[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor beta-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1) is a member of the Kruppel-like transcription factor family. To understand the physiological role of TIEG1, we generated TIEG(-/-) (null) mice and found that the TIEG(-/-) mice had increased osteoblast numbers with no increased bone formation parameters. However, when calvarial osteoblasts (OBs) were isolated from neonatal TIEG(-/-) and TIEG(+/+) mice and cultured in vitro, the TIEG(-/-) cells displayed reduced expression of important OB differentiation markers. When the OBs were differentiated in vitro by treatment with bone morphogenic protein 2, the OBs from TIEG(+/+) calvaria displayed several mineralized nodules in culture, whereas those from TIEG(-/-) mice showed no nodules. To characterize the OBs' ability to support osteoclast differentiation, the OBs from TIEG(+/+) and TIEG(-/-) mice were cultured with marrow and spleen cells from TIEG(+/+) mice. Significantly fewer osteoclasts developed when TIEG(-/-) OBs were used to support osteoclast differentiation than when TIEG(+/+) OBs were used. Examination of gene expression in the TIEG(-/-) OBs revealed decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression compared to TIEG(+/+) OBs. The addition of RANKL to these cocultures only partially restored the ability of TIEG(-/-) OBs to support osteoclast differentiation, whereas M-CSF alone or combined with RANKL had no additional effect on osteoclast differentiation. We conclude from these data that TIEG1 expression in OBs is critical for both osteoblast-mediated mineralization and osteoblast support of osteoclast differentiation.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2005; 25(3):1191-9. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the complex roles of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in bone metabolism, we examined the impact of a range of TGF-beta concentrations on osteoclast differentiation. In co-cultures of support cells and spleen or marrow osteoclast precursors, low TGF-beta concentrations stimulated while high concentrations inhibited differentiation. We investigated the influences of TGF-beta on macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and found a dose dependent inhibition of M-CSF expression. RANKL expression was elevated at low TGF-beta concentrations with a less dramatic increase in OPG. Addition of OPG blocked differentiation at the stimulatory TGF-beta dose. Thus, low TGF-beta concentrations elevated the RANKL/OPG ratio while high concentrations did not, supporting that, at low TGF-beta concentrations, there is sufficient M-CSF and a high RANKL/OPG ratio to stimulate differentiation. At high TGF-beta concentrations, the RANKL/OPG ratio and M-CSF expression were both repressed and there was no differentiation. We examined whether TGF-beta-mediated repression of osteoclasts differentiation is due to these changes by adding M-CSF and/or RANKL and did not observe any impact on differentiation repression. We studied direct TGF-beta impacts on osteoclast precursors by culturing spleen or marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. TGF-beta treatment dose-dependently stimulated osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that low TGF-beta levels stimulate osteoclast differentiation by impacting the RANKL/OPG ratio while high TGF-beta levels repress osteoclast differentiation by multiple avenues including mechanisms independent of the RANKL/OPG ratio or M-CSF expression regulation.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2004; 200(1):99-106. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During pathological bone loss, factors that are both stimulatory and inhibitory for osteoclast differentiation are over-expressed. Despite the presence of inhibitory factors, osteoclast differentiation is significantly enhanced to bring about bone loss. To examine the hypothesis that stimulatory growth factors overcome the effects of inhibitory factors, we have examined the ability of IGF-I, IGF-II, IL-6, LIF, and TNF-alpha to overcome osteoclast differentiation inhibition by GM-CSF in vitro. Osteoclast numbers were significantly elevated by treatment with IGF-I, IGF-II, IL-6, LIF, or TNF-alpha alone whereas GM-CSF treatment of stromal cell and osteoclast co-cultures inhibited osteoclast formation. IL-6, LIF, or TNF-alpha, individually overcame GM-CSF inhibition whereas neither IGF-I nor IGF-II treatment overcame GM-CSF inhibition. Interestingly, GM-CSF addition with either IL-6 or TNF-alpha increased osteoclast numbers beyond that seen with either IL-6 or TNF-alpha alone. Combined treatment with TNF-alpha and IL-6 showed a significant increase in osteoclast numbers with GM-CSF addition. Examination of the impacts of these growth factors individually or in combinations on stromal cell M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG expression revealed a complex pattern involving alterations in the ratio of RANKL to OPG and/or M-CSF expression as candidate mechanisms of action.
Experimental Cell Research 04/2004; 294(1):149-58. · 3.56 Impact Factor