[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two substituted oxines, nitroxoline (5) and 5-chloroquinolin-8-yl phenylcarbamate (22), were identified as hits in a high-throughput screen aimed at finding new anti-angiogenic agents. In a previous study, we have elucidated the molecular mechanism of antiproliferative activity of nitroxoline in endothelial cells, which comprises of a dual inhibition of type 2 human methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Structure-activity relationship study (SAR) of nitroxoline offered many surprises where minor modifications yielded oxine derivatives with increased potency against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but with entirely different as yet unknown mechanisms. For example, 5-nitrosoquinolin-8-ol (33) inhibited HUVEC growth with sub-micromolar IC(50), but did not affect MetAP2 or MetAP1, and it only showed weak inhibition against SIRT1. Other sub-micromolar inhibitors were derivatives of 5-aminoquinolin-8-ol (34) and 8-sulfonamidoquinoline (32). A sulfamate derivative of nitroxoline (48) was found to be more potent than nitroxoline with the retention of activities against MetAP2 and SIRT1. The bioactivity of the second hit, micromolar HUVEC and MetAP2 inhibitor carbamate 22 was improved further with an SAR study culminating in carbamate 24 which is a nanomolar inhibitor of HUVEC and MetAP2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis claims about five thousand lives daily world-wide, while one-third of the world is infected with dormant tuberculosis. The increased emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) has heightened the need for novel antimycobacterial agents. Here, we report the discovery of 7-bromo-5-chloroquinolin-8-ol (CLBQ14)-a congener of clioquinol (CQ) as a potent and selective inhibitor of two methionine aminopeptidases (MetAP) from M. tuberculosis: MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c. MetAP is a metalloprotease that removes the N-terminal methionine during protein synthesis. N-terminal methionine excision (NME) is a universally conserved process required for the post-translational modification of a significant part of the proteome. The essential role of MetAP in microbes makes it a promising target for the development of new therapeutics. Using a target-based approach in a high-throughput screen, we identified CLBQ14 as a novel MtMetAP inhibitor with higher specificity for both MtMetAP1s relative to their human counterparts. We also found that CLBQ14 is potent against replicating and aged non-growing Mtb at low micro molar concentrations. Furthermore, we observed that the antimycobacterial activity of this pharmacophore correlates well with in vitro enzymatic inhibitory activity. Together, these results revealed a new mode of action of clioquinol and its congeners and validated the therapeutic potential of this pharmacophore for TB chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of novel indications for commonly prescribed drugs could accelerate translation of therapies. We investigated whether any clinically-used drugs might have utility for treating prostate cancer by coupling an efficient, high-throughput laboratory-based screen and a large, prospective cohort study. In stage 1, we conducted an in vitro prostate cancer cell cytotoxicity screen of 3,187 compounds. Digoxin emerged as the leading candidate given its potency in inhibiting proliferation in vitro (mean IC₅₀=163 nM) and common use. In stage 2, we evaluated the association between the leading candidate drug from stage 1 and prostate cancer risk in 47,884 men followed 1986-2006. Regular digoxin users (versus nonusers: RR=0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.95), especially users for ≥ 10 years (RR=0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.79, P-trend<0.001), had a lower prostate cancer risk. Digoxin was highly potent in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and its use was associated with a 25% lower prostate cancer risk. SIGNIFICANCE: Our two-stage transdisciplinary approach for drug repositioning provides compelling justification for further mechanistic and possibly clinical testing of the leading nonchemotherapy candidate, digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, as a drug for prostate cancer treatment. Perhaps of equal importance, our study illustrates the power of the transdisciplinary approach in translational cancer research. By coupling laboratory and epidemiologic methods and thinking, we reduced the probability of identifying false-positive candidate drugs for the next steps in testing.
Cancer Discovery 06/2011; 1(1):68-77. · 15.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis; therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Type 2 methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) protein is likely a molecular target of angiogenesis inhibitors.
Nitroxoline, an antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections, was identified from a high-throughput screen of a library of 175,000 compounds for MetAP2 inhibitors and from a parallel screen using the Johns Hopkins Drug Library to identify currently used clinical drugs that can also inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation. To investigate the mechanism of action of nitroxoline, inhibition of MetAP2 activity and induction of senescence were assessed in HUVEC. To test the antiangiogenic activity of nitroxoline, endothelial tube formation in Matrigel and microvessel formation in Matrigel plugs in vivo were assessed. Antitumor efficacy of nitroxoline was evaluated in mouse models of human breast cancer xenograft (n = 10) and bladder cancer orthotopic xenograft (n = 11). Furthermore, the mechanism of action of nitroxoline was investigated in vivo.
Nitroxoline inhibited MetAP2 activity in vitro (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 54.8 nM, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 22.6 to 132.8 nM) and HUVEC proliferation (IC(50) = 1.9 μM, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.39 μM). Nitroxoline inhibited MetAP2 activity in HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner and induced premature senescence in a biphasic manner. Nitroxoline inhibited endothelial tube formation in Matrigel and reduced microvessel density in vivo. Mice (five per group) treated with nitroxoline showed a 60% reduction in tumor volume in breast cancer xenografts (tumor volume on day 30, vehicle vs nitroxoline, mean = 215.4 vs 86.5 mm(3), difference = 128.9 mm(3), 95% CI = 32.9 to 225.0 mm(3), P = .012) and statistically significantly inhibited growth of bladder cancer in an orthotopic mouse model (tumor bioluminescence intensities of vehicle [n = 5] vs nitroxoline [n = 6], P = .045).
Nitroxoline shows promise as a potential therapeutic antiangiogenic agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Described herein are methods of inhibiting methionine aminopeptidase or SIRT1, inhibiting angiogenesis, and treating disorders (or symptoms thereof), associated with methionine aminopeptidase, SIRT1 and/or angiogenesis wherein a compound of the invention is administered to a subject.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a screen of drugs previously tested in humans we identified itraconazole, a systemic antifungal, as a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that acts by a mechanism distinct from its inhibitory effect on fungal sterol biosynthesis. Systemically administered itraconazole, like other Hh pathway antagonists, can suppress Hh pathway activity and the growth of medulloblastoma in a mouse allograft model and does so at serum levels comparable to those in patients undergoing antifungal therapy. Mechanistically, itraconazole appears to act on the essential Hh pathway component Smoothened (SMO) by a mechanism distinct from that of cyclopamine and other known SMO antagonists, and prevents the ciliary accumulation of SMO normally caused by Hh stimulation.
Cancer cell 04/2010; 17(4):388-99. · 25.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Described herein are methods of inhibiting angiogenesis, and treating or preventing a disease or disorder (or symptoms thereof) associated with angiogenesis, wherein anti-angiogenesis compound is administered to a subject.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No effective approved drug therapy exists for Cryptosporidium infection of immunocompromised patients. Here we investigated the nonabsorbed anthelmintic drug pyrvinium pamoate for inhibition of the growth of the intestinal protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The concentration of pyrvinium that effected 50% growth inhibition in human enterocytic HCT-8 cells by a quantitative alkaline phosphatase immunoassay was 354 nM. For comparison, in the same assay, 50% growth inhibition was obtained with 711 microM paromomycin or 27 microM chloroquine. We used a neonatal mouse model to measure the anti-Cryptosporidium activity of pyrvinium pamoate in vivo. Beginning 3 days after infection, pyrvinium at 5 or 12.5 mg/kg of body weight/day was administered to the treatment group mice for 4 or 6 consecutive days. Nine days after infection, the mice were sacrificed, and drug efficacy was determined by comparing the numbers of oocysts in the fecal smears of treated versus untreated mice. The intensities of trophozoite infection in the ileocecal intestinal regions were also compared using hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained histological slides. We observed a >90% reduction in infection intensity in pyrvinium-treated mice relative to that in untreated controls, along with a substantial reduction in tissue pathology. Based on these results, pyrvinium pamoate is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2008; 52(9):3106-12. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kv1.3 potassium channel plays an essential role in effector memory T cells and has been implicated in several important autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and type 1 diabetes. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of Kv1.3 channel have been reported, some of which were found to be effective in various animal models of autoimmune diseases. We report herein the identification of clofazimine, a known anti-mycobacterial drug, as a novel inhibitor of human Kv1.3. Clofazimine was initially identified as an inhibitor of intracellular T cell receptor-mediated signaling leading to the transcriptional activation of human interleukin-2 gene in T cells from a screen of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library. A systematic mechanistic deconvolution revealed that clofazimine selectively blocked the Kv1.3 channel activity, perturbing the oscillation frequency of the calcium-release activated calcium channel, which in turn led to the inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. These effects of clofazimine provide the first line of experimental evidence in support of a causal relationship between Kv1.3 and calcium oscillation in human T cells. Furthermore, clofazimine was found to be effective in blocking human T cell-mediated skin graft rejection in an animal model in vivo. Together, these results suggest that clofazimine is a promising immunomodulatory drug candidate for treating a variety of autoimmune disorders.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(12):e4009. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) were highly active against tubercle bacilli, with MICs of 8 microg/ml and 0.13 microg/ml, respectively. DETC and PDTC were active against old cultures, enhanced pyrazinamide or pyrazinamide/rifampin activity, and had serum inhibitory titers of 1:2 and 1:4, respectively, in mice given 100 mg/kg orally.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2008; 51(12):4495-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiarthritis drug D-penicillamine (D-PEN) catalyzes zinc(II) transfer from carboxypeptidase A to chelators such as thionein and EDTA at a rate constant up to 400-fold faster than the uncatalyzed release. Once D-PEN releases zinc(II) from enzyme stronger chelators can tightly bind zinc(II) leading to complete and essentially irreversible inhibition. D-PEN is the first drug to inhibit a zinc protease by catalyzing metal removal, and the name "catalytic chelation" is proposed for this mechanism.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2007; 50(22):5524-7. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It takes too long and costs too much to bring new drugs to market. So
let's beef up efforts to screen existing drugs for new uses, argue
Curtis R. Chong and David J. Sullivan Jr.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entecavir, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is not believed to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at clinically relevant doses. We observed that entecavir led to a consistent 1-log(10) decrease in HIV-1 RNA in three persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection, and we obtained supportive in vitro evidence that entecavir is a potent partial inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Detailed analysis showed that in one of these patients, entecavir monotherapy led to an accumulation of HIV-1 variants with the lamivudine-resistant mutation, M184V. In vitro experiments showed that M184V confers resistance to entecavir. Until more is known about HIV-1-resistance patterns and their selection by entecavir, caution is needed with the use of entecavir in persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection who are not receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral regimens.
