[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some 37 reverse transcriptase, partial 16S rRNA sequences from sulfur- and/or iron-oxidizing eubacteria, including sequences from species of the genera Thiobacillus, Thiothrix, Thiomicrospira, Acidophilium, "Leptospirillum," Thiovulum, and Chlorobium, have been determined. In addition, 16S sequences from a number of unnamed sulfur- and/or iron-oxidizing bacteria from hydrothermal vent sites, from invertebrate-bacterial endosymbioses, and from various mineral recovery operations also have been determined. The majority of sequences place their bacterial donors in one or another of the subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. However, three unnamed facultatively thermophilic iron-oxidizing isolates, Alv, BC, and TH3, are affiliated with the gram-positive division. One H2S-oxidizer, from the genus Thiovulum, is affiliated with Campylobacter, Wolinella, and other genera in what appears to be a new subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three "Leptospirillum"-helical vibrioid isolates, BU-1, LfLa, and Z-2, exhibit no clear phylum level affiliation at all, other than their strong relationship to each other. A picture is emerging of an evolutionary widespread capacity for sulfur and/or iron oxidation among the eubacteria.
Journal of Bacteriology 02/1992; 174(1):269-78. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel, approximately 90 bp intervening sequences (IVs) were discovered within the 23S rRNA genes of S. typhimurium and S. arizonae. These non-rRNA sequences are transcribed and then excised during rRNA maturation. The rRNA fragments that result from the excision of the extra sequences are not religated. This results in fragmented 23S rRNAs. The excision of one IVS was shown to be catalyzed in vivo and in vitro by ribonuclease III. These IVSs are highly volatile evolutionarily, sometimes occurring in only some of the multiple rRNA operons of a particular cell. The sporadic nature of the occurrence of fragmented rRNAs among closely related organisms argues that such fragmentation is a derived state, not a primitive one. Possible sources of these IVSs, their parallels with internal transcribed spacers and introns in eukaryotes, and their possible roles in the evolutionary process are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 16S rRNAs from 29 cyanobacteria and the cyanelle of the phytoflagellate Cyanophora paradoxa were partially sequenced by a dideoxynucleotide-terminated, primer extension method. A least-squares distance matrix analysis was used to infer phylogenetic trees that include green chloroplasts (those of euglenoids, green algae, and higher plants). The results indicate that many diverse forms of cyanobacteria diverged within a short span of evolutionary distance. Evolutionary depth within the surveyed cyanobacteria is substantially less than that separating the major eubacterial taxa, as though cyanobacterial diversification occurred significantly after the appearance of the major eubacterial groups. Three of the five taxonomic sections defined by Rippka et al. (R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, J. Gen. Microbiol. 111:1-61, 1979) (sections II [pleurocapsalean], IV [heterocystous, filamentous, nonbranching], and V [heterocystous, filamentous, branching]) are phylogenetically coherent. However, the other two sections (I [unicellular] and III [nonheterocystous, filamentous]) are intermixed and hence are not natural groupings. Our results not only support the conclusion of previous workers that the cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts form a coherent phylogenetic group but also suggest that the chloroplast lineage, which includes the cyanelle of C. paradoxa, is not just a sister group to the free-living forms but rather is contained within the cyanobacterial radiation.
Journal of Bacteriology 09/1988; 170(8):3584-92. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 16S rRNAs from the bacterial endosymbionts of six marine invertebrates from diverse environments were isolated and partially sequenced. These symbionts included the trophosome symbiont of Riftia pachyptila, the gill symbionts of Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus (from deep-sea hydrothermal vents), and the gill symbionts of Lucinoma annulata, Lucinoma aequizonata, and Codakia orbicularis (from relatively shallow coastal environments). Only one type of bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in each symbiosis. Using nucleotide sequence comparisons, we showed that each of the bacterial symbionts is distinct from the others and that all fall within a limited domain of the gamma subdivision of the purple bacteria (one of the major eubacterial divisions previously defined by 16S rRNA analysis [C. R. Woese, Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221-271, 1987]). Two host specimens were analyzed in five of the symbioses; in each case, identical bacterial rRNA sequences were obtained from conspecific host specimens. These data indicate that the symbioses examined are species specific and that the symbiont species are unique to and invariant within their respective host species.
