.6 ib/h/y to 62.0 ib/h/y (Bozi) and from 83.9 ib/h/y to 25.5 ib/h/y (Yoho). The risk of an infectious bite over the three-year period was significantly lower in the intervention villages compared to the control village (p <0.001). High coverage and sensitization of households to use LLINs through regular visits (particularly in Bozi) and abandoning irrigated rice farming (in Yoho) resulted in highly significant reductions of EIR. The national malaria control programme should consider household sensitization and education campaigns and other contextual factors to maximize the benefit of LLINs.
    Malaria Journal 03/2014; 13(1):109. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Aiming at a simple, inexpensive and robust tool for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping during antiretroviral therapy (ART) we developed and validated a microarray-based detection of 25 drug resistance mutations most relevant for the Tanzanian ART regimen.MethodsA reverse transcriptase gene fragment was reverse-transcribed and amplified by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Primers for mini-sequencing were designed based on alignments of the most prevalent local HIV-1 variants. Tagged primers were extended by fluorochrome-labelled dideoxynuclotide triphosphate (ddNTPs) to indicate the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele of the sample tested, followed by hybridisation on treated microarray slides. Images were analysed with a laser scanner and genotype calling was performed using in-house developed software.ResultsThe microarray was validated with four cloned HIV-1 genome fragments from a Swiss HIV-1 cohort and 102 HIV-1 sequences amplified from the Tanzanian target population (field samples). Results were concordant with the Sanger sequencing SNP profile in 92.7% of 2550 SNP data points compared. Lack of signals in small number of SNPs was due to either failure in the extension reaction or hybridisation owing to mismatches between PCR product and extension primer.Conclusion Our study demonstrates the feasibility of hybridisation-based genotyping of drug resistance mutations of HIV, even though our microarray, which was designed for population studies, achieved only correct assignment of 92% of all SNPs in the tested samples.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines discourage using stavudine in first-line regimens due to frequent and severe side effects. This study describes the implementation of this recommendation and trends in usage of antiretroviral therapy combinations in a cohort of HIV-positive patients in rural Tanzania. We analyzed longitudinal, prospectively collected clinical data of HIV-1 infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy within the Kilombero Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in Ifakara, Tanzania from 2007-2011. This analysis included data of 3008 patients. Median age was 38 (interquartile range [IQR] 31-45) years, 1962 (65.2%) of all subjects were female, and median CD4+ cell count at enrollment was 168 cells/mm3 (IQR 81-273). The percentage of prescriptions containing stavudine in initial regimens fell from a maximum of 75.3% in 2008 to 10.7% in 2011. TDF/FTC/EFV became available in 2009 and was used in 41.9% of patients initiating cART in 2011. An overall on-treatment analysis revealed that d4T/3TC/NVP and AZT/3TC/EFV were the most prescribed combinations in each year, including 2011 (674 [36.5%] and 641 [34.7%] patients, respectively). Of those receiving stavudine in 2011, 659 (89.1%) initiated it before 2011. Initial cART with stavudine declined to low levels according to recommendations but the overall use of stavudine remained substantial, as individuals already on cART containing stavudine were not changed to alternative drugs. Our findings highlight the critical need to exchange stavudine in treatment regimens of patients who initiated therapy in earlier years.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 14(1):90. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. OBJECTIVE: To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. DESIGN: From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992-2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006-2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. RESULTS: Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years) and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years). Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. CONCLUSIONS: The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the details of malaria epidemiology.
    Global Health Action 01/2014; 7:25369. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because most deaths in Africa and Asia are not well documented, estimates of mortality are often made using scanty data. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering all deaths over time and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available.
    Global Health Action 01/2014; 7:25362. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization's NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the 'First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination' was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a 'One Health-One World' frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous validation of surveillance-response systems; and (iv) designing pilot studies to transfer Chinese experiences of successful surveillance-response systems to endemic countries with limited resources.