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2007; 356(25):2614-21. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is implicated in a number of important human diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. To identify clinically useful angiogenesis inhibitors, we assembled and screened a library of mostly Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for inhibitors of human endothelial cell proliferation. One of the most promising and unexpected hits was itraconazole, a known antifungal drug. Itraconazole inhibits endothelial cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in vitro and blocks vascular endothelial growth factor/basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent angiogenesis in vivo. In attempts to delineate the mechanism of action of itraconazole, we found that human lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (14DM) is essential for endothelial cell proliferation and may partially mediate the inhibition of endothelial cells by itraconazole. Together, these findings suggest that itraconazole has the potential to serve as an antiangiogenic drug and that lanosterol 14DM is a promising new target for discovering new angiogenesis inhibitors.
ACS Chemical Biology 05/2007; 2(4):263-70. · 5.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With >1 million deaths annually, mostly among children in sub-Saharan Africa, malaria poses one of the most critical challenges in medicine today. Although introduction of the artemisinin class of antimalarial drugs has offered a temporary solution to the problem of drug resistance, new antimalarial drugs are needed to ensure effective control of the disease in the future. Herein, we have investigated members of the methionine aminopeptidase family as potential antimalarial targets. The Plasmodium falciparum methionine aminopeptidase 1b (PfMetAP1b), one of four MetAP proteins encoded in the P. falciparum genome, was cloned, overexpressed, purified, and used to screen a 175,000-compound library for inhibitors. A family of structurally related inhibitors containing a 2-(2-pyridinyl)-pyrimidine core was identified. Structure/activity studies led to the identification of a potent PfMetAP1b inhibitor, XC11, with an IC(50) of 112 nM. XC11 was highly selective for PfMetAP1b and did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity against primary human fibroblasts. Most importantly, XC11 inhibited the proliferation of P. falciparum strains 3D7 [chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive] and Dd2 (multidrug-resistant) in vitro and is active in mouse malaria models for both CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains. These results suggest that PfMetAP1b is a promising target and XC11 is an important lead compound for the development of novel antimalarial drugs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2006; 103(39):14548-53. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fumagillin family of natural products inhibits angiogenesis through the irreversible inhibition of the type 2 methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2). Herein is reported a novel fumagillin analogue named fumarranol. It is shown that, like fumagillin, fumarranol selectively inhibits MetAP2 and endothelial cell proliferation. It is also active in a mouse model of angiogenesis in vivo. Unlike TNP-470, fumarranol does not covalently bind to MetAP2. Fumarranol may serve as a lead for a new class of angiogenesis inhibitors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2006; 49(19):5645-8. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high cost and protracted time line of new drug discovery are major roadblocks to creating therapies for neglected diseases. To accelerate drug discovery we created a library of 2,687 existing drugs and screened for inhibitors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The antihistamine astemizole and its principal human metabolite are promising new inhibitors of chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant parasites, and they show efficacy in two mouse models of malaria.
Nature Chemical Biology 09/2006; 2(8):415-6. · 12.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinases, as crucial signaling molecules, represent an emerging class of drug targets, and the ability to assay their activities in living cells with high-throughput screening should provide exciting opportunities for drug discovery and chemical and functional genomics. Here, we describe a general method for high-throughput reading of dynamic kinase activities using ratiometric fluorescent sensors, and showcase an example of reading intracellular activities of protein kinase A (PKA) and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA pathway downstream of many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We further demonstrate the first compound screen based on the ability of compounds to modulate dynamic kinase activities in living cells and show that such screening of a collection of clinical compounds has successfully identified modulators of the GPCR/cAMP/PKA pathway.
ACS Chemical Biology 08/2006; 1(6):371-6. · 5.44 Impact Factor