[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, exhibits large interindividual variability in dose requirements. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in various ethnic groups have been extensively studied as genetic markers associated with variable drug response. However, allele frequencies of these variants have not been assessed in major ethnic groups in the Indian population. Materials & methods: To study the functional variants known to affect warfarin dosing, we reanalyzed genotype microarray datasets generated as a part of genome-wide association studies as well as data from the Indian Genome Variation database. We examined data from 2680 individuals across 24 ethnically diverse Indian subpopulations. Results: Allelic distribution of VKORC1 (-1639G>A) showed a greater degree of variation across Indian subpopulations, with frequencies as low as 6.5% in an out-group subpopulation to >70% in Tibeto–Burmans. Risk allele frequency of CYP4F2*3 (V433M) was higher in north Indians (0.30–0.44), as compared with other world populations, such as African–American (0.12), Caucasian (0.34) and Hispanic (0.23). TheVKORC1 variant (-1639A) was shown to be prevalent amongst Tibeto–Burmans, whereas CYP2C9 (R144C, I359L) and CYP4F2 (V433M) variants were observed in considerable variability amongst Indo–Europeans. The frequency of CYP2C9*3 (I359L) in north Indians was found to be higher than in most Asian populations. Furthermore, geographical distribution patterns of these variants in north India showed an increased trend of warfarin extensive metabolizers from the Himalayan to Gangetic region. Combined allele frequency (CYP2C9*3 and CYP4F2*3) data suggest that poor metabolizers varied in the range of 0.38–1.85% in Indo–Europeans. Conclusion: Based on genotypic distribution, the majority of the Indian subpopulation might require higher doses for stable anticoagulation, whereas careful assessment is required for Tibeto–Burmans who are expected to have intermediate dose requirement. This is the largest global genetic epidemiological study examining variants associated with warfarin that could potentially be valuable to clinicians in optimizing dosage strategies. Background Warfarin is one of the most commonly used oral anticoagulants and is widely prescribed for the treatment of a number of medical con-ditions, including deep vein thrombosis, pul-monary embolism and heart valve prosthesis to avoid thromboembolic attack . Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index and has been
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Clopidogrel, a widely used antiplatelet drug, exhibits high interindividual variability; more than 80% of which could be explained by genetic polymorphisms. We built an allele frequency map of variants affecting clopidogrel response in north Indians. Materials & methods: We mined a cross-sectional population-scale genome-wide dataset of 2128 Indo-Europeans residing in north India for presence of variants associated with pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel. Results: Our analysis reveals significant differences in population-scale allele frequencies between Indians and the global population. Indians had a higher allele frequency for variants in the CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and P2RY1 genes whereas lower frequency for the ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2C19*2C, CYP3A5 and PON1 genes compared with the global population. Furthermore, from our study we proposed a model to explain the higher prevalence of clopidogrel metabolizers in north Indians. Conclusion: This is the largest population-scale genetic epidemiology study that provides a high-resolution map of variants associated with clopidogrel response that could be potentially valuable to clinicians to rationally plan appropriate dosage for therapy in resource poor conditions based on population level allele frequencies. Original submitted 29 August 2013; Revision submitted 2 December 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes-associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10(-9)). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10(-12)) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common variants near melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene are shown to be associated with adiposity but have varied effects in different age groups. Among Indians, studies have shown association of these variants with obesity in adults, but their association in children is yet to be confirmed. We evaluated association of rs17782313 and rs12970134 near MC4R with adiposity and related traits in Indians including 1362 children and 4077 adults (consisting of 2049 diabetic and 2028 nondiabetic adult subjects). Both variants rs17782313 and rs12970134 showed strong association with adiposity measures (weight, body mass index and waist circumference) in children (P-range 7.6 × 10(-5)-3.8 × 10(-12)) and nominal association in nondiabetic adults (P-range 0.05-0.003). Effect sizes on adiposity measures in children (β range 0.22-0.26 Z-score) were ∼3-fold higher compared with adults (β range 0.06-0.08). The minor alleles of both variants showed borderline association (P-range 0.08-0.04) with risk of type 2 diabetes in adults. Meta-analysis of rs12970134 in >12 000 Indian adults corroborated its association with adiposity (P2.2 × 10(-9)), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (P=4.0 × 10(-5)) and type 2 diabetes (P=0.003) with only moderate heterogeneity, suggesting similar effect on adult Indians residing in different geographical regions. In conclusion, the study demonstrates association of variants near MC4R with obesity and related traits in Indian children and adults, with higher impact during childhood.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.129.