    Infectious diseases of poverty. 01/2014; 3:17.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study aimed to synthesize available evidence on the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) in treating uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in people living in endemic countries.
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum allows the molecular discrimination of otherwise microscopically identical parasites and the identification of individual clones in multiple infections. The study reported here investigated the P. falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) and genetic diversity among school-aged children in the Man region, western Cote d'Ivoire. Blood samples from 292 children aged seven to 15 years were collected in four nearby villages located at altitudes ranging from 340 to 883 m above sea level. Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were prepared and examined under a microscope for P. falciparum prevalence and parasitaemia. MOI and genetic diversity of the parasite populations were investigated using msp2 typing by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and parasitaemia were both found to be significantly lower in the highest altitude village. Genotyping of the isolates revealed 25 potentially new msp2 alleles. MOI varied significantly across villages but did not correlate with altitude nor children's age, and only to a limited extent with parasitaemia. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that a small, but close to statistical significance (p = 0.07), fraction of variance occurs specifically between villages of low and high altitudes. Higher altitude was associated with lower prevalence of P. falciparum but not with reduced MOI, suggesting that, in this setting, MOI is not a good proxy for transmission. The evidence for partially parted parasite populations suggests the existence of local geographical barriers that should be taken into account when deploying anti-malarial interventions.
    Malaria Journal 11/2013; 12(1):419. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to synthesize available evidence on the extent of malaria and soil-transmitted intestinal helminth (STH) co-infections in people living in endemic countries and to explore the effect of interactions between malaria and STHs on anemia. We searched relevant studies in electronic databases up to March 2013. Studies comparing malaria and STH co-infected patients with those not co-infected were included and the effect estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. We identified 30 studies for meta-analyses of which 17 were cross-sectional design. The majority of included studies (80%) were carried out in African countries. Among pregnant women, those infected with hookworm were found to have higher association with malaria infection compared with those without (summary OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.59; I(2): 0%). Among non-pregnant adults, the summary OR of the association between anemia and the combined malaria and STH was 2.91 (1.38-6.14). The summary OR of the association between anemia and malaria alone was 1.53 (0.97-2.42), while the association between anemia and STH alone was 0.28 (0.04-1.95). There is no good evidence to support a different effect of malaria and STH on anemia. A subgroup analysis showed a higher risk of malaria infection in the primigravidae (summary OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.3-1.99; I(2): 0%). In conclusion, the malaria-STH co-infection was variable with complex outcomes on anemia.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 11/2013; 107(11):672-683. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water is a human right. Moreover, access to clean water is of public health relevance, particularly in semi-arid and Sahelian cities due to the risks of water contamination and transmission of water-borne diseases. We conducted a study in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania, to deepen the understanding of diarrhoeal incidence in space and time. We used an integrated geographical approach, combining socio-environmental, microbiological and epidemiological data from various sources, including spatially explicit surveys, laboratory analysis of water samples and reported diarrhoeal episodes. A geospatial technique was applied to determine the environmental and microbiological risk factors that govern diarrhoeal transmission. Statistical and cartographic analyses revealed concentration of unimproved sources of drinking water in the most densely populated areas of the city, coupled with a daily water allocation below the recommended standard of 20 l per person. Bacteriological analysis indicated that 93% of the non-piped water sources supplied at water points were contaminated with 10-80 coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Diarrhoea was the second most important disease reported at health centres, accounting for 12.8% of health care service consultations on average. Diarrhoeal episodes were concentrated in municipalities with the largest number of contaminated water sources. Environmental factors (e.g. lack of improved water sources) and bacteriological aspects (e.g. water contamination with coliform bacteria) are the main drivers explaining the spatio-temporal distribution of diarrhoea. We conclude that integrating environmental, microbiological and epidemiological variables with statistical regression models facilitates risk profiling of diarrhoeal diseases. Modes of water supply and water contamination were the main drivers of diarrhoea in this semi-arid urban context of Nouakchott, and hence require a strategy to improve water quality at the various levels of the supply chain.
