C R Babu

University of Delhi, Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (75)152.15 Total impact

  • Amit Love, B D Banerjee, C R Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of oxidative stress levels and tissue concentrations of elements in plants growing wild on fly ash basins is critical for realistic hazard identification of fly ash disposal areas. Hitherto, levels of oxidative stress markers in plants growing wild on fly ash basins have not been adequately investigated. We report here concentrations of selected metal and metalloid elements and levels of oxidative stress markers in leaves of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on a fly ash basin (Badarpur Thermal Power Station site) and a reference site (Garhi Mandu Van site). Plants growing on the fly ash basin had significantly high foliar concentration of As, Ni, Pb and Se and low foliar concentration of Mn and Fe compared to the plants growing on the reference site. The plants inhabiting the fly ash basin showed signs of oxidative stress and had elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage from cells and low levels of chlorophyll a and total carotenoids compared to plants growing at the reference site. The levels of both protein thiols and nonprotein thiols were elevated in plants growing on the fly ash basin compared to plants growing on the reference site. However, no differences were observed in the levels of cysteine, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione in plants growing at both the sites. Our study suggests that: (1) fly ash triggers oxidative stress responses in plants growing wild on fly ash basin, and (2) elevated levels of protein thiols and nonprotein thiols may have a role in protecting the plants from environmental stress.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 01/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    Radhey Shyam Sharma, Vandana Mishra, Asif Mohmmed, Cherukuri Raghavendra Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Outer-membrane characteristics may determine the survivability of rhizobia under diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and membrane proteins of two stem-nodulating bacteria of Sesbania rostrata (Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 and Rhizobium sp. WE7) in determining tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stresses (hydrophobics and phages) was investigated. Outer-membrane characteristics (LPS and membrane-protein profiles) of ORS571, WE7 and thirteen standard strains were distinct. ORS571 and WE7 also showed susceptibility towards morphologically distinct phages, i.e., ACSR16 (short-tailed) and WESR29 (long-tailed), respectively. ORS571 and WE7 were tolerant to hydrophobic compounds (triton X-100, rifampicin, crystal violet and deoxycholate). To ascertain the role of outer membrane characteristics in stress tolerance, phage-resistant transconjugant mutants of ORS571 (ORS571-M8 and ORS571-M20) and WE7 (WE7-M9) were developed. LPS- and membrane-protein profiles of mutants differed from that of respective wild types (ORS571 and WE7). In in vitro assay, phages got adsorbed onto purified LPS-membrane protein fractions of wild types. Phages did not adsorb onto membrane fraction of mutants and standard strains. Mutant with reduced expression of LPS (ORS571-M20 and WE7-M9) showed reduced tolerance towards hydrophobics. However, the tolerance was unaffected in mutant (ORS571-M8) where expression of LPS was not reduced but pattern was different. The tolerance level of mutants towards hydrophobics varied with the expression of LPS, whereas the specificity towards phages is correlated with the specific LPS pattern.
    Current Microbiology 07/2011; 63(1):81-6. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Lantana has many species complexes, and L. camara is one of the aggressive alien weedy species complexes; species delimitation in these complexes is a nightmare for taxonomists. We examined the diversity in the chemical composition of foliar essential oils among morphotypes of Lantana species complexes inhabiting the same ecological gradient, and its taxonomic and ecological significance. The yields of essential oils varied from 0.1 to 0.79% in foliar hydrodistillates of eleven morphotypes, and a total of 39 chemical constituents were detected by GC/MS. The quantitative and qualitative variability in the composition of essential oils among morphotypes was very high, and hence they represent chemotypes. The diversity observed in the composition of essential oils appears to be of genetic origin and thus of taxonomic value. The formation of distinct clusters and sub-clusters at high distance cluster combine values also substantiates that the patterns of distribution of chemical constituents among morphotypes can be used in delimiting species and infraspecific taxa within the species complexes. The presence of beta-caryophyllene and other such compounds, which are known to prevent herbivory, in morphotypes of Lantana species complexes suggest that these compounds may provide selective advantage to Lantana over native species in the invasion of new and disturbed habitats.
    Chemistry & Biodiversity 12/2009; 6(12):2263-74. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel serine protease inhibitor (AmPI) was purified from larval hemolymph of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta by two-step process of trypsin-affinity and gel-filtration (FPLC) chromatography. AmPI was active against larval midgut and commercial bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The extent of purification was determined by SDS and Native PAGE. The protease inhibitor had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 14.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Its activity was stable over a pH range of 4.5-9 and temperatures range of 4-65 degrees C. Molecular weight as determined by MALDITOF-MS was between 13241.63 and 13261.66 Da. MS profile of AmPI also suggests two isoforms of AmPI because of glycosylation by heptose (C(7)H(14)O(7)). This confirmed the result of Native PAGE showing two bands. N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein did not show similarity to any known protease inhibitor. To study the functional implications of AmPI in insect, it was localized in insect body tissue of different larval instars by immunogold labeling technique using GAR-gold conjugate as secondary antibody. The pattern of localization suggests constitutive nature of AmPI, which may have role in insect's defense mechanism.
    Peptides 09/2009; 31(3):474-81. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Open dumping of fly ash in fly ash basins has significant adverse environmental impacts due to its elevated trace element content. In situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity is of practical value in realistic hazard identification of fly ash. Genotoxicity of openly disposed fly ash to natural plant populations inhabiting fly ash basins has not been investigated. DNA damage, and concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu and Ni in the leaves of natural populations of Cassia occidentalis growing at two contrasting sites-one having weathered fly ash (fly ash basin) and the other having soil (reference site) as plant growth substrates-were assessed. The foliar concentrations of As, Ni and Cr were two to eight fold higher in plants growing on fly ash as compared to the plants growing on soil, whereas foliar concentrations of Cu and Co were similar. We report, for the first time, based upon comet assay results, higher levels of DNA damage in leaf tissues of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on fly ash basin compared to C. occidentalis growing on soil. Correlation analysis between foliar DNA damage and foliar concentrations of trace elements suggests that DNA damage may perhaps be associated with foliar concentrations of As and Ni. Our observations suggest that (1) fly ash triggers genotoxic responses in plants growing naturally on fly ash basins; and (2) plant comet assay is useful for in situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity of fly ash.
    Ecotoxicology 06/2009; 18(7):791-801. · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Arindam Bhattacharyya, Cherukuri R Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A potent serine proteinase inhibitor was isolated and characterized from the seeds of the tropical legume liana, Derris trifoliata (DtTCI) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. SDS-PAGE as well as MALDI-TOF analysis showed that DtTCI is a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa. DtTCI has three isoinhibitors (pI: 4.55, 5.34 and 5.72) and, inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both Dixon plots and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots revealed a competitive inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity, with inhibition constants (K(i)) of 1.7x10(-10) and 1.25x10(-10) M, respectively. N-terminal sequence of DtTCI showed over 50% similarity with numerous Kunitz-type inhibitors of the Papilionoideae subfamily. High pH amplitude and broad temperature optima were noted for DtTCI, and time course experiments indicated a gradual loss in inhibitory potency on treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT). Circular Dichroism (CD) spectrum of native DtTCI revealed an unordered structure whereas exposure to thermal-pH extremes, DTT and guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn HCl) suggested that an abundance of beta-sheets along with intramolecular disulfide bonds provide conformational stability to the active site of DtTCI, and that severity of denaturants cause structural modifications promoting inhibitory inactivity. Antimalarial studies of DtTCI indicate it to be a potent antiparasitic agent.
    Phytochemistry 05/2009; 70(6):703-12. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    S. Babu, A. Love, C. R. Babu
    Ecological Restoration 01/2009; 27(4):467-477.
  • Amit Love, Suresh Babu, C. R. Babu
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Extracts of roots of Rumex nepalensis, Berberis aristata, Arnebia benthamii, bark of Taxus wallichiana, Juglans regia and petals of Jacquinia ruscifolia were tested for their antifungal activity against twelve different fungal pathogens. Ethanolic extracts of R. nepalensis and J. ruscifolia extracts showed a broad spectrum of activity.
    Fitoterapia 08/2008; 79(7-8):589-91. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • M. C. GOPINATHAN, C. R. BABU
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    ABSTRACT: Obligate subterranean cleistogamy, observed in a natural population of Vigna minima, is associated with the production of one or two negatively geotropic, leafy shoots and several positively geotropic, highly pigmented, leafless shoots. The latter branch profusely after penetrating the soil and produce much reduced, cleistogamous flowers. The undehisced anthers contain germinated pollen grains. The seeds developing from the cleistogamous flowers differ in size, weight and surface features from those produced by the chasmogamous flowers of other natural populations within the species.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 06/2008; 92(3):263 - 268. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    Radhey Shyam Sharma, Vandana Mishra, Asif Mohmmed, Cherukuri Raghavendra Babu
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    ABSTRACT: Phage susceptibility pattern and its correlation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plasmid profiles may help in understanding the phenotypic and genotypic diversity among highly promiscuous group of rhizobia nodulating Sesbania spp.; 43 phages were from two stem-nodulating bacteria of S. rostrata and 16 phages were from root-nodulating bacteria of S. sesban, S. aegyptica and S. rostrata. Phage susceptibility pattern of 38 Sesbania nodulating bacteria was correlated with their LPS rather than plasmid profiles. Different species of bacteria (A. caulinodans- ORS571, SRS1-3 and Sinorhizobium saheli- SRR907, SRR912) showing distinct LPS subtypes were susceptible to different group of phages. Phages could also discriminate the strains of Si. saheli (SSR312, SAR610) possessing distinct LPS subtypes. Phages of Si. meliloti (SSR302) were strain-specific. All the strains of R. huautlense having incomplete LPS (insignificant O-chain) were phage-resistant. In in vitro assay, 100% of the phages were adsorbed to LPS of indicator bacterium or its closely related strain(s) only. These observations suggest the significance of LPS in phage specificity of Sesbania nodulating rhizobia. Highly specific phages may serve as biological marker for monitoring the susceptible bacterial strains in culture collections and environment.
    Archives of Microbiology 05/2008; 189(4):411-8. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Shruti Rai, K. K. Aggarwal, C. R. Babu
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of serine proteases involved in the digestion mechanism of the cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were examined (in vitro and in vivo) following feeding of plant protease inhibitors. A trypsin inhibitor from Archidendron ellipticum (AeTI) was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC) and its bioinsecticidal properties against S. litura were compared with Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). AeTI inhibited the trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteases of fifth instar larvae of S. litura by over 70%. Dixon plot analysis revealed competitive inhibition of larval midgut trypsin and chymotrypsin by AeTI, with an inhibition constant (K(i)) of 3.5x10(-9) M and 1.5x10(-9) M, respectively. However, inhibitor kinetics using double reciprocal plots for both trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitions demonstrated a mixed inhibition pattern. Feeding experiments conducted on different (neonate to ultimate) instars suggested a dose-dependent decrease for both the larval body weight as well as % survival of larva fed on diet containing 50, 100 and 150 microM AeTI. Influence of AeTI on the larval gut physiology indicated a 7-fold decrease of trypsin-like protease activity and a 5-fold increase of chymotrypsin-like protease activity, after being fed with a diet supplemented with 150 microM AeTI. This study suggests that although the early (1st to 3rd) larval instars of S. litura are susceptible to the trypsin inhibitory action of AeTI, the later instars may facilitate the development of new serine proteases, insensitive to the inhibitor.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 06/2007; 145(4):669-77. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Encapsulation of seeds with alginate entrapped rhizobia (AER) bead has been developed as a new seed-applied inoculum technique for utilizing legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for the management and protection of natural ecosystems. Alginate beads trapped water and immobilized rhizobia which ensured germination of seeds and nodulation of seedlings. Incorporation of a synthetic polymer, Jalshakti, in alginate beads did not enhance symbiotic nitrogen fixation but sufficient number of rhizobia remain viable in them even after 30 weeks of storage reflecting suitability of these materials as carriers for rhizobia. Plant cultures raised from these beads were similar to or even better than the inoculated controls in symbiotic parameters indicating the effectiveness of seed-applied inoculum technique. Pelleting of seeds with these polymers after coating with gum arabic lead to substantial reduction in symbiotic association and viability of rhizobia. Experiments involving two legume-Rhizobium associations indicated that the encapsulation of seed with AER bead is a cheap, inexpensive and effective inoculation technique which may be used in aerial seeding.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 01/2007; 34(4):231 - 243. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evolution of proteinase inhibitor diversity in leguminous plants of tropical rainforests is under immense pressure from the regular upregulation of proteolytic machinery of their pests. The present study illustrates the isolation and bioinsecticidal potency of a serine proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (CbTI), inhabiting Great Nicobar Island, India. Following initial fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation, CbTI was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange, gel filtration and trypsin affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE of gel filtrated CbTI showed a couple of proteins CbTI-1 ( approximately 16kDa) and CbTI-2 (20kDa) under non-reducing conditions, which subsequent to trypsin affinity chromatography yielded only CbTI-2. Both Native PAGE as well as iso-electric focusing showed 2 iso-inhibitors of CbTI-2 (pI values of 5.35 and 4.6). CbTI exhibited tolerance to extremes of temperatures (0-60 degrees C) and pH (1-12). A 1:1 stoichiometric ratio was noted during CbTI-2-trypsin complex formation, which was absent on binding with chymotrypsin. Further, SDS-PAGE analysis also showed that CbTI-1 has affinity only towards chymotrypsin, whereas both trypsin and chymotrypsin formed complexes with CbTI-2. Dixon plot analysis of CbTI-2 yielded inhibition constants (K(i)) of 2.75 x 10(-10)M and 0.95 x 10(-10)M against trypsin and chymotrypsin activity respectively. Preliminary investigations on the toxicological nature of CbTI revealed it to be a promising bioinsecticidal candidate.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2007; 45(3-4):169-77. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leguminous plants in the tropical rainforests are a rich source of proteinase inhibitors and this work illustrates isolation of a serine proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Archidendron ellipticum (AeTI), inhabiting Great Nicobar Island, India. AeTI was purified to homogeneity by acetone and ammonium sulfate fractionation, and ion exchange, size exclusion and reverse phase chromatography (HPLC). SDS-PAGE of AeTI revealed that it is constituted by two polypeptide chains (alpha-chain, M(r) 15,000 and beta-chain, M(r) 5000), the molecular weight being approximately 20 kDa. N-terminal sequence showed high homology with other serine proteinase inhibitors belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily. Both Native-PAGE as well as isoelectric focussing showed four isoinhibitors (pI values of 4.1, 4.55, 5.27 and 5.65). Inhibitory activity of AeTI remained unchanged over a wide range of temperatures (0-60 degrees C) and pH (1-10). The protein inhibited trypsin in the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1, but lacked similar stoichiometry against chymotrypsin. Also, AeTI-trypsin complex was stable to SDS unlike the SDS unstable AeTI-chymotrypsin complex. AeTI, which possessed inhibition constants (K(i)) of 2.46 x 10(-10) and 0.5 x 10(-10)M against trypsin and chymotrypsin activity, respectively, retained over 70% of inhibitory activity after being stored at -20 degrees C for more than a year. Initial studies on the insecticidal properties of AeTI indicate it to be a very potent insect anti-feedant.
    Phytochemistry 03/2006; 67(3):232-41. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • A Bhattacharyya, C R Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from Archidendron ellipticum seeds (AeTI) was purified and complexed with bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The stoichiometric stability of AeTI with its interacting proteinases was then investigated using spectrophotometric, size exclusion chromatography (HPLC system), Western blotting and circular dichroism (CD) studies. All the methods were remarkably similar in revealing the preference of trypsin over chymotrypsin by AeTI for complex formation. Both Western blotting as well as spectrophotometry based assays for competition experiments indicated that trypsin displaces chymotrypsin from a previously formed AeTI-chymotrypsin complex. Chemical modification of lysine and arginine by TNBS and CHD treatments, respectively, suggested a lysine as the active site residue and also indicated the presence of a single protease-binding site for AeTI. CD of native AeTI showed a sharp minimum at 200 nm and deconvolution of the CD spectra revealed it to be an unordered protein possessing high beta-sheet content. Complex formation of AeTI with trypsin induces a fractional switchover of its unordered structure towards the beta-sheet fraction but lacked any such conversion in the presence of chymotrypsin. Prolonged exposure of excess trypsin generates conformational modifications both in the secondary and the tertiary structures.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2006; 44(11-12):637-44. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • A. Bhattacharyya, C.R. Babu
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    ABSTRACT: A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from Archidendron ellipticum seeds (AeTI) was purified and complexed with bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The stoichiometric stability of AeTI with its interacting proteinases was then investigated using spectrophotometric, size exclusion chromatography (HPLC system), Western blotting and circular dichroism (CD) studies. All the methods were remarkably similar in revealing the preference of trypsin over chymotrypsin by AeTI for complex formation. Both Western blotting as well as spectrophotometry based assays for competition experiments indicated that trypsin displaces chymotrypsin from a previously formed AeTI–chymotrypsin complex. Chemical modification of lysine and arginine by TNBS and CHD treatments, respectively, suggested a lysine as the active site residue and also indicated the presence of a single protease-binding site for AeTI. CD of native AeTI showed a sharp minimum at 200 nm and deconvolution of the CD spectra revealed it to be an unordered protein possessing high β-sheet content. Complex formation of AeTI with trypsin induces a fractional switchover of its unordered structure towards the β-sheet fraction but lacked any such conversion in the presence of chymotrypsin. Prolonged exposure of excess trypsin generates conformational modifications both in the secondary and the tertiary structures.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2006; 44(11-12-44 (11-12)):637-644. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    Shruti Rai, Kamal K. Aggarwal, Cherukuri R. Babu
    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Mangroves form an important ecosystem of Great Nicobar, a continental island in the Bay of Bengal with luxuriant tropical rainforests. The rhizosphere of the mangrove plants of Great Nicobar was investigated for the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB). The soils of the Great Nicobar mangroves were silt–clays and were poor in phosphate content. Five species of AMF belonging to the genus Glomus were isolated. The %AMF colonization in the mangrove plants was between 0 and 17%, and the presence of AMF in the aerenchymatous cortex suggests that the mangrove plants may be aiding in AMF survival by providing oxygen. Two strains of phosphate solubilising Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found in the mangrove soils of Great Nicobar. Phosphate solubilisation by the two isolated strains was almost 70% under in vitro conditions. PSB may play a role in the mangrove ecosystems of Great Nicobar by mobilising insoluble phosphate. The plant roots could pick up the released phosphate directly or with the aid of AMF hyphae.
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 01/2006; 42(4):358-361. · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

431 Citations
152.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979–2013
    • University of Delhi
      • • Department of Environmental Studies
      • • Centre of Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems
      • • Department of Botany (Faculty of Science)
      Delhi, NCT, India
  • 2005
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Biophysics
      New Delhi, NCT, India
  • 1993
    • National Institute of Immunology
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 1980
    • Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute
      Old Delhi, NCT, India