Bernard E Van Beers

Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

Are you Bernard E Van Beers?

Claim your profile

Publications (268)674.03 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported cannabinoid-induced rapid changes in the structure of individual neurons. In order to investigate the presence of similar effects at the regional level, measures of brain tissue biomechanics are required. However, cannabinoids are known to alter cerebral blood flow (CBF), putatively resulting in presently unexplored changes in cerebral tissue biomechanics. Here we used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) imaging to measure in vivo alterations of mechanical properties and CBF, respectively, in the rat hippocampus, a brain region with a high density of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R). Systemic injection of the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 (0.7 mg/kg) induced a significant stiffness decrease of 10.5�1.2% at 15 minutes. FAIR imaging indicated a comparable decrease (11.3�1.9%) in CBF. Both effects were specific to CB1R activation, as shown by pretreatment with the CB1R-specific antagonist AM251. Strikingly, similar rapid parallel changes of brain elasticity and CBF were also observed after systemic treatment with the hypotensive drug nicardipine. Our results reveal important drug-induced parallel changes in CBF and brain mechanical characteristics, and show that blood flowdependent tissue softening has to be considered as an important putative confounding factor when cerebral viscoelastic changes are investigated.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/0271678X15606923 · 5.41 Impact Factor
  • Maxime Ronot · Bernard E Van Beers · Valérie Vilgrain
    Diagnostic and interventional imaging 09/2015; 96(9):841-842. DOI:10.1016/j.diii.2015.08.003
  • Source
    Bernard E. Van Beers · Jean-Luc Daire · Philippe Garteiser
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the pathogenesis of liver nodules, and lesions similar to obliterative portal venopathy, observed after portosystemic shunts or portal vein thrombosis in humans. We conducted an experimental study comparing portacaval shunt (PCS), total portal vein ligation (PVL), and sham (S) operated rats. Each group were either sacrificed at 6 weeks (early) or 6 months (late). Arterial liver perfusion was studied in vivo using CT, and histopathological changes were noted. Liver mRNA levels were quantified by RT-QPCR for markers of inflammation (Il10, Tnfa), proliferation (Il6st, Mki67, Hgf, Hnf4a), angiogenesis: (Vegfa, Vegfr 1, 2 and 3; Pgf), oxidative stress (Nos2, and 3, Hif1a), and fibrosis (Tgfb). PCS and PVL were compared to the S group. Periportal fibrosis and arterial proliferation was observed in late PCS and PVL groups. CT imaging demonstrated increased arterial liver perfusion in the PCS group. RT-QPCR showed increased inflammatory markers in PCS and PVL early groups. Tnfa and Il10 were increased in PCS and PVL late groups respectively. All proliferative markers increased in the PCS, and Hnf4a in the PVL early groups. Mki67 and Hnf4a were increased in the PCS late group. Nos3 was increased in the early and late PCS groups, and Hif1a was decreased in the PVL groups. Markers of angiogenesis were all increased in the early PCS group, and Vegfr3 and Pgf in the late PCS group. Only Vegfr3 was increased in the PVL groups. Tgf was increased in the PCS groups. Portal deprivation in rats induces a sustained increase in intrahepatic markers of inflammation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and fibrosis.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0125493. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125493 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Bernard E Van Beers
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2015; 63(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.04.024 · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. • Peripheral ADC and D of CLMs were higher with major pathological responses. • Global ADC and D of CLMs were not different according to residual tumour. • Diffusion-weighted images of CLM periphery could be an interesting biomarker of MHR. • Diffusion-weighted images could be used to help tailor treatment.
