[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism of the anti-adipogenic effect of evodiamine (which has several capsaicin-like pharmacological actions) was investigated. The evodiamine effect was not blocked by the specific TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, whereas its effect was greatly curtailed by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Signal analyses showed that evodiamine stimulated the phosphorylation of EGFR, PKCalpha, and ERK, all of which were reduced by an EGFR inhibitor. Silencing experiments of EGFR mRNA supported the involvement of these signaling molecules in the inhibitory effect of evodiamine. An unidentified mechanism whereby evodiamine inhibits adipogenesis via the EGFR-PKCalpha-ERK signaling pathway was revealed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the contribution of fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) to adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. The expression of FABP3 mRNA in BAT was regulated discriminatively in response to alteration of the ambient temperature, which regulation was similar and reciprocal to the regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and leptin, respectively. FABP3 expression in the BAT was significantly higher in the UCP1-knockout (KO) mice than in the wild-type ones, and these KO mice showed a higher clearance rate of free fatty acid from the plasma. In addition, FABP3 expression in the BAT was increased greatly with the development of diet-induced obesity in mice. These results indicate that the induction of FABP3 in BAT correlates with an increased demand for adaptive thermogenesis in rodents. FABP3 appears to be essential for accelerating fatty acid flux and its oxidation through UCP1 activity for non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2008; 377(2):632-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcellular Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) transport is a vital function of secretory epithelia and exit across the luminal membrane is mediated by members of the SLC26 transporters in conjunction with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. Typically, secretory epithelia express several SLC26 transporters in the same tissue; however, how their specific function is determined in vivo is not known. In the present work we used the parotid gland duct which expressed Slc26a4 and Slc26a6 and the model systems of Slc26a4(-/-) and Slc26a6(-/-) mice to study the role and regulation of these SLC26 transporters. We examined the transport modes of SLC26A4 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and report that SLC26A4 functions as a coupled, electroneutral I(-)/Cl(-), I(-)/HCO(3)(-) and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger with 1: 1 stoichiometry, with I(-) as the preferred anion. In the duct, Slc26a4 is expressed in the luminal membrane and mainly mediates I(-) secretion with minimal role in luminal HCO(3)(-) transport. By contrast, Slc26a6 mediates luminal Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity with minimal role in I(-) secretion. Furthermore, silencing of CFTR altered Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange by Slc26a6, but had no effect on I(-) secretion by Slc26a4. Accordingly, deletion of Slc26a6, but not deletion of Slc26a4, results in dysregulation of CFTR. These findings provide the first evidence for a selective role of the SLC26 transporters expressed in the same tissue in epithelial anion transport and suggest that transport specificity is achieved by both the properties of the transporters and the composition of the complexes they form.
The Journal of Physiology 07/2008; 586(16):3813-24. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of selective loss of capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons on thermosensation and thermoregulation in rats. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats caused a remarkable decrease in the number of small-diameter neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) compared with their number in the control rats. Gene expression analysis for various thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels indicated marked reductions in the mRNA levels of TRPV1 (70%), TRPM8 (46%) and TRPA1 (64%), but not of TRPV2, in the DRG of capsaicin-treated rats compared with those in the control rats. In addition to the heat and cold insensitivity, capsaicin-treated rats showed lower rectal core temperature, higher skin temperature and decreased sensitivity to ambient temperature alteration under normal housing at room temperature, suggesting impaired thermosensation and change in thermoregulation in the rats. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and the thermogenic ability in brown adipose tissues were attenuated in the capsaicin-treated rats. These results indicate a critical role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in both heat and cool sensation and hence in basal thermal homeostasis, which is balanced by heat release and production including UCP1 thermogenesis, following sensation of the ambient temperature.
Journal of Biochemistry 04/2008; 143(3):385-93. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evodiamine is an alkaloidal compound with antiobesity effects that have been thought to be due to uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) thermogenesis similar to the effects of capsaicin, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To clarify the mechanisms, we first examined whether the antiobesity effect of evodiamine could be attributed to the involvement of UCP1. When UCP1-knockout mice were fed a high-fat diet with 0.03% evodiamine (wt/wt) for 2 months, the increases in body weight, adiposity, and the serum levels of leptin and insulin were reduced in a manner indistinguishable from control mice fed a high-fat diet with evodiamine, suggesting that evodiamine triggered a UCP1-independent mechanism to prevent diet-induced obesity. By using preadipocyte cultures, we found that evodiamine, but not capsaicin, increased phosphorylation of ERK/MAPK, reduced the expression of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and strongly inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Evodiamine treatment also reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, a crucial regulator of adipocyte differentiation; and the reduction of phosphorylated-Akt and augmentation of phosphorylated ERK were reversed by blockade of the MAPK kinase/MAPK signaling pathway, restoring adipogenesis in the cultures. The changes in ERK and Akt phosphorylation levels were also observed in white adipose tissues of UCP1-knockout mice fed the evodiamine diet. These findings suggest that evodiamine has a potential to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity in part by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation through ERK activation and its negative cross talk with the insulin signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SLC26A9 is a member of the SLC26 family of anion transporters, which is expressed at high levels in airway and gastric surface epithelial cells. The transport properties and regulation of SLC26A9, and thus its physiological function, are not known. Here we report that SLC26A9 is a highly selective Cl(-) channel with minimal OH(-)/HCO(3)(-) permeability that is regulated by the WNK kinases. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and simultaneous measurement of membrane potential or current, intracellular pH (pH(i)) and intracellular Cl(-) (Cl(-)(i)) revealed that expression of SLC26A9 resulted in a large Cl(-) current. SLC26A9 displays a selectivity sequence of I(-) > Br(-) > NO(3)(-) > Cl(-) > Glu(-), but it conducts Br(-) > Cl(-) > I(-) > NO(3)(-) > Glu(-), with NO(3)(-) and I(-) inhibiting the Cl(-) conductance. Similarly, expression of SLC26A9 in HEK cells resulted in a large Cl(-) current. Although detectable, OH(-) and HCO(3)(-) fluxes in oocytes expressing SLC26A9 were very small. Moreover, HCO(3)(-) had no discernable effect on the Cl(-) current, the reversal potential in the presence or absence of Cl(-)(o) and, importantly, HCO(3)(-) had no effect on Cl(-) fluxes. These findings indicate that SLC26A9 is a Cl(-) channel with minimal OH(-)/HCO(3)(-) permeability. Co-expression of SLC26A9 with the WNK kinases WNK1, WNK3 or WNK4 inhibited SLC26A9 activity, and the inhibition was independent of WNK kinase activity. Immunolocalization in oocytes and cell surface biotinylation in HEK cells indicated that the WNK-mediated inhibition of SLC26A9 activity is caused by reduced SLC26A9 surface expression. Expression of SLC26A9 in the airway and the response of the WNKs to homeostatic stress raise the possibility that SLC26A9 serves to mediate the response of the airway to stress.
The Journal of Physiology 10/2007; 584(Pt 1):333-45. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion are vital functions of the pancreatic duct and other secretory epithelia. CFTR and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity at the luminal membrane are required for these functions. The molecular identity of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers and their relationship with CFTR in determining fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion are not known. We show here that the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger slc26a6 controls CFTR activity and ductal fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion. Unexpectedly, deletion of slc26a6 in mice and measurement of fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion into sealed intralobular pancreatic ducts revealed that deletion of slc26a6 enhanced spontaneous and decreased stimulated secretion. Remarkably, inhibition of CFTR activity with CFTR(inh)-172, knock-down of CFTR by siRNA and measurement of CFTR current in WT and slc26a6(-/-) duct cells revealed that deletion of slc26a6 resulted in dis-regulation of CFTR activity by removal of tonic inhibition of CFTR by slc26a6. These findings reveal the intricate regulation of CFTR activity by slc26a6 in both the resting and stimulated states and the essential role of slc26a6 in pancreatic HCO(3)(-) secretion in vivo.
The EMBO Journal 12/2006; 25(21):5049-57. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the thermoregulatory mechanism in mice lacking uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) from the viewpoint of heat loss, we measured oxygen consumptions (VO2), skin-surface temperatures (Tskin, an index of heat release), blood flows in the tails, and rectal temperatures (Trectal) of mice housed in an animal room under the standard thermal condition of approximately 23 degrees C. Compared with wild-type (Ucp1+/+) mice, adult UCP1-deficient (Ucp1-/-) mice tended to show a reduced VO2. Thermograhic analysis of the acute response of Ucp1-/- mice to a small change (a drop of 1-2 degrees C) in the ambient temperature revealed a sustained fall in the Tskin of Ucp1-/- mice; but this fall was only transient in Ucp1+/+ mice. Analysis of tail blood flow under anesthesia clearly showed a stronger vasoconstrictor response in Ucp1-/- mice than in Ucp1+/+ mice. Administration of a vasodilator, evodiamine, transiently increased Tskin in Ucp1+/+ and Ucp1-/- mice similarly; whereas the induction of vasodilation caused a greater and more prolonged reduction in Trectal in Ucp1-/- mice than in Ucp1+/+ mice. These results indicate that Ucp1-/- mice highly, or at least partly, rely on vasoconstriction for heat conservation to compensate for their UCP1 deficiency and to maintain homeothermy under the condition of normal housing temperature.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 07/2006; 452(3):363-9. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SLC26 transporters are a family of mostly luminal Cl- and HCO3- transporters. The transport mechanism and the Cl-/HCO3- stoichiometry are not known for any member of the family. To address these questions, we simultaneously measured the HCO3- and Cl- fluxes and the current or membrane potential of slc26a3 and slc26a6 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the current of the transporters expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. slc26a3 mediates a coupled 2Cl-/1HCO3- exchanger. The membrane potential modulated the apparent affinity for extracellular Cl- of Cl-/HCO3- exchange by slc26a3. Interestingly, the replacement of Cl- with NO3- or SCN- uncoupled the transport, with large NO3- and SCN- currents and low HCO3- transport. An apparent uncoupled current was also developed during the incubation of slc26a3-expressing oocytes in HCO3--buffered Cl--free media. These findings were used to develop a turnover cycle for Cl- and HCO3- transport by slc26a3. Cl- and HCO3- flux measurements revealed that slc26a6 mediates a 1Cl-/2HCO3- exchange. Accordingly, holding the membrane potential at 40 and -100 mV accelerated and inhibited, respectively, Cl--mediated HCO3- influx, and holding the membrane potential at -100 mV increased HCO3--mediated Cl- influx. These findings indicate that slc26a6 functions as a coupled 1Cl-/2HCO3- exchanger. The significance of isoform-specific Cl- and HCO3- transport stoichiometry by slc26a3 and slc26a6 is discussed in the context of diseases of epithelial Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion.
The Journal of General Physiology 06/2006; 127(5):511-24. · 4.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the SLC26 transporter family play an essential role in several epithelial functions, as revealed by diseases associated with mutations in members of the family. Several members were shown to function as Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) transporters that likely play an important role in epithelial Cl(-) absorption and HCO(3)(-) secretion. However, the mechanism of most transporters is not well understood. SLC26A7 is a member of the SLC26 transporter family reported to be expressed in the basolateral membrane of the cortical collecting duct and parietal cells and functions as a coupled Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. In the present work we examined the transport properties of SLC26A7 to determine its transport characteristics and electrogenicity. We found that when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells SLC26A7 functions as a pH(i)-regulated Cl(-) channel with minimal OH(-)/HCO(3)(-) permeability. Expression of SLC26A7 in oocytes or HEK293 cells generated a Cl(-) current with linear I/V and an instantaneous current that was voltage- and time-independent. Based on measurement of reversal potential the selectivity of SLC26A7 is NO(3)(-)>Cl(-)=Br(-)=I(-)>SO(4)(2-)=Glu(-), although I(-) partially inhibited the current. Incubating the cells with HCO(3)(-) or butyrate acidified the cytosol and increased the selectivity of SLC26A7 for Cl(-). Measurement of membrane potential and pH(i) showed minimal OH(-) and HCO(3)(-) transport by SLC26A7 when the cells were incubated in Cl(-)-containing or Cl(-)-free media. The activity of SLC26A7 was inhibited by all inhibitors of anion transporters tested, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid, and glybenclamide. These findings reveal that SLC26A7 functions as a unique Cl(-) channel that is regulated by intracellular H(+).
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2005; 280(8):6463-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethanol is the leading cause of pancreatitis; however, its cellular effects are poorly understood. We examined the direct effects of ethanol in the concentration range 0.1-30 mM, i.e. relevant to usual levels of drinking, on fluid secretion from guinea-pig pancreatic duct cells. Fluid secretion was continuously measured by monitoring the luminal volume of interlobular duct segments isolated from the guinea-pig pancreas. [Ca2+]i was estimated by microfluorometry in duct cells loaded with fura-2. Ethanol at 0.3-30 mM significantly augmented fluid secretion stimulated by physiological (1 pM) or pharmacological (1 nM) concentrations of secretin. It augmented dibutyryl cAMP-stimulated fluid secretion but failed to affect spontaneous or acethylcholine-stimulated secretion. Ethanol at 1 mM shifted the secretin concentration-fluid secretion response curve upwards and raised the maximal secretory response significantly by 41%. In secretin-stimulated ducts, 1 mM ethanol induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i that was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Ethanol failed to augment secretin-stimulated secretion from ducts pretreated with an intracellular Ca2+ buffer (BAPTA) or a protein kinase A inhibitor (H89). In conclusion, low concentrations of ethanol directly augment pancreatic ductal fluid secretion stimulated by physiological and pharmacological concentrations of secretin, and this appears to be mediated by the activation of both the intracellular cAMP pathway and Ca2+ mobilization.
The Journal of Physiology 10/2003; 551(Pt 3):917-26. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aquaporin (AQP) family of water channels is distributed ubiquitously in many epithelia and plays a fundamental role in transmembrane water transport. The aim of this study is to identify the water transport pathway in pancreatic duct cells where most of the HCO-rich fluid originates. Using digital videomicroscopy, we measured the osmotic water permeability (P(f)) of pancreatic duct epithelium by exposing isolated rat interlobular ducts to the hypotonic solution (145 mosM). To identify mRNA and protein of AQPs expressed in duct cells, we conducted RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry of the isolated duct and pancreas. The calculated P(f) (160-230 microm/s) of the isolated ducts was significantly reduced to 16-35 microm/s by 80-90% with either basolateral or luminal applications of HgCl(2). Fluid secretion evoked by secretin was almost completely abolished by a basolateral or luminal application of HgCl(2). A large amount of AQP1 and small amounts of AQP5 transcripts were detected in the isolated duct cells by RT-PCR. AQP1, but not AQP5, immunoreactivity was present in both luminal and basolateral membranes of the interlobular duct cells. Mercury-sensitive water channels are present in both luminal and basolateral membranes of rat pancreatic ducts. AQP1 of the known AQPs appears to be the main water pathway in interlobular ducts.