Journal of Human Genetics 11/2012; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FTO variants are robustly associated with obesity and related traits in many population and shown to have variable impact during life course. Although studies have shown association of FTO variants with adiposity in adult Indian, its association in Indian children is yet to be confirmed.
Here we examined association of FTO variants (rs9939609 and rs8050136) with obesity and related anthropometric and biochemical traits in 3,126 Indian children (aged 11-17 years) including 2,230 normal-weight and 896 over-weight/obese children. We also compared effects observed in the present study with that observed in previous studies on South Asian adults and children of other ethnic groups.
The variant rs9939609 showed significant association with risk of obesity [OR = 1.21, P = 2.5×10(-3)] and its measures BMI, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference [β range = 0.11 to 0.14 Z-score units; P range = 1.3×10(-4) to 1.6×10(-7)] in children. The observed effect sizes in Indian children were similar to those reported for European children. Variant rs9939609 explained 0.88% of BMI variance in Indian children. The effect sizes of rs9939609 on BMI and WC were ∼2 fold higher in children than adults. Interestingly rs9939609 was also associated with serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) [β = 0.10 Z-score, P = 5.8×10(-3)]. The other variant rs8050136 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs9939609 (r(2) = 0.97) and provided similar association results.
The study provides first report of association of FTO variants with obesity and related anthropometric traits in Indian children with higher impact in children compared to adults. We also demonstrated association of FTO variant with serum levels of TSH, indicating putative influence of FTO in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47772. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT:
The pathogenesis of isolated hypoparathyroidism, also referred to as idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH), is not clear. There is a paucity of information related to the immunogenetic basis of the disease due to its rarity. A recurrent theme of several autoimmune disorders is aberrant antigen presentation.
We investigated for the association of alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II loci with IH.
PATIENTS AND CONTROLS:
A total of 134 patients with IH and 902 healthy controls from the same ethnic background participated in the study.
There was a significant increase of HLA class I alleles HLA-A*26:01 [P < 1.71 × 10(-34); odds ratio (OR) = 9.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.08-14.16] and HLA-B*08:01 (P < 8.19 × 10(-6); OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.63-4.04) in patients with IH compared to healthy controls. However, the association of A*26:01 was primary because B*08:01 was in linkage disequilibrium with A*26:01. Although the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is very polymorphic, several alleles of HLA loci share key residues at anchor positions in the peptide binding pockets such that similar peptides may be presented by different MHC molecules encoded by the same locus. These allelic forms with similar anchoring amino acids have been clustered in supertypes. An analysis of HLA-A locus supertypes A01, A02, A03, and A04 revealed that supertype A01 was significantly increased (P < 9.18 × 10(-9); OR = 2.95) in IH compared to controls. However, this increase in the supertype A01 was contributed by A*26:01 because 68.7% of the A01 samples had A*26:01. Other alleles of the supertype did not show any significant differences.
The strong association of HLA-A*26:01 suggests an important role of MHC class I-mediated presentation of autoantigenic peptides to CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells in the pathogenesis of IH. These data provide evidence for the autoimmune etiology of IH akin to other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity. Manifestation of these chronic metabolic disorders starts in early life marked by increase in body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that perturbations in homocysteine metabolism in early life could be a link between childhood obesity and adult metabolic disorders. Thus here we investigated association of common variants from homocysteine metabolism pathway genes with obesity in 3,168 urban Indian children.