Journal of Bacteriology 07/1988; 170(6):2506-10. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid sequencing method for ribosomal RNA was applied to the resolution of evolutionary relationships among Metazoa. Representatives of 22 classes in 10 animal phyla were used to infer phylogenetic relationships, based on evolutionary distances determined from pairwise comparisons of the 18S ribosomal RNA sequences. The classical Eumetazoa are divided into two groups. Cnidarians arose from a protist ancestry different from the second group, the Bilateria. Within the Bilateria, an early split gave rise to Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and the coelomate lineage. Coelomates are thus monophyletic, and they radiated rapidly into four groups: chordates, echinoderms, arthropods, and eucoelomate protostomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water samples and suspended particulate matter were collected from three high temperature (156–319°C) hydrothermal vents in the Guaymas Basin during July 1985, and were analysed for a variety of chemical constituents and for the presence of viable microorganisms. Our results indicate that black smoker fluids (> 150°C) are devoid of recognizable bacteria and contain negligible concentrations of ATP (<10 ng 1-1) and low concentrations of particulate organic matter. In contrast, vent water samples collected in the hydrothermal plume at a distance of only 25 cm from the point of hot fluid discharge contain a diverse, metabolically active bacterial assemblage, high ATP concentrations (up to 372 ng 1-1) and high concentrations of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (up to 999 and 163 μg 1-1, respectively). The hottest waters (> 150°C) displayed a low, but measurable level of metabolic activity (incorporation of 3H-adenine and 14C-glutamate) at temperatures ranging from 25 to 80°C, 1 atm with maximal activity at 45°C. The maximum rate of incorporation, however, was only ∼ 1% of the activity measured in the samples collected in the hydrothermal plume. The strong metabolic preference for mesophilic growth temperatures (45°C) argues against a high temperature origin. Thermophilic sulfur-respiring bacteria were isolated from a variety of source materials including black smoker vent waters (112–319°C). All positive enrichments grew at 80°C, but none survived at temperatures in excess of 93°C. We conclude that these bacterial cells did not originate from the high temperature hydrothermal vent waters.Two different sample devices (reffered to as vent cap and smoker poker) were designed and employed during in situ collection-incubation experiments. Neither the vent cap attachment-colonization experiment nor the smoker poker collection device revealed the existence of bacterial cells in the black smoker fluids, despite evidence for a significant bacterial population in the hydrothermal plume. Our field and laboratory results indicate that thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria observed in hydrothermal vent plumes are not derived from the hot hydrothermal fluids but must originate in peripheral habitats.
Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers. 01/1988;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison of partial 16S rRNA sequences from representative Campylobacter species indicates that the Campylobacter species form a previously undescribed basic eubacterial group, which is related to the other major groups only by very deep branching. This analysis was extended to include the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, Campylobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pyloridis). The distance between C. pylori and the other Campylobacter species is sufficient to exclude the pyloric organism from the Campylobacter genus. The results indicate that C. pylori is more closely related to Wolinella succinogenes than it is to the other Campylobacter species inspected. Another close relative of the campylobacters was found to be Thiovulum, a sulfide-dependent marine bacterium.
Journal of Bacteriology 06/1987; 169(5):2137-41. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the applicability of small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequences for bacterial classification is now well accepted, the general use of these molecules has been hindered by the technical difficulty of obtaining their sequences. A protocol is described for rapidly generating large blocks of 16S rRNA sequence data without isolation of the 16S rRNA or cloning of its gene. The 16S rRNA in bulk cellular RNA preparations is selectively targeted for dideoxynucleotide-terminated sequencing by using reverse transcriptase and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide primers complementary to universally conserved 16S rRNA sequences. Three particularly useful priming sites, which provide access to the three major 16S rRNA structural domains, routinely yield 800-1000 nucleotides of 16S rRNA sequence. The method is evaluated with respect to accuracy, sensitivity to modified nucleotides in the template RNA, and phylogenetic usefulness, by examination of several 16S rRNAs whose gene sequences are known. The relative simplicity of this approach should facilitate a rapid expansion of the 16S rRNA sequence collection available for phylogenetic analyses.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1985; 82(20):6955-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5S rRNA nucleotide sequences from Thiobacillus neapolitanus, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiobacillus intermedius, Thiobacillus perometabolis, Thiobacillus thioparus, Thiobacillus versutus, Thiobacillus novellus, Thiobacillus acidophilus, Thiomicrospira pelophila, Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12, and Acidiphilium cryptum were determined. A phylogenetic tree, based upon comparison of these and other related 5S rRNA sequences, is presented. The results place the thiobacilli, Thiomicrospira spp., and Acidiphilium spp. in the "purple photosynthetic" bacterial grouping which also includes the enteric, vibrio, pseudomonad, and other familiar eubacterial groups in addition to the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The genus Thiobacillus is not an evolutionarily coherent grouping but rather spans the full breadth of the purple photosynthetic bacteria.
Journal of Bacteriology 08/1985; 163(1):75-81. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microorganisms inhabiting a 91 degrees C hot spring in Yellowstone National Park were characterized by sequencing 5S rRNAs isolated from the mixed, natural microflora without cultivation. By comparisons of these sequences with reference sequences, the phylogenetic relationships of the hot spring organisms to better characterized ones were established. Quantitation of the total 5S-sized rRNAs revealed a complex microbial community of three dominant members, a predominant archaebacterium affiliated with the sulfur-metabolizing (dependent) branch of the archaebacteria, and two eubacteria distantly related to Thermus spp. The archaebacterial and the eubacterial 5S rRNAs each constituted about half the examined population.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/1985; 49(6):1379-84. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences were used to establish the phylogenetic affiliations of symbioses in which prokaryotes appear to confer sulfur-based chemoautotrophy on their invertebrate hosts. Two submarine hydrothermal vent animals, the vestimentiferan tube worm Riftia pachyptila and the clam Calyptogena magnifica, and a tidal-flat bivalve, Solemya velum, were inspected. 5S rRNA's were extracted from symbiont-bearing tissues, separated into unique forms, and their nucleotide sequences determined and related to other 5S rRNA's in a phylogenetic tree analysis. The prokaryotic symbionts are related to one another and affiliated with the same narrow phylogenetic grouping as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sequence comparisons suggest that Riftia is more closely related to the bivalves than their current taxonomic status would suggest.