Sang-Cheol Kim

Jeju National University, Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea

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Publications (18)33.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Melanin plays an important role protecting skin against ultraviolet light injury. However, increased production and accumulation of melanin results in a large number of skin disorders. Here, we identified hordenine as an active compound from germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and investigated the effects of hordenine on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal melanocytes. We measured melanin content, tyrosinase activity, expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, and cAMP production. Melanin content was significantly inhibited by hordenine. The intracellular cAMP level was also reduced by hordenine. In addition, expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), an upstream transcription factor of tyrosinase as well as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, was inhibited by hordenine. Taken together, these results show that hordenine inhibited melanogenesis by suppressing cAMP production, which is involved in the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins and suggest that hordenine may be an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation.
    Food Chemistry 11/2013; 141(1):174-81. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan obtained from Undaria pinnatifida in PC-3 cells, human prostate cancer cells. Fucoidan induced the apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) and the inactivation of p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. In addition, fucoidan also induced the up-regulation of p21Cip1/Waf and down-regulation of E2F-1 cell-cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, fucoidan activated GSK-3β that resulted in the decrease of β-catenin level, followed by the decrease of c-myc and cyclin D1 expressions, target genes of β-catenin in PC-3 cells. These results suggested that fucoidan treatment could induce intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the inactivation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data support that fucoidan might have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer.
    Marine Drugs 01/2013; 11(8):2982-99. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Acanthopanax koreanum and acankoreoside J from A. koreanum on the promotion of hair growth. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of A. koreanum leaves, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In particular, acankoreoside J among several components, isolated from A. koreanum leaves, markedly promoted the proliferation of the dermal papilla cells. When rat vibrissa follicles were treated with an acankoreoside J, the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles increased significantly. We further investigated β-catenin pathway and cell cycle regulation with respect to the effect of acankoreoside J on the proliferation of the dermal papilla cells. Treatment with acankoreoside J results in an increase of nuclear β-catenin level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK2, whereas, the expression of p27(kip1) was down-regulated in the dermal papilla cells. Taken together, these results suggest that acankoreoside J, a lupane-triterpene of A. koreanum, has the potential of promoting hair growth by promoting cell cycle progression of the dermal papilla cells, through the increase of nuclear β-catenin, along with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK2, and down-regulation of p27(kip1).
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 08/2012; 35(8):1495-503. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the proliferative effect of vegetable soy peptides on adult stem cells (ASCs) in the absence of serum and their possible mechanisms of action. The proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) treated with soy peptides was found to increase significantly upon 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Click-iT 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine flow cytometry assay. In addition, soy peptides led to stepwise phosphorylation of the p44/42 MAPK (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 S6 kinase, S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in ADSCs. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the cytokines revealed that the production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 increased significantly in response to treatment with soy peptides in both ADSCs and CB-MSCs. Similarly, soy peptide-induced phosphorylation of the ERK/mTOR/S6RP/eIF4E pathway was blocked in response to pretreatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. Moreover, inhibition of TGF-β1 through PD98059 pretreatment and a consecutive decrease in ADSC proliferation revealed that TGF-β1 induces the phosphorylation of mTOR/S6RP/eIF4E. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that ERK-dependent production of TGF-β1 plays a crucial role in the soy peptide-induced proliferation of ADSCs under serum-free conditions.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 01/2012; 23(10):1341-51. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5α-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(5):6407-23. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5α-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 01/2012; 20(1):118-124. · 0.79 Impact Factor
  • European journal of dermatology: EJD 09/2011; 21(6):1012-4. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has various biological activities, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and antiinflammatory effects; however, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan on anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. The anticancer effects of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida on A549 human lung carcinoma cells were examined. Treatment of A549 cells with fucoidan resulted in potent antiproliferative activity. Also, some typical apoptotic characteristics, such as chromatin condensation and an increase in the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells, were observed. With respect to the mechanism underlying the induction of apoptosis, fucoidan reduced Bcl-2 expression, but the expression of Bax was increased in a dose-dependent manner compared with the controls. Furthermore, fucoidan induced caspase-9 activation, but decreased the level of procaspase-3. Cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a vital substrate of effector caspase, was found. The study further investigated the role of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways with respect to the apoptotic effect of fucoidan, and showed that fucoidan activates ERK1/2 in A549 cells. Unlike ERK1/2, however, treatment with fucoidan resulted in the down-regulation of phospho-p38 expression. In addition, fucoidan resulted in the down-regulation of phospho-PI3K/Akt. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan induces apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer cells through down-regulation of p38, PI3K/Akt, and the activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2011; 25(7):1082-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it was reported that in a 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model, neuronal cell death is associated with the cdk5-mediated hyperphosphorylation of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), a transcription factor that is critically required for neuronal survival. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of cdk5-mediated MEF2D down-regulation on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PC12 cell death. 6-OHDA was found to significantly increase nitric oxide (NO) production and to induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in PC12 cells. Furthermore, 6-OHDA was found to markedly reduce MEF2D levels under conditions that could induce PC12 cell apoptosis. In addition, PC12 cell death and MEF2D degradation by 6-OHDA were prevented by the cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine, but roscovitine could not restore the 6-OHDA-induced inactivation of Akt. These results suggest that the cell death and MEF2D degradation caused by 6-OHDA are dependent on cdk5 activity. On the other hand, roscovitine enhanced the 6-OHDA-induced activations of ERK1/2 and JNK, but reduced the 6-OHDA-induced activation of p38. These results suggest that PC12 cell death by 6-OHDA appears to be regulated by the down-regulation of MEF2D via some interaction between cdk5 and MAP kinase.
    Neurochemical Research 11/2010; 36(2):223-31. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of Carpinus tschonoskii MAX and its intracellular protective mechanism on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. We found that pretreatment of PC12 cells with C. tschonoskii extract significantly inhibited the cell death induced by 6-OHDA in a dose dependent manner. C. tschonoskii extract decreased 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic events such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, the decrease of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. C. tschonoskii extract also reduced generation of 6-OHDA-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Furthermore, C. tschonoskii extract up-regulated the myocyte enhancer factor 2 D (MEF2D), a critical transcription factor for neuronal survival, and Akt activity, whereas it inhibited the activity of ERK1/2 and JNK. The results suggest that C. tschonoskii extract decreases 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and could prevent PC12 cell apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA via the up-regulation of MEF2D and Akt activity, and thus may have application in developing therapeutic agents for Parkinson's disease.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 10/2010; 18(4). · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Crinum asiaticum, a plant native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When rat vibrissa follicles were treated with a 95% ethanol (EtOH) extract of C. asiaticum, the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles increased significantly. In addition, after daily topical application of the EtOH extract of C. asiaticum onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. Moreover, the extract increased the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells. When the vibrissa follicles in the anagen phase were treated with the extract, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the extract was found to increase the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the bulb region of the 7-day cultured follicles. In particular, norgalanthamine, a principal of the extract, showed activity that increased the hair-fiber lengths of vibrissa follicles and the proliferation of dermal papilla cells. These results suggest that norgalanthamine, a principal of C. asiaticum, has the potential to promote hair growth via the proliferation of dermal papilla.
    European journal of dermatology: EJD 10/2009; 20(1):42-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antitumor activity of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus was investigated in human colon carcinoma cells. The crude fucoidan, a polysaccharide composed predominantly of sulfated fucose, markedly inhibited the growth of HCT-15 cells (human colon carcinoma cells). After HCT-15 cells were treated with fucoidan, several apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and increase of the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells were observed. In the mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis, we examined changes in Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression levels and activation of caspases. Fucoidan decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas the expression of Bax was increased in a time-dependent manner compared to the control. In addition, the active forms of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were increased, and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a vital substrate of effector caspase, was observed. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by a strong activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase and an inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt in a time-dependent manner. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the pro-apoptotic effect of fucoidan is mediated through the activation of ERK, p38 and the blocking of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway in HCT-15 cells. These data support the hypothesis that fucoidan may have potential in colon cancer treatment.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 10/2009; 32(10):1760-4. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen-inducible transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) derived from dermal papilla cells (DPCs) is a catagen inducer that mediates hair growth suppression in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). In this study, a cell-based assay system was developed to monitor TGF-beta1 promoter activity and then used to evaluate the effects of activated TGF-beta1 promoter in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). To accomplish this, a pMetLuc-TGF-beta1 promoter plasmid that expresses the luciferase reporter gene in response to TGF-beta1 promoter activity was constructed. Treatment of HaCaT with dihydrotestosterone, which is known to be a primary factor of AGA, resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in TGF-beta1 promoter activity. However, treatment of HaCaT with the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, curcumin, resulted in a concentration-dependant decrease in TGF-beta1 expression. Subsequent use of this assay system to screen TGF-beta1 revealed that HaCaT that were treated with apigenin showed decreased levels of TGF-beta1 expression. In addition, treatment with apigenin also significantly increased the proliferation of both SV40T-DPCs (human DPCs) and HaCaT cells. Furthermore, apigenin stimulated the elongation of hair follicles in a rat vibrissa hair follicle organ culture. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin, which is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties, stimulates hair growth through downregulation of the TGF-beta1 gene. In addition, these results suggest that this assay system could be used to quantitatively measure TGF-beta1 promoter activity in HaCaT, thereby facilitating the screening of agents promoting hair growth.
    Archives for Dermatological Research 04/2009; 301(5):381-5. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Schisandra nigra, a plant native to Jeju Island, South Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When rat vibrissa follicles were treated with 85% ethanol (EtOH) extract of S. nigra, the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles increased significantly. In addition, after topical application of the EtOH extract of S. nigra onto the back of C57BL/6 mice every other day, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. Moreover, the extract increased both the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the bulb matrix region and the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells. In order to determine the mechanism by which S. nigra promotes hair growth, we examined its relationship with the transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) signal pathway, which is known to be a regulator of catagen induction. When the vibrissa follicles in the anagen phase were treated with S. nigra extract for 7 days, the expression of TGF-beta2 in the bulb matrix region was found to be lower than that of the control follicles that were expected to be in the anagen-catagen transition phase. These results suggest that S. nigra extract has the potential to promote hair growth via down regulation of TGF-beta2 and the proliferation of dermal papilla.
    European journal of dermatology: EJD 02/2009; 19(2):119-25. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the anti-proliferative and chemosensitizing effects of Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum against multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. The 80% methanol extract, chloroform () fraction and butanol (BuOH) fraction of C. asiaticum inhibited the growth of mitoxantrone (MX) resistant HL-60 (HL-60/MX2) cells. When HL-60/MX2 cells were treated with the and BuOH fractions, DNA ladder and sub-G1 hypodiploid cells were observed. Furthermore, the fractions reduced BcI-2 mRNA levels, whereas Bax mRNA levels were increased. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of C. asiaticum on the growth of the HL-60/MX2 cells might arise from the induction of apoptosis. Treatment of HL-60/MX2 cells with the fractions markedly decreased the mRNA levels of the multi-drug resistance protein-1 and breast cancer resistance protein. The fraction and hexane fraction increased MX accumulation in HL-60/MX2 cells. These results imply that the fraction of C. asiaticum plays a pivotal role as a chemosensitizer. We suggest that components of C. asiaticum might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of MDR leukemia.
    Toxicological Research. 01/2008; 24(1).
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the cytotoxicity of Scytosiphon lomentaria, using various cancer cell lines. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of this alga showed the cytotoxicity to leukemia cells, including HL-60. When HL-60 cells were treated with its EtOAc fraction, several apoptotic characteristics, such as DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and an increase of the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells, were observed. Moreover, the EtOAc fraction decreased c-Myc expression in a dose-dependent manner. In order to understand the mechanism of apoptosis induction by S. lomentaria, we examined the changes of Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression levels. The EtOAc fraction reduced Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, but increased Bax, a proapoptotic protein, in a dose-dependent manner. When we examined the activation of caspase-3, an effector of apoptosis, the expression of the active form (19 kDa) of caspase-3 increased, and the increase of their activities was demonstrated by the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, a substrate of caspase-3, to 85 kDa. The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of S. lomentaria on the growth of HL-60 appears to arise from the induction of apoptosis by way of the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase.
    Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 11/2004; 19(5):641-8. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals - CANCER BIOTHER RADIOPHARM. 01/2004; 19(5):641-648.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) growing on Carpinus laxiflora BL. on proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Aqueous extract and its saturated fractions of the mistletoe exhibited potent anti-proliferation activity against HL-60 cells. Moreover, when HL-60 cells were treated with 0~30% and 30~70% saturated fractions of the mistletoe, HL-60 expressed CD 66b or CD 14 cell surface antigens and showed activity to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium, indicating that mistletoe induces the differentiation of HL-60 into granulocytes or monocytes. To understand how mistletoe induces the differentiation, we investigated the expression of molecules for modulating the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, such as c-Myc and myeloblastin. The 0~30% saturated fraction of the mistletoe reduced the mRNA levels of c-Myc and myeloblastin in a time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the mistletoe induces the differentiation of HL-60 cells via the decrease of c-Myc and myeloblastin expressions. Thus, it is suggested that mistletoe has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
    Toxicological Research. 01/2004; 20(4).