We genotyped 90 common variants from 18 genes in 1,325 children comprising of 862 normal-weight (NW) and 463 over-weight/obese (OW/OB) children in stage 1. The top signal obtained was replicated in an independent sample set of 1843 children (1,399 NW and 444 OW/OB) in stage 2. Stage 1 association analysis revealed association between seven variants and childhood obesity at P<0.05, but association of only rs2796749 in AMD1 [OR = 1.41, P = 1.5×10(-4)] remained significant after multiple testing correction. Association of rs2796749 with childhood obesity was validated in stage 2 [OR = 1.28, P = 4.2×10(-3)] and meta-analysis [OR = 1.35, P = 1.9×10(-6)]. AMD1 variant rs2796749 was also associated with quantitative measures of adiposity and plasma leptin levels that was also replicated and corroborated in combined analysis.
Our study provides first evidence for the association of AMD1 variant with obesity and plasma leptin levels in children. Further studies to confirm this association, its functional significance and mechanism of action need to be undertaken.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e33162. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole genome sequencing of personal genomes has revealed a large repertoire of genomic variations and has provided a rich template for identification of common and rare variants in genomes in addition to understanding the genetic basis of diseases. The widespread application of personal genome sequencing in clinical settings for predictive and preventive medicine has been limited due to the lack of comprehensive computational analysis pipelines. We have used next-generation sequencing technology to sequence the whole genome of a self-declared healthy male of Indian origin. We have generated around 28X of the reference human genome with over 99% coverage. Analysis revealed over 3 million single nucleotide variations and about 490,000 small insertion-deletion events including several novel variants. Using this dataset as a template, we designed a comprehensive computational analysis pipeline for the systematic analysis and annotation of functionally relevant variants in the genome. This study follows a systematic and intuitive data analysis workflow to annotate genome variations and its potential functional effects. Moreover, we integrate predictive analysis of pharmacogenomic traits with emphasis on drugs for which pharmacogenomic testing has been recommended. This study thus provides the template for genome-scale analysis of personal genomes for personalized medicine.
Human Mutation 03/2012; 33(7):1133-40. · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of obesity in urban Indian children is indicative of an impending crisis of metabolic disorders. Although perturbations in the secretion of adipokines and inflammatory molecules in childhood obesity are well documented, the contribution of common variants of genes encoding them is not well investigated. We assessed the association of 125 common variants from 21 genes, encoding adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in 1,325 urban Indian children (862 normal weight [NW group] and 463 overweight/obese [OW/OB group]) and replicated top loci in 1,843 Indian children (1,399 NW children and 444 OW/OB children). Variants of four genes (PBEF1 [rs3801266] [P = 4.5 × 10(-4)], IL6 [rs2069845] [P = 8.7 × 10(-4)], LEPR [rs1137100] [P = 1.8 × 10(-3)], and IL6R [rs7514452] [P = 2.1 × 10(-3)]) were top signals in the discovery sample. Associations of rs2069845, rs1137100, and rs3801266 were replicated (P = 7.9 × 10(-4), 8.3 × 10(-3), and 0.036, respectively) and corroborated in meta-analysis (P = 2.3 × 10(-6), 3.9 × 10(-5), and 4.3 × 10(-4), respectively) that remained significant after multiple testing corrections. These variants also were associated with quantitative measures of adiposity (weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences). Allele dosage analysis of rs2069845, rs1137100, and rs3801266 revealed that children with five to six risk alleles had an approximately four times increased risk of obesity than children with less than two risk alleles (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). In conclusion, our results demonstrate the association of the common variants of IL6, LEPR, and PBEF1 with obesity in Indian children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with prediabetes has not been explored extensively in Indians. Here we sought to investigate the association of hsCRP levels with prediabetes, as represented by impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and the influence of risk factors like obesity, decreased HDL cholesterol, hypertension, family history of diabetes and current smoking habit on the relationship.
A cross-sectional study on 1726 Indians, comprising of 1276 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 250 IFG and 200 IGT individuals. Subjects were defined according to WHO criteria based on fasting plasma and 2 h glucose levels.
Median levels of hsCRP were significantly higher in IFG (2.20 mg/l) and IGT (2.32 mg/l) compared to NGT (1.64 mg/l) subjects. Individuals with high risk hsCRP levels (>3 mg/l) had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 2.60 (1.56-5.34) [P=1.3×10(-4)] for IGT after adjusting the effect of age, sex, medication, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and risk factors like decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), hypertension, family history of diabetes and current smoking. Significant increase in risk of IGT was found with a unit increase in natural log transformed hsCRP levels after adjustment for covariates [OR (95%CI)=1.57 (1.27-1.94), P=3.0×10(-5)]. When subjects were stratified on the basis of risk factors, we found stronger association of elevated hsCRP levels with risk of IFG and IGT in subjects having HDL-cholesterol ≤50 mg/dl and with hypertension.
Our study demonstrates that elevated hsCRP levels are independently associated with risk of IFG and IGT in Indians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though multiple studies link chromosomal regions 1q21-q23 and 20q13 with type 2 diabetes, fine mapping of these regions is yet to confirm gene(s) explaining the linkages. These candidate regions remain unexplored in Indians, which is a high-risk population for type 2 diabetes. Hypothesizing regulatory regions to have a more important role in complex disorders, we examined association of 207 common variants in proximal promoter and untranslated regions of genes on 1q21-23 and 20q13 with type 2 diabetes in 2115 North Indians. Further, top signals were replicated in an independent group of 2085 North Indians. Variants-rs11265455-SLAMF1 (odds ratios (OR)=1.32, P=1.1 × 10(-3)), rs1062827-F11R (OR=1.36, P=1.7 × 10(-3)) and rs12565932-F11R (OR=1.35, P=1.8 × 10(-3)) were top signals for association with type 2 diabetes whereas rs1333062-ITLN1 (OR=1.28, P=3.4 × 10(-3)) showed strongest association in body mass index-stratified analysis. Replication of these four variants confirmed associations of rs11265455-SLAMF1 (OR=1.27, P=9.1 × 10(-3)) and rs1333062-ITLN1 (OR=1.25, P=1.1 × 10(-3)) with type 2 diabetes. Meta-analysis further corroborated the association of rs11265455-SLAMF1 (OR random effect=1.29, P random effect=3.9 × 10(-5)) and rs1333062-ITLN1 (OR random effect=1.19, P random effect=1.8 × 10(-4)). In conclusion, the study demonstrates that variants of SLAMF1 and ITLN1, both implicated in inflammation, are associated with type 2 diabetes in Indians.
Journal of Human Genetics 01/2012; 57(3):184-90. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, is prevalent among Indians who are at high risk of these metabolic disorders. We evaluated association of common variants of genes involved in homocysteine metabolism or its levels with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits in North Indians. We genotyped 90 variants in initial phase (2.115 subjects) and replicated top signals in an independent sample set (2.085 subjects). The variant MTHFR-rs1801133 was the top signal for association with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.67-0.92), P = 0.003) and was also associated with 2 h postload plasma glucose (P = 0.04), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.004), and total cholesterol (P = 0.01) in control subjects. These associations were neither replicated nor significant after meta-analysis. Studies involving a larger study population and different ethnic groups are required before ruling out the role of these important candidate genes in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related traits.
Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:960318. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is well documented in many populations, but comprehensive data is lacking in Indian population. Thus, we set out to investigate the association of hsCRP levels with MetS and its features and the effect of obesity and insulin resistance on this association in urban Indians.
This is a cross-sectional study that included 9517 subjects comprising 4066 subjects with MetS. MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) criteria for Asians.
Median levels of hsCRP were considerably higher in individuals with MetS with higher levels in women compared to men. Among the features of MetS, waist circumference was most strongly correlated with hsCRP levels (r=0.28) and contributed maximally (β=0.025mg/l lnhsCRP, P=7.4×10(-147)). Subjects with high risk hsCRP levels (>3mg/l) were at high risk of MetS (OR (95% CI)=1.65(1.41-1.92), P=1.7×10(-10)). Risk of MetS increased in a dose dependent manner from low risk to high risk hsCRP category with increase in BMI and HOMA-IR.
Our findings suggest that hsCRP predicts the risk of MetS, independent of obesity and insulin resistance, and therefore, can be a valuable tool to aid the identification of individuals at risk of MetS. The study provides a lead for future investigation for effects of hsCRP, obesity, and insulin resistance on MetS in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels are shown to be influenced by genetic variants in Europeans; however, little is explored in Indian population.
Herein, we comprehensively evaluated association of all previously reported genetic determinants of hsCRP levels, including 18 cis (proximal to CRP gene) and 73 trans-acting (distal to CRP gene) variants in 4,200 North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity. First, we evaluated association of 91 variants from 12 candidate loci with hsCRP levels in 2,115 North Indians (1,042 non-diabetic subjects and 1,073 patients with type 2 diabetes). Then, cis and trans-acting variants contributing maximally to hsCRP level variation were further replicated in an independent 2,085 North Indians (1,047 patients with type 2 diabetes and 1,038 non-diabetic subjects).
We found association of 12 variants from CRP, LEPR, IL1A, IL6, and IL6R with hsCRP levels in non-diabetic subjects. However, only rs3093059-CRP [β = 0.33, P = 9.6×10⁻⁵] and the haplotype harboring rs3093059 risk allele [β = 0.32 µg/mL, P = 1.4×10⁻⁴/P(perm) = 9.0×10⁻⁴] retained significance after correcting for multiple testing. The cis-acting variant rs3093059-CRP had maximum contribution to the variance in hsCRP levels (1.14%). Among, trans-acting variants, rs1892534-LEPR was observed to contribute maximally to hsCRP level variance (0.59%). Associations of rs3093059-CRP and rs1892534-LEPR were confirmed by replication and attained higher significance after meta-analysis [β(meta) = 0.26/0.22; P(meta) = 4.3×10⁻⁷/7.4×10⁻³ and β(meta) = -0.15/-0.12; P(meta) = 2.0×10⁻⁶/1.6×10⁻⁶ for rs3093059 and rs1892534, respectively in non-diabetic subjects and all subjects taken together].
In conclusion, we identified rs3093059 in CRP and rs1892534 in LEPR as major cis and trans-acting contributor respectively, to the variance in hsCRP levels in North Indian population.
PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e24645. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been no systematic evaluation of the association between genetic variants of type 2 receptor for TNFα (TNFR2) and type 2 diabetes, despite strong biological evidence for the role of this receptor in the pathogenesis of this complex disorder. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive association analysis of TNFRSF1B variants with type 2 diabetes in 4,200 Indo-European subjects from North India.
The initial phase evaluated association of seven SNPs viz. rs652625, rs496888, rs6697733, rs945439, rs235249, rs17883432 and rs17884213 with type 2 diabetes in 2,115 participants (1,073 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,042 control subjects). Further, we conducted replication analysis of three associated SNPs in 2,085 subjects (1,047 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,038 control subjects).
We observed nominal association of rs945439, rs235249 and rs17884213 with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05) in the initial phase. Haplotype CC of rs945439 and rs235249 conferred increased susceptibility for type 2 diabetes [OR = 1.19 (95%CI 1.03-1.37), P = 0.019/Pperm = 0.076] whereas, TG haplotype of rs235249 and rs17884213 provided protection against type 2 diabetes [OR = 0.83 (95%CI 0.72-0.95, P = 7.2 × 10-3/Pperm = 0.019]. We also observed suggestive association of rs496888 with plasma hsCRP levels [P = 0.042]. However, the association of rs945439, rs235249 and rs17884213 with type 2 diabetes was not replicated in the second study population. Meta-analysis of the two studies also failed to detect any association with type 2 diabetes.
Our two-stage association analysis suggests that TNFRSF1B variants are not the determinants of genetic risk of type 2 diabetes in North Indians.
BMC Medical Genetics 08/2011; 12:110. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular epidemiology studies have used the counts of different mutational types like transitions, transversions, etc. to identify putative mutagens, with little reference to gene organization and structure-function of the translated product. Moreover, geographical variation in the mutational spectrum is not limited to the mutational types at the nucleotide level but also have a bearing at the functional level. Here, we developed a novel measure to estimate the rate of spontaneous detrimental mutations called "mutation index" for comparing the mutational spectra consisting of all single base, missense, and non-missense changes. We have analyzed 1609 mutations occurring in 38 exons in 24 populations in three diseases viz. hemophilia B (F9 gene - 420 mutations in 9 populations across 8 exons), hemophilia A (F8 gene - 650, 8 and 26, respectively) and ovarian carcinoma (TP53 gene - 539, 7 and 4, respectively). We considered exons as units of evolution instead of the entire gene and observed feeble differences among populations implying lack of a mutagen-specific effect and the possibility of mutation causing endogenous factors. In all the three genes we observed elevated rates of detrimental mutations in exons encoding regions of significance for the molecular function of the protein. We propose that this can be extended to the entire exome with implications in exon-shuffling and complex human diseases.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2011; 412(4):716-22. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common variants of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO, fat mass- and obesity-associated gene) have been shown to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in population of European and non-European ethnicity. However, studies in Indian population have provided inconsistent results. Here, we examined association of eight FTO variants (rs1421085, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs9930506, rs1861867, rs9926180, rs2540769 and rs708277) with obesity and type 2 diabetes in 5364 North Indians (2474 type 2 diabetes patients and 2890 non-diabetic controls) in two stages. None of the variants including previously reported intron 1 variants (rs1421085, rs8050136, rs9939609 and rs9930506) showed body mass index (BMI)-dependent/independent association with type 2 diabetes. However, rs1421085, rs8050136 and rs9939609 were associated with obesity status and measures of obesity (BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio) in stage 2 and combined study population. Meta-analysis of the two study population results also revealed that rs1421085, rs8050136 and rs9939609 were significantly associated with BMI both under the random- and fixed-effect models (P (random/fixed)=0.02/0.0001, 0.004/0.0006 and 0.01/0.01, respectively). In conclusion, common variants of FTO were associated with obesity, but not with type 2 diabetes in North Indian population.
Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 56(10):720-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variants in genes involved in pancreatic β-cell development and function are known to cause monogenic forms of type 2 diabetes and are also associated with complex form. In this study, we studied the genetic association of polymorphisms in such important genes with type 2 diabetes in the high-risk Indians. We genotyped 91 polymorphisms in 19 genes (ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, INSM1, ISL1, KCNJ11, MAFA, MNX1, NEUROD1, NEUROG3, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4, PAX6, PDX1, USF1 and WFS1) in 2025 unrelated North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity comprising of 1019 diabetic and 1006 non-diabetic subjects. HNF4A promoter P2 polymorphisms rs1884613 and rs2144908, which are in high linkage disequilibrium, showed significant association with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR)=1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.57), P=9.4 × 10(-6) for rs1884613 and OR=1.37 (95%CI 1.20-1.57), P=6.0 × 10(-6) for rs2144908), as previously shown in other populations. We observed body mass index-dependent association of these variants with type 2 diabetes in normal-weight/lean subjects. Variants in USF1, ABCC8, ISL1 and KCNJ11 showed nominal association, while haplotypes in these genes were significantly associated. rs3812704 upstream of NEUROG3 significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes in normal-weight/lean subjects (OR=1.68 (95%CI 1.25-2.24), P=4.9 × 10(-4)). Thus, pancreatic β-cell development and function genes contribute to susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in North Indians.
Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 56(10):695-700. · 2.53 Impact Factor