[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies in Arabidopsis and rice suggest that manipulation of starch synthase I (SSI) expression in wheat may lead to the production of wheat grains with novel starch structure and properties. This work describes the suppression of SSI expression in wheat grains using RNAi technology, which leads to a low level of enzymatic activity for SSI in the developing endosperm, and a low abundance of SSI protein inside the starch granules of mature grains. The amylopectin fraction of starch from the SSI suppressed lines showed an increased frequency of very short chains (degree of polymerization, dp 6 and 7), a lower proportion of short chains (dp 8-12), and more intermediate chains (dp 13-20) than in the grain from their negative segregant lines. In the most severely affected line, amylose content was significantly increased, the morphology of starch granules was changed, and the proportion of B starch granules was significantly reduced. The change of the fine structure of the starch in the SSI-RNAi suppression lines alters the gelatinization temperature, swelling power, and viscosity of the starch. This work demonstrates that the roles of SSI in the determination of starch structure and properties are similar among different cereals and Arabidopsis.
Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2014; · 5.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistant starch (RS), fed as high amylose maize starch (HAMS) or butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB), opposes dietary protein-induced colonocyte DNA damage in rats. In this study, rats were fed Western-type diets moderate in fat (19%) and protein (20%) containing digestible starches [low amylose maize starch (LAMS) or low amylose whole wheat (LAW)] or RS [HAMS, HAMSB, or a whole high amylose wheat (HAW) generated by RNA interference] for 11 wk (n = 10/group). A control diet included 7% fat, 13% protein, and LAMS. Colonocyte DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) were significantly higher (by 70%) in rats fed the Western diet containing LAMS relative to controls. Dietary HAW, HAMS, and HAMSB opposed this effect while raising digesta levels of SCFA and lowering ammonia and phenol levels. SSB correlated inversely with total large bowel SCFA, including colonic butyrate concentration (R(2) = 0.40; P = 0.009), and positively with colonic ammonia concentration (R(2) = 0.40; P = 0.014). Analysis of gut microbiota populations using a phylogenetic microarray revealed profiles that fell into 3 distinct groups: control and LAMS; HAMS and HAMSB; and LAW and HAW. The expression of colonic genes associated with the maintenance of genomic integrity (notably Mdm2, Top1, Msh3, Ung, Rere, Cebpa, Gmnn, and Parg) was altered and varied with RS source. HAW is as effective as HAMS and HAMSB in opposing diet-induced colonic DNA damage in rats, but their effects on the large bowel microbiota and colonocyte gene expression differ, possibly due to the presence of other fiber components in HAW.
Journal of Nutrition 03/2012; 142(5):832-40. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of starch branching enzyme (SBE, EC 188.8.131.52) IIa and SBE IIb in defining the structure of amylose and amylopectin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm were examined. Barley lines with low expression of SBE IIa or SBE IIb, and with the low expression of both isoforms were generated through RNA-mediated silencing technology. These lines enabled the study of the role of each of these isoforms in determining the amylose content, the distribution of chain lengths, and the frequency of branching in both amylose and amylopectin. In lines where both SBE IIa and SBE IIb expression were reduced by >80%, a high amylose phenotype (>70%) was observed, while a reduction in the expression of either of these isoforms alone had minor impact on amylose content. The structure and properties of the high amylose starch resulting from the concomitant reduction in the expression of both isoforms of SBE II in barley were found to approximate changes seen in amylose extender mutants of maize, which result from lesions eliminating expression of the SBE IIb gene. Amylopectin chain length distribution analysis indicated that both SBE IIa and SBE IIb isoforms play distinct roles in determining the fine structure of amylopectin. A significant reduction in the frequency of branches in amylopectin was noticed only when both SBE IIa and SBE IIb were reduced, whereas there was a significant increase in the branching frequency of amylose when SBE IIb alone was reduced. Functional interactions between SBE isoforms are suggested, and a possible inhibitory role of SBE IIb on other SBE isoforms is discussed.
Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2010; 61(5):1469-82. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2008; 56(11):4188-97. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 12/2007; 115(8):1053-65. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary and lifestyle modifications are well recognized means of reducing the risk of diseases of affluence such as cardiovascular dysfunction, bowel disorders and type II diabetes. One viable strategy for improving public health is to modify the food supply to create products that deliver substantiated health benefits while retaining consumer appeal. This paper illustrates the alteration of cereal grain composition as a means for delivering nutritional benefits through examples of high amylose wheat and BARLEYmax.
Cereal Foods World 07/2007; 52(4):182. · 0.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some of the starch consumed by humans is not digested in the small intestine. Such starch, known as resistant starch, is fermented in the large intestine and leads to the production of short chain fatty acids. Increased consumption of resistant starch is associated with improved cardio-vascular health. A high proportion of amylose in the starch consumed is correlated with increased resistant starch but other unknown aspects of starch structure may also influence the digestibility of starch. Detailed investigation of the starch biosynthetic pathway has revealed that reducing the activity of specific isoforms of branching enzymes and starch synthases can lead to increased amylose. Methods to alter the expression of and detect mutations in targeted genes involved are discussed.
Journal of Cereal Science 01/2007; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foods high in resistant starch have the potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious noninfectious diseases. RNA interference was used to down-regulate the two different isoforms of starch-branching enzyme (SBE) II (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in wheat endosperm to raise its amylose content. Suppression of SBEIIb expression alone had no effect on amylose content; however, suppression of both SBEIIa and SBEIIb expression resulted in starch containing >70% amylose. When the >70% amylose wheat grain was fed to rats in a diet as a wholemeal, several indices of large-bowel function, including short-chain fatty acids, were improved relative to standard wholemeal wheat. These results indicate that this high-amylose wheat has a significant potential to improve human health through its resistant starch content.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2006; 103(10):3546-51. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of maize starch branching enzyme mutants suggest that the amylose extender high amylose starch phenotype is a consequence of the lack of expression of the predominant starch branching enzyme II isoform expressed in the endosperm, SBEIIb. However, in wheat, the ratio of SBEIIb and SBEIIa expression are inversely related to the expression levels observed in maize and rice. Analysis of RNA at 15 days post anthesis suggests that there are about 4-fold more RNA for SBE IIa than for SBE IIb. The genes for SBE IIa and SBE IIb from wheat are distinguished in the size of the first three exons, allowing isoform-specific antibodies to be produced. These antibodies were used to demonstrate that in the soluble fraction, the amount of SBE IIa protein is two to three fold higher than SBIIb, whereas in the starch granule, there is two to three fold more SBE IIb protein amount than SBE IIa. In a further difference to maize and rice, the genes for SBE IIa and SBE IIb are both located on the long arm of chromosome 2 in wheat, in a position not expected from rice-maize-wheat synteny.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat having a reduced level of SBEIIa activity, that may have a relative high amylose content. Wheat having a mutant SBEIIa gene in the A genome. The wheat might additionally have reduced levels of SBEIIb activity. The wheat grain of this invention can be of a non-shrunken phenotype despite a lesion in the amylopectin synthesis pathway, and may also have a high relative amylose content.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes for an isoamylase-like debranching enzyme have been isolated from rice and Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the D genome to wheat. The structures of the genes are very similar to each other and to the maize SU1 isoamylase gene and consist of 18 exons spread over approximately 7.5 kb. Southern analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the Ae. tauschii gene to be located in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 7D, thus showing synteny with the localization of the rice isoamylase gene on rice chromosome 8. Analysis of the expression pattern of wheat sugary isoamylase genes indicates that they are strongly expressed in the developing endosperm 6 days after flowering. Three distinct Sugary-type cDNA sequences were isolated from the wheat endosperm that are likely to correspond to the products of the three genomes. The deduced amino acid sequence of rice and wheat Sugary-type isoamylase is compared with other sequences available in the database and the results demonstrate that there are three types of isoamylase sequences in plants: those containing 18 exons (the Sugary-type isoamylase gene), those containing 21 exons, and those containing only 1 exon. It is possible that different combinations of isoamylase genes are expressed in different tissues.