    European Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-3800-6 · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo evaluate between-site agreement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems.Materials and MethodsA miniaturized thermally stable ice-water phantom was devised. ADC (mean and interquartile range) was measured over several days, on 4.7T, 7T, and 9.4T Bruker, Agilent, and Magnex small-animal MRI systems using a common protocol across seven sites. Day-to-day repeatability was expressed as percent variation of mean ADC between acquisitions. Cross-site reproducibility was expressed as 1.96 × standard deviation of percent deviation of ADC values.ResultsADC measurements were equivalent across all seven sites with a cross-site ADC reproducibility of 6.3%. Mean day-to-day repeatability of ADC measurements was 2.3%, and no site was identified as presenting different measurements than others (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.02, post-hoc test n.s.). Between-slice ADC variability was negligible and similar between sites (P = 0.15). Mean within-region-of-interest ADC variability was 5.5%, with one site presenting a significantly greater variation than the others (P = 0.0013).Conclusion Absolute ADC values in preclinical studies are comparable between sites and equipment, provided standardized protocols are employed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24955 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of hepatic hemangiomas in patients with normal, fibrotic and cirrhotic livers. Meterials and Methods: Retrospective, institutional review board approved study (waiver of informed consent). Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 231 hepatic hemangiomas who underwent liver MR imaging for lesion characterization were included. Lesions were classified into three groups according to the patients' liver condition: no underlying liver disease (group 1), fibrosis (group 2) and cirrhosis (group 3). Qualitative and quantitative characteristics (number, size, signal intensities on T1-, T2-, and DW MR images, T2 shine-through effect, enhancement patterns (classical, rapidly filling, delayed filling), and ADC values) were compared. Results: There were 160 (69%), 45 (20%), and 26 (11%) hemangiomas in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Lesions were larger in patients with normal liver (group 1 vs. groups 2 and 3; P=.009). No difference was found between the groups on T2-weighted images (fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (P=.82) and single-shot (P=.25)) and in enhancement patterns (P=.56). Mean ADC values of hemangiomas were similar between groups 1, 2 and 3 (2.11±.52×10-3mm2/s, 2.1±.53×10-3mm2/s and 2.14±.44×10-3mm2/s, P=87, respectively). T2 shine-through effect was less frequently observed in cirrhosis (P=.02). Conclusion: MR imaging characteristics of hepatic hemangioma were similar in patients with normal compared to fibrotic and cirrhotic livers. Smaller lesion size was observed with liver disease and less T2 shine-through effect was seen in hemangiomas developed on cirrhosis, the latter being an important finding to highlight in these patients at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma.
    European journal of radiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2015.01.016 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Bernard E. Van Beers · Jean-Luc Daire · Philippe Garteiser
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Newly developed or advanced methods at ultrasonography and MR imaging provide combined anatomical and quantitative functional information regarding diffuse and focal liver diseases. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may improve tumor characterization and ultrasound elastography has a central role for staging liver fibrosis and an increasing role in grading portal hypertension. In clinical practice, MR imaging examinations currently include diffusion-weighted and dynamic MR imaging enhanced with extracellular or hepatobiliary contrast agents. Moreover, quantitative parameters obtained at diffusion-weighted MR imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and MR elastography have the potential to further characterize diffuse and focal liver diseases by adding information about tissue cellularity, perfusion, hepatocyte transport function and visco-elasticity. The multiparametric capability of ultrasonography and more markedly of MR imaging gives the opportunity of high diagnostic performance by combining imaging biomarkers. The image acquisition and post-processing methods should be further standardized and validated in multicenter trials.
    Journal of Hepatology 10/2014; 62(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.10.014 · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the value of enhancement and pharmacokinetic parameters measured at dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining hepatic organic anion transporter expression in control rats and rats with advanced liver fibrosis. Materials and methods: Institutional animal review board approval was received before the study began. Advanced liver fibrosis was created in rats by means of carbon tetrachloride injections over an 8-week period. In 17 rats with liver fibrosis and eight control rats, dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MR images of the liver were obtained during 1 hour after injection of 0.025 mmol gadoxetate per kilogram of body weight. Enhancement parameters (maximum enhancement [Emax], time to peak [Tmax], and elimination half-life) were measured on enhancement-versus-time curves, and pharmacokinetic parameters (hepatic extraction fraction [HEF] and mean residence time [MRT]) were obtained by means of deconvolution analysis of the concentration-versus-time curves in the liver and the portal vein. The parameters were correlated at simple and multiple regression analysis with the expression of the hepatic anion uptake transporter organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A1 (Oatp1a1), the hepatobiliary transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), and the backflux transporter Mrp4, as determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: In rats with advanced liver fibrosis, the Emax, Tmax, HEF, and MRT decreased significantly relative to those in control rats, whereas the elimination half-life increased significantly. The enhancement and pharmacokinetic parameters correlated significantly with the expression of the transporters at simple regression analysis. At multiple regression analysis, HEF was the only parameter that was significantly associated with the expression of Oatp1a1 and Mrp2 (P < .001, r = 0.74 and P < .001, r = 0.70, respectively). Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic parameter HEF at dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging is independently correlated with hepatic organic anion transporter expression.
    Radiology 10/2014; 274(2):140313. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14140313 · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To prospectively assess the stiffness of incidentally discovered focal liver lesions (FLL) with no history of chronic liver disease or extrahepatic cancer using shearwave elastography (SWE). Methods Between June 2011 and May 2012, all FLL fortuitously discovered on ultrasound examination were prospectively included. For each lesion, stiffness was measured (kPa). Characterization of the lesion relied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or contrast-enhanced ultrasound, or biopsy. Tumour stiffness was analysed using ANOVA and non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests. Results 105 lesions were successfully evaluated in 73 patients (61 women, 84 %) with a mean age of 44.8 (range: 20‒75). The mean stiffness was 33.3 ± 12.7 kPa for the 60 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 19.7 ± 9.8 k Pa for the 17 hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), 17.1 ± 7 kPa for the 20 haemangiomas, 11.3 ± 4.3 kPa for the five focal fatty sparing, 34.1 ± 7.3 kPa for the two cholangiocarcinomas, and 19.6 kPa for one hepatocellular carcinoma (p
    European Radiology 09/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3370-z · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • 56th AAPM Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Austin, TX, USA; 07/2014
  • International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), Milan, Italy; 05/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The presence of micro-obstacles can influence the propagation of the shear waves 1 and hence alter the apparent mechanical properties 2 as assessed via Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). Disease or therapies can change the mechanical integrity and organization of vascular structures. If blood vessels represent a source for wave scattering (i.e represent micro-obstacles), MRE should be able to sense these changes. We follow the hypothesis that the presence of an underlying fractal-like stiff structure is capable of generating on the macroscopic scale apparent power law behavior in an otherwise non-dispersive material. To verify this hypothesis, multi-frequency MRE was performed to quantify alteration of the shear wave speed (Cs) due to the presence of vascular outgrowth using a rat aortic ring model. The model is based on the capacity of fragments of aorta to generate vascular outgrowth once cultivated in Matrigel 3 . METHODS: Eighteen fragments of rat aortas were immersed in Matrigel and cultivated. At 1 day (D1, n=6), 5 days (D5, n=6) and 8 days (D8, n=6) after their inclusion, the fragments were imaged at 7T (Bruker, Pharmascan). T2-weighted images (113μm in plane resolution) and 3D steady-state MRE at different 5 frequencies (ω=100, 115, 125, 135 and 150Hz; 300μm in plane resolution) were recorded 4
    ISMRM International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (Milan, It, 2014); 05/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess in a high-resolution model of thin liver rat slices which viscoelastic parameter at three-dimensional multifrequency MR elastography has the best diagnostic performance for quantifying liver fibrosis. The study was approved by the ethics committee for animal care of our institution. Eight normal rats and 42 rats with carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis were used in the study. The rats were sacrificed, their livers were resected and three-dimensional MR elastography of 5±2 mm liver slices was performed at 7T with mechanical frequencies of 500, 600 and 700 Hz. The complex shear, storage and loss moduli, and the coefficient of the frequency power law were calculated. At histopathology, fibrosis and inflammation were assessed with METAVIR score, fibrosis was further quantified with morphometry. The diagnostic value of the viscoelastic parameters for assessing fibrosis severity was evaluated with simple and multiple linear regressions, receiver operating characteristic analysis and Obuchowski measures. At simple regression, the shear, storage and loss moduli were associated with the severity of fibrosis. At multiple regression, the storage modulus at 600 Hz was the only parameter associated with fibrosis severity (r = 0.86, p<0.0001). This parameter had an Obuchowski measure of 0.89+/-0.03. This measure was significantly larger than that of the loss modulus (0.78+/-0.04, p = 0.028), but not than that of the complex shear modulus (0.88+/-0.03, p = 0.84). Our high resolution, three-dimensional multifrequency MR elastography study of thin liver slices shows that the storage modulus is the viscoelastic parameter that has the best association with the severity of liver fibrosis. However, its diagnostic performance does not differ significantly from that of the complex shear modulus.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94679. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094679 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of the liver and spleen viscoelastic parameters at multifrequency MR elastography to determine the degree of portal hypertension and presence of high-risk oesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. From January to September 2012, 36 consecutive patients with cirrhosis evaluated for transplantation were prospectively included. All patients underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements and endoscopy to assess oesophageal varices. Multifrequency MR elastography was performed within the liver and spleen. The shear, storage and loss moduli were calculated and compared to the HVPG with Spearman coefficients and multiple regressions. Patients with and without severe portal hypertension and high-risk varices were compared with Mann-Whitney tests, logistic regression and ROC analysis. The liver storage and loss moduli and the spleen shear, storage and loss moduli correlated with the HVPG. At multiple regression, only the liver and the spleen loss modulus correlated with the HVPG (r = 0.44, p = 0.017, and r = 0.57, p = 0.002, respectively). The spleen loss modulus was the best parameter for identifying patients with severe portal hypertension (p = 0.019, AUROC = 0.81) or high-risk varices (p = 0.042, AUROC = 0.93). The spleen loss modulus appears to be the best parameter for identifying patients with severe portal hypertension or high-risk varices. 1. Noninvasive HVPG assessment can be performed with liver and spleen MR elastography 2. The spleen loss modulus enables the detection of high-risk oesophageal varices 3. The spleen loss modulus enables the detection of severe portal hypertension.
    European Radiology 03/2014; 24(6). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3124-y · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Detection and characterization of focal lesions in the cirrhotic liver may pose a diagnostic dilemma. Several benign and malignant lesions may be found in a cirrhotic liver along with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and may exhibit typical or atypical imaging features. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of lesions such as simple bile duct cysts, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules, peribiliary cysts, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, lymphoma, and metastases, all of which occur in cirrhotic livers with varying prevalences. Pseudolesions, such as perfusion anomalies, focal confluent fibrosis, and segmental hyperplasia, will also be discussed. Imaging characterization of non-HCC lesions in cirrhosis is important in formulating an accurate diagnosis and triaging the patient towards the most appropriate management.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 02/2014; 20(3). DOI:10.5152/dir.2014.13184 · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Bernard E Van Beers
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary By showing that intravoxel incoherent motion parameters at diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may be indicators of the microcirculatory changes in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver disease, Joo et al have taken a step forward in the validation of quantitative MR imaging parameters as biomarkers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver disease. Further steps, including standardization, validation, and multiparametric imaging, must be taken before these parameters can be used as biomarkers in clinical practice.
    Radiology 01/2014; 270(1):1-2. DOI:10.1148/radiol.13132294 · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency and factors associated with the presence of T2 shine-through effect in hepatic hemangiomas on diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) sequences. This retrospective study was approved by institutional review board with waiver of informed consent. One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with 388 hepatic hemangiomas who underwent a liver MR between January 2010 and November 2011 were included. MR analysis evaluated the lesion characteristics (signal intensities and enhancement patterns (classical, rapidly filling, delayed filling)), the presence of T2 shine-through effect on DW sequences (b values of 0, 150, and 600s/mm(2)), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Multivariate analysis was performed to study the factors associated with the T2 shine-through effect. T2 shine-through effect was observed in 204/388 (52.6%) of hepatic hemangiomas and in 100 (67.1%) patients. Mean ADC value of hemangiomas with T2 shine-through effect was significantly lower than hemangiomas without (2.0±0.48 vs 2.38±0.45, P<.0001). On multivariate analysis, high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo images, hemangiomas with classical or delayed enhancement, and the ADC of the liver were the only significant factors associated with T2 shine-through effect. T2 shine-through effect is commonly observed in hepatic hemangiomas and is related to hemangiomas characteristics. Radiologists should be aware of this phenomenon which could lead to misdiagnosis. Its presence should not question the diagnosis of hemangiomas when typical MR findings are found.
    European journal of radiology 12/2013; 83(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2013.11.023 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To assess the value of enhancement and pharmacokinetic parameters measured at dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging in the determination of hepatic organic anion transport function in rat liver cirrhosis. METHOD AND MATERIALS Institutional animal review board approval was received prior to the start of the study. Carbon tetrachloride induced liver cirrhosis was obtained in 21 rats. Nine normal rats were used as control. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MR images of the liver were obtained during one hour after injection of 0.025mmol/kg gadoxetate. Enhancement parameters (maximal enhancement, time to peak and elimination half-life) were measured on the enhancement versus time curves and pharmacokinetic parameters (hepatic extraction fraction and mean residence time) were obtained after deconvolution analysis of the concentration versus time curves in the liver and the portal vein. The parameters were correlated with simple and multiple regression analysis to the expression of the hepatic anion uptake transporter Oatp1a1, hepatobiliary transporter Mrp2, and backflux transporter Mrp4 determined with real time polymerase chain reaction RESULTS In rats with cirrhosis, the maximal enhancement and time to peak decreased significantly relative to control rats, whereas the elimination half-life increased significantly. Similarly, the hepatic extraction fraction decreased and the mean residence time increased significantly. Several enhancement and pharmacokinetic parameters correlated significantly with the transporter expression at simple regression analysis (p < 0.05). At multiple regression analysis, only the hepatic extraction fraction correlated significantly with the expression of Oatp1a1 and Mrp2 with r values > 0.7, as did the mean residence time with Mrp4. The respective values were p < 10-4, r = 0.744; p < 10-4, r = 0.911, and p = 0.001, r = 0.921. CONCLUSION The pharmacokinetic parameters, hepatic extraction fraction and mean residence time, determined at dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging, are markers of the changes of hepatic organic anion transporter expression in liver cirrhosis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION DHCE-MRI has the potential to assess hepatocyte transporter function in liver cirrhosis.
    Radiological Society of North America 2013 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 12/2013

Publication Stats

5k Citations
674.03 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2015
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      • Department of Radiology
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008–2015
    • Paris Diderot University
      • Centre de recherche biomédicale Bichat, Beaujon (CRB3) UMR-S 773
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2013
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2011
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988–2011
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      • • Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging - RAIM
      • • Laboratory of Hepatogastroenterology
      Лувен-ла-Нев, Wallonia, Belgium
  • 1992–2007
    • Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc
      • • Division of Radiology
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
    • Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy
      Villejuif, Île-de-France, France
  • 1990–1996
    • University Hospital Brussels
      • Department of Radiology
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 1988–1994
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mont-Godinne
      Yvoir, Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 1988–1989
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France