    Geospatial health 11/2013; 8(1):53-63. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progress towards reaching Millennium Development Goals four (child health) and five (maternal health) is lagging behind, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, despite increasing efforts to scale up high impact interventions. Increasing the proportion of birth attended by a skilled attendant is a main indicator of progress, but not much is known about the quality of childbirth care delivered by these skilled attendants. With a view to reducing maternal mortality through health systems improvement we describe the care routinely offered in childbirth offered at dispensaries, health centres and hospitals in five districts in rural Southern Tanzania. We use data from a health facility census assessing 159 facilities in five districts in early 2009. A structural and operational assessment was undertaken based on staff reports using a modular questionnaire assessing staffing, work load, equipment and supplies as well as interventions routinely implemented during childbirth. Health centres and dispensaries attended a median of eight and four deliveries every month respectively. Dispensaries had a median of 2.5 (IQR 2--3) health workers including auxiliary staff instead of the recommended four clinical officer and certified nurses. Only 28% of first-line facilities (dispensaries and health centres) reported offering active management in the third stage of labour (AMTSL). Essential childbirth care comprising eight interventions including AMTSL, infection prevention, partograph use including foetal monitoring and newborn care including early breastfeeding, thermal care at birth and prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum was offered by 5% of dispensaries, 38% of health centres and 50% of hospitals consistently. No first-line facility had provided all signal functions for emergency obstetric complications in the previous six months. Essential interventions for childbirth care are not routinely implemented in first-line facilities or hospitals. Dispensaries have both low staffing and low caseload which constraints the ability to provide high-quality childbirth care. Improvements in quality of care are essential so that women delivering in facility receive "skilled attendance" and adequate care for common obstetric complications such as post-partum haemorrhage.
    BMC Research Notes 10/2013; 6(1):435.

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,098.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1981–2014
    • Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • International Medical University (IMU)
      Kuala Lumpor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2008–2013
    • Ifakara Health Institute
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Durham University
      • School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
      Durham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2013
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Tropical Diseases Research Centre
      Ndola, Copperbelt, Zambia
  • 1999–2013
    • University of Queensland 
      • • School of Population Health
      • • Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health (ACITH)
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Doctors Without Borders
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • Swiss Center for Scientific Research in Côte Ivory
      Abijan, Lagunes, Ivory Coast
    • CRESIB Barcelona Centre for International Health Research
      • Barcelona Centre for International Health Research
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2005–2011
    • Centre Suisse De Recherches Scientifiques En Côte D'Ivoire
      Abijan, Lagunes, Ivory Coast
  • 2010
    • Institut National de Recherche en Santé Publique
      Nouakchot, Nouakchott, Mauritania
    • Medical Research Unit
      Lambaréné, Moyen-Ogooué, Gabon
    • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2010
    • Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases
      Wu-hsi, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2000–2010
    • National Institute of Parasitic Diseases
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Universität Basel
      • Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      • Molecular Parasitology Laboratory
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2009
    • Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques
      Jaúnde, Centre Region, Cameroon
  • 2004–2008
    • Imperial College London
      • • Section of Computational and Systems Medicine (CSM)
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Pathology
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2008
    • Institut de Recherches Mathematiques , Cote d'Ivoire, Abidjan
      Abijan, Lagunes, Ivory Coast
  • 2007
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      • College of Pharmacy
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 1999–2007
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006
    • University of Nairobi
      Nairoba, Nairobi Area, Kenya
  • 1996–2005
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2001–2004
    • Princeton University
      • Office of Population Research
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2002
    • Yunnan Institute Of Parasitic Diseases
      白庙, Shaanxi, China
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2000–2001
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1994
    • Fundació Clínic per a la Recerca Biomèdica
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1990
    • Kantonsspital Liestal
      Liestal, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland
  • 1986–1990
    • University of Geneva
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland