Sang In Khwarg

Seoul National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (71)118.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with congenital membranous punctal obstruction. The medical records of patients who underwent surgical treatment for congenital membranous punctal obstruction between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic data and clinical presentations of the patients were analyzed. Surgical intervention methods and treatment results were also evaluated. A total of 51 puncta in 31 eyes of 23 patients with congenital membranous punctal obstruction were included. Of the 31 eyes, 20 had both upper and lower punctal obstruction and 11 had single punctal obstruction. Up to 2008, 10 patients underwent simultaneous punctoplasty and silicone tube intubation; 7 were under 10 years of age and required general anesthesia for the procedure. All showed patent puncta without epiphora postoperatively. Of the 13 patients treated after 2008, 11 children underwent punctoplasty and lacrimal irrigation under general anesthesia. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) was found in 6 of the 11 patients, and combined silicone tube intubation was performed; 2 adults with both upper and lower punctal obstruction underwent only punctoplasty under local anesthesia. All puncta were opened sufficiently, but epiphora remained in 1 patient due to NLDO, requiring subsequent silicone intubation. Overall, NLDO was found in 7 of 13 patients. Congenital membranous punctal obstruction can be successfully treated by punctoplasty alone. Because this is often associated with NLDO, the nasolacrimal system should also be thoroughly evaluated.
    Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 04/2014; 18(2):159-61. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of functional failure of anatomically patent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Prospective, nonrandomized case series. Thirty-four consecutive patients who underwent external DCR at the oculoplasty clinic in the Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Hospital between December 2008 and July 2009. All patients underwent external DCR for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The silicone tubes were removed around 6 months after the DCRs, and patients were examined 1 month after tube removal. Anatomical patency was evaluated by a nasal endoscopic dye test and lacrimal syringing test. Tearing symptoms were evaluated using Munk's scoring system. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of epiphora symptom; a functional success and functional failure group, and the incidence of functional failure were calculated. Potential associated factors were also compared between 2 groups. This study involved 50 eyes of 34 patients, and 8 eyes of 6 patients showed significant epiphora in spite of anatomical patency (16% functional failure). We compared associated factors between 42 functionally successful and 8 functionally failed DCRs. Among variables studied, demographic factors and intraoperative surgical findings were not statistically different between the 2 groups. With respect to intranasal endoscopic findings, the shape of the rhinostomy showed significant differences between the 2 groups (p = 0.03, Fisher's exact test). In the functional failure group, there were no flat shape rhinostomies. Three showed alcove shape rhinostomies, and the other 5 showed cavern shape rhinostomies. Among anatomically patent DCRs, the incidence of persistent epiphora was 16%. The shape of rhinostomy is a possible associated factor for functional failure after external DCR.
    Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 02/2014; 49(1):40-4. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prognosis of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma is largely unpredictable and there are few practically available markers for predicting patients' prognosis. Dysregulation of cell cycle progression is strongly associated with the development of cancer and the cancer prognosis. We investigated the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma and estimate their value as prognostic predictors. Forty-three cases of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry for the p53, p21, p27, cyclin E, p16, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated Rb (pRb) proteins was performed using archival paraffin blocks. Correlations between clinical features and protein expression were evaluated statistically. Nine patients showed lymph node or distant metastasis, and the remaining patients showed localized disease. High expression of p21, p27, cyclin E, and p16 was found in the majority of tumor cell nuclei, whereas these proteins were rarely expressed in the normal sebaceous glands. However, pRb was focally lost in a subset of cases. Patients showing diffuse p27 expression developed metastasis less commonly than those with negative or focal p27 expression (log-rank test, p = 0.008). Aberrant expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins was observed in eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma, suggesting that cell cycle dysregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Decreased p27 expression is a predictive biomarker of an unfavorable prognosis of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma.
    Experimental Eye Research 11/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the surgical outcome after the insertion of smooth surface tunnel porous polyethylene orbital implants (Medpor SST) in children with retinoblastoma. 44 consecutive children with retinoblastoma who underwent primary enucleation and Medpor SST implantation at Seoul National University Hospital from November 2004 to August 2009, with at least 24 months of follow-up were included. A retrospective review of cases was performed. Mean age at the time of surgery was 24.7 months (range 1-65 months). The diameter of the spherical implant was 20 mm in 36 patients (81.8%) and 18 mm in 8 patients (18.2%). During a mean follow-up period of 60.1 months (range 26-93 months), there were no cases of implant exposure, extrusion or infection. Transient conjunctival thinning developed in three patients, but all resolved with conservative treatment. Anophthalmic socket complications such as lower lid malposition (retraction or entropion) (n=10, 22.7%), blepharoptosis (n=8, 18.2%) and enophthalmos (n=2, 4.5%) developed, but most showed acceptable cosmesis. Medpor SST is relatively safe, allowing for a mean follow-up of 5 years in terms of implant exposure, and may be a good choice of orbital implant for children with retinoblastoma.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 09/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 40-year-old woman presented with horizontal diplopia and right proptosis for 1 month. She had esotropia and right abducens nerve palsy. Pupils were small and equal and there was no relative afferent pupillary defect. A cutaneous capillary malformation, hypertrophy of bone and soft tissue, and varicose veins on lower extremities were consistent with the diagnostic triad of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) (figure 1).(1) Orbital CT revealed multiple giant intracranial aneurysms (figure 2).
    Neurology 07/2013; 81(3):e17-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Cheol Kim, Min Joung Lee, Sang In Khwarg
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of voluntary blinking and use of diluted fluorescein dye on fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT) in terms of diagnostic ability and test time. Prospective, nonrandomized case series. Thirty-nine patients who visited Hadong Seoul Eye Clinic between April 2009 and September 2009. All participants underwent FDDT and a lacrimal syringing test, and were divided into 2 groups according to the lacrimal syringing test results. FDDT was performed using 3 protocols: conventional FDDT (2% FDDT), FDDT with voluntary blinking (2% FDDTb), and FDDT with voluntary blinking using diluted fluorescein (0.25% FDDTb). The results were assessed by comparing initial tear meniscus height and those at 5 (2% FDDT) or 3 minutes (2% FDDTb, 0.25% FDDTb) after dye instillation. Results were considered "normal" when the tear meniscus decreased to less than 50% of its initial height, and "delayed" when it decreased to≥50%. In cases with a normal result, a half-period of dye disappearance was also recorded. Regarding diagnostic ability, the 0.25% FDDTb test had highest sensitivity and specificity among 3 protocols (100% and 80%, respectively). The half-period of dye disappearance was 3.17±1.72 minutes for 2% FDDT, 1.82±0.64 minutes for 2% FDDTb, and 1.04±0.69 minutes for 0.25% FDDTb, and showed significant difference among 3 tests (P = 0.001). The FDDT with voluntary blinking using 0.25% fluorescein had comparable diagnostic ability with the conventional FDDT, and allowed the test time to be significantly reduced.
    Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 04/2013; 48(2):99-103. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate CT and MRI findings of histopathologically proven ocular adnexa IgG4-related disease. METHODS: Study subjects included 18 patients with histopathologically proven ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease. CT (n=16) and MR (n=3) images were retrospectively evaluated for location, laterality, shape, margin, attenuation on precontrast CT images, T1 and T2 signal intensity on precontrast MRI , internal architecture, ocular adnexal lesion enhancement patterns, sialadenitis of major salivary glands, cervical lymph node enlargement and perilesional bony change. RESULTS: Lacrimal gland enlargement was observed in 16 cases. Extraglandular lesions were observed in the medial canthus (n=2) and extraconal space (n=2). Bilateral supraorbital and infraorbital nerves, pterygopalatine fossa and cavernous sinus involvement were observed in one case. All ocular adnexal lesions showed well defined margins, isoattenuation on precontrast CT images, isointensity on T1- and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, homogenous internal arcithecture and enhancement patterns and bone remodelling without destruction. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease can involve the lacrimal gland, medial canthus, extraconal space, supraorbital and infraorbital nerves, pterygopalatine fossa and cavernous sinus. A diagnosis of ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease should be considered in lesions with the typical imaging features described herein.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 02/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Activation or dysregulation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt signaling pathways is suggested to lead to the development of many human malignancies. In this study, we investigated Shh and Wnt signaling protein expression in eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma, and analyzed their correlation with clinical characteristics of the tumor. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical resection of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma from 1999 to 2011 were recruited for the study. Immunohistochemical stainings of Shh signaling proteins (Shh, Gli-1, Gli-2, Gli-3, and ABCG2) and Wnt signaling proteins (Wnt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, β-catenin, lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP], and c-Myc) were conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-seven cases of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma were included in this study. Twenty-nine patients showed no metastasis, and 8 patients showed lymph node or distant metastasis. Shh, ABCG2, and Wnt proteins were more highly expressed in the group with metastasis than in the group without metastasis (p = 0.031, p = 0.015, and p = 0.001, respectively, Chi-square test). Patients showing high ABCG2 expression, Wnt, or LRP expression developed metastasis more commonly than those with low ABCG2, or without Wnt or LRP expression (log-rank test, p = 0.019, 0.001, and 0.000, respectively). Conclusions: The group with metastasis showed higher expression levels of Shh, ABCG2, and Wnt than did the group without metastasis, and patients with strong ABCG2 expression, Wnt, or LRP expression showed higher cumulative incidence of LN or distant metastasis, implying that activation of the Shh and Wnt signaling pathway is associated with aggressive behavior of the tumor.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 12/2012; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the outcomes of acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon after various surgeries in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of 53 TAO patients with acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon between October 1999 and June 2011 was performed. Data were collected on demographics, type of lower eyelid epiblepharon, the detailed surgical history such as orbital decompression, retraction repair, or epiblepharon repair and surgical outcomes including follow-up period, recurrence of epiblepharon, and post-operative complications. Among the 53 TAO patients with acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon, 25 eyes of 17 patients underwent surgical management; 6 eyes of orbital decompression, 1 eye of orbital decompression followed by retraction repair, 2 eyes of orbital decompression followed by epiblepharon repair, 6 eyes of lower eyelid retraction repair, and 10 eyes of epiblepharon repair. Twenty two lower eyelid epiblepharons (88%) were resolved after final surgical treatment without complication during mean 16.2 months (SD, ±29.9 months) of follow up period; three of 6 epiblepharons that remained after orbital decompression underwent subsequent surgical management of retraction repair or epiblepharon repair, and epiblepharons were well-corrected. Mean amount of lower eyelid retraction was decreased from 1.68 mm (SD, ±1.17 mm) to 0.29 mm (SD, ±0.44 mm) after surgery, regardless of the type of surgery (n = 25, p < 0.000, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon of TAO should be managed sequentially according to the general serial order of surgical managements in TAO; orbital decompression, correction of lower eyelid retraction and epiblepharon repair. Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon was well resolved after surgical management in consecutive order, especially after repair of the lower eyelid retraction with a graft, or lower eyelid epiblepharon repair. Decreased lower eyelid retraction with a resolution of epiblepharon after surgery implied that lower eyelid retraction was associated with lower eyelid epiblepharon.
    Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2012; 26(5):319-23.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of congenital lacrimal fistula in Down syndrome patients. The medical records of 198 Down syndrome patients who were referred to a tertiary ophthalmology clinic from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with congenital lacrimal fistula. The demographic data, clinical features, clinical management, and clinical outcomes were recorded. The main outcome measures were the presence and laterality of fistula, accompanying adnexal and oculomotor abnormalities including congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO), the type of surgery performed, and surgical outcome. The prevalence of congenital lacrimal fistula in Down syndrome patients was calculated upon this data. Congenital lacrimal fistula was identified in 8/198 (4.04 %) patients, 4 (2.02 %) of whom presented with bilateral lacrimal fistula. All patients that had lacrimal fistula complained of tearing from their eyes. Congenital NLDO was observed in seven of eight patients with lacrimal fistula. Five patients underwent excision of the lacrimal fistula for the improvement of cosmesis, and three of these patients also underwent lacrimal silicone intubation for NLDO. Another patient received lacrimal silicone intubation for NLDO without excision of the lacrimal fistula. Excision of the lacrimal fistula was successful in all patients; however, tearing persisted after surgery in two patients with uncorrected NLDO. Congenital lacrimal fistula occurs more frequently in Down syndrome patients and therefore these patients should be thoroughly examined for this abnormality. Down syndrome patients with congenital lacrimal fistula should be also examined for NLDO, because this condition is frequently observed in these patients.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 06/2012; 250(10):1515-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of lacrimal drainage obstruction (LDO) in patients receiving S-1 chemotherapy. Consecutive 170 patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative surgery and received adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy were enrolled. S-1 was administered orally (40 mg/m2 b.i.d. on days 1-28 every 6 weeks) for 1 year. Ophthalmologic examinations were carried out on patients complaining of epiphora. Thirty-one patients (18%) developed epiphora. Among 31 patients, 25 underwent ophthalmologic examinations and 22 (88%) were diagnosed with LDO. The median time to the onset of LDO was 2.9 months. The most common site of obstruction was the nasolacrimal duct [86% (19/22)]; punctal [23% (5/22)] and canalicular obstruction [14% (3/22)] were also noted. In multivariate analysis, total gastrectomy [versus partial gastrectomy: hazard ratio (HR), 2.9; P=0.014] and creatinine clearance<50 ml/min (versus ≥50 ml/min: HR, 2.9; P=0.038) were independent risk factors for the development of LDO. Considering the high incidence of LDO in patients receiving S-1 chemotherapy, oncologists should be alert to epiphora and cooperate with ophthalmologists in the early stages to improve the quality of life of patients and avoid more complicated ophthalmologic procedures.
    Annals of Oncology 05/2012; 23(8):2065-71. · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the aberrant promoter methylation status of known or suspected tumor suppressor genes in ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) and the possible association with clinical characteristics and Chlamydophila psittaci infection. Thirty-five cases of ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma cases were examined for the methylation status of nine genes using methylation-specific PCR and for the detection of C. psittaci DNA using PCR. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics including the response of the lymphoma to the therapy, and C. psittaci infection status were evaluated for possible association with methylation frequencies. CpG island methylation in nine genes was variously found as follows; DAPK (94.3%), ECAD (77.1%), MT1G (48.6%), THBS1 (37.1%), RAR-β (31.4%), p16 (20%), MGMT (5.7%), p14 (0%), and RASSF1A (0%). Methylation was not observed in any of 13 control cases. C. psittaci DNA was observed in 25 (75.8%) of 33 patients with available tumor tissues, and ECAD hypermethylation was significantly higher in C. psittaci-positive cases (P = 0.041). Promoter hypermethylation status was not correlated with clinical characteristics. Aberrant CpG island methylation of tumor suppressor genes is a frequent event in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma. In particular, high frequencies of DAPK and ECAD methylation may be strongly correlated with ocular adnexal MALT lymphomagenesis in South Korea. Furthermore, ECAD hypermethylation is closely associated with C. psittaci infection, which may shed light on the mechanisms of bacterium-induced oncogenesis.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2012; 53(4):1928-35. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Jinho Lee, Namju Kim, Ho-Kyung Choung, Sang In Khwarg
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 02/2012; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and compare the pathogenic features of acquired and congenital epiblepharon. Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series, cross-sectional study. A total of 494 Korean patients with TAO and 845 Korean patients with congenital lower eyelid epiblepharon. The medical records were reviewed, and the presence, location, and extent of epiblepharon were identified. Clinical features of TAO (lower eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, and elevation limitation) were compared between patients with TAO with and without epiblepharon. Acquired epiblepharon was classified into 3 types according to the location and extent. The prevalence of epiblepharon types was determined and evaluated for associations with TAO clinical features. Comparisons were made between the prevalence of epiblepharon types in acquired and congenital epiblepharon. Prevalence, location, and extent of epiblepharon; association with clinical features of TAO; and difference from congenital epiblepharon. An acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon was found in 42 (8.5%) of 494 patients with TAO. The mean age of patients with TAO with epiblepharon (34.2±13.5 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with TAO without epiblepharon (46.5±14.1 years) (P = 0.000). Lower eyelid retraction (0.78±1.11 mm) was more severe in patients with TAO with epiblepharon than in patients without epiblepharon (0.30±0.73 mm) (P = 0.000). Lower eyelid retraction was more severe in diffuse-type acquired epiblepharon than in central-type epiblepharon (P = 0.012). Elevation limitation was more severe in central-type acquired epiblepharon than in medial-type epiblepharon (P = 0.001). The occurrence of central-type epiblepharon was higher in TAO-associated acquired epiblepharon (20 eyelids, 30.8%) than in congenital epiblepharon (27 eyelids, 1.9%, P = 0.000). Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon is one of the clinical features of patients with TAO. The association between lower eyelid retraction and acquired epiblepharon may lead to a better understanding of the cause of acquired epiblepharon in patients with TAO.
    Ophthalmology 02/2012; 119(2):390-5. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Making a differential diagnosis of IgG4-related disease from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma or any other chronic inflammation is often challenging. Moreover, the association with secondary lymphoma of ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease needs to be elucidated. We investigated 14 cases of IgG4-related disease, nine MALT lymphomas and 12 other chronic inflammations involving the lacrimal gland and orbit. Bilateral involvement was frequent in IgG4-related diseases. The number of IgG4-positive cells and the ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive cells were higher in patients with IgG4-related disease than in those with MALT lymphoma (P = 0.016; P < 0.001) and other types of inflammation (P < 0.001; P < 0.001). Monoclonal B cell proliferation was suspected in two cases (14.3%) of IgG4-related disease. One of these patients also displayed monomorphous features suggesting secondary MALT lymphoma. In the other case, κ-chain restriction in IgG4-positive cells was observed, raising the possibility of IgG4-producing MALT lymphoma. Trisomy 3, trisomy 18 or MALT1 translocation was observed in none of the IgG4-related cases. Regulatory T-cell infiltration was higher in cases of IgG4-related disease than in MALT lymphomas (P < 0.001) and other types of inflammation (P = 0.006). Some genetically and morphologically complicated cases of ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease emphasize the need for in-depth studies to differentiate this disease from MALT lymphoma, and to exclude secondary lymphoma.
    Histopathology 01/2012; 60(2):296-312. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the association between tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ T cells and clinical outcomes in patients with ocular adnexal lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (OAML). Pretreatment formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 42 patients with OAML were stained with 236A/E7 anti-FOXP3 murine monoclonal antibody as well as CD3, CD4 and CD8 antibodies. The amount of FOXP3+ T cells was numerically quantified using an image analysis program. Front-line treatments were as follows: combination chemotherapy (n = 25); radiotherapy (n = 9); doxycycline (n = 6); and wait and see (n = 2). Complete response (CR) was observed in 20 (50%) of 40 evaluable patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 50 months. A high number of FOXP3+ T cells (n = 21, ≥ 180/0.58 mm(2)) showed a higher CR rate (33%vs 71%, P = 0.013) and tendency towards prolonged PFS (48 vs 67 months, P = 0.110). In the combination chemotherapy group, a high number of FOXP3+ T cells was significantly associated with a higher CR rate (29%vs 82%, P = 0.008) and prolonged PFS (17 vs 79 months, P = 0.003). A high number of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ T cells correlates with a favorable clinical outcome in OAML patients.
    Cancer Science 08/2011; 102(11):1972-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the use of the autogenous dermis-fat graft for the treatment of porous polyethylene implant exposure and volume augmentation in postenucleation retinoblastoma children. Retrospective, interventional case series. Ten children who received a dermis-fat graft at Seoul National University Hospital between July 1, 2005 and January 31, 2010 were included in this study. The patients had undergone unilateral enucleation for retinoblastoma, and received a subconjunctival dermis-fat graft to repair implant exposure and simultaneously correct enophthalmos. The clinical characteristics of the patients, rate of graft survival, and complications were analyzed. The cosmetic outcome was assessed using a grading system. All patients had enucleation using porous polyethylene implant as a primary orbital implant. The average time to exposure was 89.1 ± 22.4 months and the median size of defect was 2 × 3 mm. With a mean follow-up of 28 months, 9 of 10 patients showed well-survived graft without re-exposure. One patient who experienced a graft failure managed with implant rotation and a scleral graft. Seven patients showed significant improvement of enophthalmos. Implantation of an autogenous dermis-fat graft is a procedure that can be effectively used to treat porous polyethylene implant exposure and simultaneously correct enophthalmos. Use of this procedure can be particularly advantageous for pediatric postenucleation patients.
    American journal of ophthalmology 06/2011; 152(2):244-250.e2. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    American journal of ophthalmology 06/2011; 151(6):1104-5. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of autologous serum eye drops (AS) in enhancing conjunctivalization over a scleral patch graft on exposed porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor(®)). Eighteen rabbits were underwent evisceration, implantation of Medpor(®) and homologous scleral patch graft. The conjunctival edge was sutured leaving 5 mm-diameter circular defect. In group A, 20% AS were applied 8 times a day and only balanced salt solution was applied in group B. Digital anterior segment photography was obtained 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after surgery and analyzed with Image Pro Plus(®) software. In the early postoperative period, the average conjunctival growth rate (mm(2)/day) was faster in group A, but failed to show statistical significance (3.79 vs. 3.03, p = 0.26 in 1~3days, 2.39 vs. 1.80, p = 0.59 in 4- days, 0.03 vs. -0.02, p = 0.94 in 7-10 days, Mann-Whitney test). The complete healing rate was higher (67% vs. 56%, p = 0.5, Fisher's exact test) and the mean elapsed time for complete healing (days) was shorter in group A (17.3 vs. 18.2, p  = 0.83, Mann-Whitney test), but did not show a statistically significant difference. In a rabbit model, 20% AS did not appear to facilitate the healing of small conjunctival defects of exposed porous orbital implant.
    Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2011; 30(2):83-7.
  • Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society 01/2011; 52(1):74.

Publication Stats

218 Citations
118.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Soonchunhyang University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 1996–2013
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Hallym University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Dongguk University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Asan Medical Center
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea