Andrew L Smith

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (80)533.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite improved outcomes and lower right ventricular failure (RVF) rates with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), RVF still occurs in 20-40% of LVAD recipients and leads to worse clinical and patient-centred outcomes and higher utilization of healthcare resources. Preoperative quantification of RV function with echocardiography has only recently been considered for RVF prediction, and RV mechanics have not been prospectively evaluated. In this single-centre prospective cohort study, we plan to enroll a total of 120 LVAD candidates to evaluate standard and mechanics-based echocardiographic measures of RV function, obtained within 7 days of planned LVAD surgery, for prediction of (i) RVF within 90 days; (ii) quality of life (QoL) at 90 days; and (iii) RV function recovery at 90 days post-LVAD. Our primary hypothesis is that an RV echocardiographic score will predict RVF with clinically relevant discrimination (C >0.85) and positive and negative predictive values (>80%). Our secondary hypothesis is that the RV score will predict QoL and RV recovery by 90 days. We expect that RV mechanics will provide incremental prognostic information for these outcomes. The preliminary results of an interim analysis are encouraging. The results of this study may help improve LVAD outcomes and reduce resource utilization by facilitating shared decision-making and selection for LVAD implantation, provide insights into RV function recovery, and potentially inform reassessment of LVAD timing in patients at high risk for RVF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev162
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    ABSTRACT: Several clinical prediction schemes for right ventricular failure (RVF) risk after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation have been developed in both the pulsatile- and continuous-flow LVAD eras. The performance of these models has not been evaluated systematically in a continuous-flow LVAD cohort. We evaluated 6 clinical RVF prediction models (Michigan, Penn, Utah, Kormos et al, CRITT, Pittsburgh Decision Tree) in 116 patients (age 51 ± 13 years; 41.4% white and 56.0% black; 66.4% men; 56.0% bridge to transplant, 37.1% destination therapy, 17.4% bridge to decision) who received a continuous-flow LVAD (HeartMate II: 79 patients, HeartWare: 37 patients) between 2008 and 2013. Overall, 37 patients (31.9%) developed RVF, defined: as pulmonary vasodilator use for ≥48 hours or inotrope use for ≥14 days post-operatively; re-institution of inotropes; multi-organ failure due to RVF; or need for mechanical RV support. Median (Quartile 1 to Quartile 3) time to initial discontinuation of inotropes was 6 (range 4 to 8) days. Among scores, the Michigan score reached significance for RVF prediction but discrimination was modest (C = 0.62 [95% CI 0.52 to 0.72], p = 0.021; positive predictive value [PPV] 60.0%; negative predictive value [NPV] 75.8%), followed by CRITT (C = 0.60 [95% CI 0.50 to 0.71], p = 0.059; PPV 40.5%; NPV 72.2%). Other models did not significantly discriminate RVF. The newer, INTERMACS 3.0 definition for RVF, which includes inotropic support beyond 7 days, was reached by 57 patients (49.1%). The Kormos model performed best with this definition (C = 0.62 [95% CI 0.54 to 0.71], p = 0.005; PPV 64.3%; NPV 59.5%), followed by Penn (C = 0.61), Michigan (C = 0.60) and CRITT (C = 0.60), but overall score performance was modest. Current schemes for post-LVAD RVF risk prediction perform only modestly when applied to external populations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2015.05.005 · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2014; 20(8S):S103. DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2014.06.289 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate post-transplant outcomes as a function of race and PRA. Panel reactive antibody (PRA) screening is used to determine the presence of preformed antibodies to population-wide Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) in patients being evaluated for heart transplant (HT). Race/ethnic differences in long-term survival after HT have been described. However, whether there are significant race/ethnic differences in PRA among adults awaiting HT is poorly characterized. We identified patients age ≥18 in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation database with race/ethnicity White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian listed for HT between 2000 and 2012 (N=19,704). A PRA value of ≥10% was used to define clinically meaningful sensitization. Blacks had a higher peak PRA than all other groups, and were more likely to be sensitized. Black HT recipients were more likely to experience graft failure than Hispanic, white, or Asian recipients (31% vs. 27% vs. 26% vs. 21%, p<0.001). The median follow-up was 1207 (IQR 373-2364) days, with a trend towards a shorter median time to graft failure for Asians than for Blacks, Hispanics, or whites (p=0.065). Sensitized blacks had the lowest rate of allograft survival, while non-sensitized Asians had the highest survival. Using Cox proportional regression to adjust for other clinical variables, black race (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.22,1.42), Hispanic ethnicity (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01,1.24), and sensitization (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10,1.25) remained predictors of higher rates of graft failure. Race/ethnicity and level of sensitization are important predictors of graft survival.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2013; 62(24). DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.06.054 · 15.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2013; 19(8):S21. DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.06.075 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2013; 19(8):S71. DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.06.232 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2013; 19(8):S10-S11. DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.06.031 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Simultaneous adherence with multiple self-care instructions among heart failure (HF) patients is not well described. Patient-reported adherence to 8 recommendations related to exercise, alcohol, medications, smoking, diet, weight, and symptoms was assessed among 308 HF patients using the Medical Outcomes Study Specific Adherence Scale questionnaire (0="never" to 5="always," maximum score=40). A baseline cumulative score of ≥32/40 (average ≥80%) defined good adherence. Clinical events (death/transplantation/ventricular assist device), resource utilization, functional capacity (6-minute walk distance), and health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ]) were compared among patients with and without good adherence. The mean follow-up was 2.0±1.0 years, and adherence ranged from 26.3% (exercise) to 89.9% (medications). A cumulative score indicating good adherence was reported by 35.7%, whereas good adherence with every behavior was reported by 9.1% of patients. Good adherence was associated with fewer hospitalizations (all-cause 87.8 vs 107.6; P=.018; HF 29.6 vs 43.8; P=.007) and hospitalized days (all-cause 422 vs 465; P=.015; HF 228 vs 282; P<.001) per 100-person-years and better health status (KCCQ overall score 70.1±24.6 vs 63.8±22.8; P=.011). Adherence was not associated with clinical events or functional capacity. Patient-reported adherence with HF self-care recommendations is alarmingly low and selective. Good adherence was associated with lower resource utilization and better health status.
    Congestive Heart Failure 09/2012; 19(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1751-7133.2012.00308.x
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is evidence linking smoking and heart failure (HF), the association between lifetime smoking exposure and HF in older adults and the strength of this association among current and past smokers is not well known. We examined the association between smoking status, pack-years of exposure, and incident HF risk in 2,125 participants of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (age 73.6 ± 2.9 years, 69.7% women, 54.2% whites) using proportional hazard models. At inception, 54.8% of participants were nonsmokers, 34.8% were past smokers, and 10.4% were current smokers. During follow-up (median 9.4 years), HF incidence was 11.4 per 1,000 person-years in nonsmokers, 15.2 in past smokers (hazard ratio [HR] vs nonsmokers 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.76, P = .045), and 21.9 in current smokers (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.30-2.84, P = .001). After adjusting for HF risk factors, incident coronary events, and competing risk for death, a dose-effect association between pack-years of exposure and HF risk was observed (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.14, P < .001 per 10 pack-years). Heart failure risk was not modulated by pack-years of exposure in current smokers. In past smokers, HR for HF was 1.05 (95% CI 0.64-1.72) for 1 to 11 pack-years, 1.23 (95% CI 0.82-1.83) for 12 to 35 pack-years, and 1.64 (95% CI 1.11-2.42) for >35 pack-years of exposure in fully adjusted models (P < .001 for trend) compared with nonsmokers. In older adults, both current and past cigarette smoking increase HF risk. In current smokers, this risk is high irrespective of pack-years of exposure, whereas in past smokers, there was a dose-effect association.
    American heart journal 08/2012; 164(2):236-42. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2012.05.013 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To explore the need for self-monitoring and self-care education in heart failure patients with diabetes (HF- DM patients) by describing cognitive and affective factors to provide guidance in developing effective self-management education. Methods A cross-sectional correlation design was employed using baseline patient data from a study testing a 12-week patient and family dyad intervention to improve dietary and medication-taking self-management behaviors in HF patients. Data from 116 participants recruited from metropolitan Atlanta area were used. Demographic and comorbidities, physical function, psychological distress, relationship with health care provider, self-efficacy (medication taking and low sodium diet), and behavioral outcomes (medications, dietary habits) were assessed. Descriptive statistics and a series of chi-square tests, t tests, or Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare HF patients with and without DM. Results HF-DM patients were older and heavier, had more comorbidities, and took more daily medications than HF patients. High self-efficacy on medication and low-sodium diet was reported in both groups with no significant difference. Although HF-DM patients took more daily medications than HF, both groups exhibited high HF medication-taking behaviors. The HF-DM patients consumed significantly lower total sugar than HF patients but clinically higher levels of sodium. Conclusions Diabetes educators need to be aware of potential conflicts of treatment regimens to manage 2 chronic diseases. Special and integrated diabetes self-management education programs that incorporate principles of HF self-management should be developed to improve self-management behavior in HF-DM patients.
    The Diabetes Educator 06/2012; 38(5):673-84. DOI:10.1177/0145721712450923 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent guidelines for exercise in patients with heart failure (HF) recommended aerobic and resistance exercise as being safe and effective; however, the clinical and functional significance of these combined training modalities has not been established. In this pilot study, combined aerobic and resistance training was hypothesized to improve physical function, muscle strength, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with an attention control wait list (ACWL). The 10-item Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10), which simulates common household chores; muscle strength (handgrip and knee extension); and HRQOL (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire) were evaluated at baseline (T1) and at 12 weeks (T2). The home-based moderate-intensity walking and resistance training program was performed 5 days a week. Twenty-four New York Heart Association class II to III HF patients (mean [SD] age, 60 [10] years; mean [SD] left ventricular ejection fraction, 25% [9%]) were randomized to a combined aerobic and resistance exercise program or to an ACWL group. Of the total group, 58% were New York Heart Association class III HF patients, 50% were white, and 50% were female. The CS-PFP10 total scores were significantly increased in the exercise group, from 45 (18) to 56 (16). The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score was significantly improved (P < .001) at T2 in the exercise intervention group compared with the ACWL group. Participants provided the home-based, combined aerobic and resistance exercise program had significantly improved physical function, muscle strength, symptom severity, and HRQOL compared with the ACWL group. The findings of this study must be interpreted cautiously owing to the limitations of a small sample, data collection from a single center, and differences between control and interventions groups at baseline. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise approach may improve physical function in stable HF patients, but further study in a larger, more diverse population is recommended. However, in this study, the CS-PFP10 instrument demonstrated its ability to identify functional health status in HF patients and thus warrants further testing in a larger sample for possible use in clinical practice.
    The Journal of cardiovascular nursing 09/2011; 27(5):418-30. DOI:10.1097/JCN.0b013e31822ad3c3 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of a home-based aerobic and resistance training program on the physical function of adults with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II and III patients and systolic heart failure (HF). Randomized controlled trial. Home based. Stable patients (N=24; mean age, 60 ± 10 y; left ventricular ejection fraction, 25% ± 9%; 50% white; 50% women) with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes II and III (NYHA class III, 58%) systolic heart failure (HF). A 12-week progressive home-based program of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise. Attention control wait list participants performed light stretching and flexibility exercises. A 10-item performance-based physical function measure, the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance test (CS-PFP10), was the major outcome variable and included specific physical activities measured in time to complete a task, weight carried during a task, and distance walked. Other measures included muscle strength, HRQOL (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), functional capacity (Duke Activity Status Index), and disease severity (brain natriuretic peptide) levels. After the exercise intervention, 9 of 10 specific task activities were performed more rapidly, with increased weight carried by exercise participants compared with the attention control wait list group. Exercise participants also showed significant improvements in CS-PFP10 total score (P<.025), upper and lower muscle strength, and HRQOL (P<.001) compared with the attention control wait list group. Adherence rates were 83% and 99% for the aerobic and resistance training, respectively. Patients with stable HF who participate in a moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance exercise program may improve performance of routine physical activities of daily living by using a home-based exercise approach. Performance-based measures such as the CS-PFP10 may provide additional insights into physical function in patients with HF that more commonly used exercise tests may not identify. Early detection of subtle changes that may signal declining physical function that are amenable to intervention potentially may slow further loss of function in this patient population.
    Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 09/2011; 92(9):1371-81. DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.02.022 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congest Heart Fail. 2011;17:189–198. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequently encountered in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Both conditions aggravate prognosis and influence clinical decisions. Echocardiography is the screening tool of choice for pulmonary pressures and RV function, although invasive assessment of PH is necessary when advanced therapies are considered. Reversibility of PH in response to short-term pharmacologic treatment or even to long-term unloading after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is a favorable prognostic sign for both medically treated patients and heart transplant candidates. Although patients with severe PH secondary to HF have not derived benefit from pulmonary arterial hypertension therapies thus far, agents that modulate the cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, including phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitors, hold promise and are being actively investigated in advanced HF. Therapies that lead to reduction in left-sided pressures, including cardiac resynchronization and LVAD placement, also have a favorable effect on pulmonary pressures and RV function. However, no specific medical treatment for RV dysfunction exists to date, highlighting an important gap in the management of patients with advanced HF. Congest Heart Fail.
    Congestive Heart Failure 07/2011; 17(4):189-98. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-7133.2011.00234.x
  • International journal of cardiology 06/2011; 151(2):237-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.06.048 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of abnormal spirometric findings on risk for incident heart failure among older adults without clinically apparent lung disease is not well elucidated. We evaluated the association of baseline lung function with incident heart failure, defined as first hospitalization for heart failure, in 2125 participants of the community-based Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (age, 73.6 ± 2.9 years; 50.5% men; 62.3% white; 37.7% black) without prevalent lung disease or heart failure. Abnormal lung function was defined either as forced vital capacity (FVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1(st) second (FEV(1)) to FVC ratio below lower limit of normal. Percent predicted FVC and FEV(1) also were assessed as continuous variables. During follow-up (median, 9.4 years), heart failure developed in 68 of 350 (19.4%) participants with abnormal baseline lung function, as compared with 172 of 1775 (9.7%) participants with normal lung function (hazard ratio [HR] 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-3.07; P <.001). This increased risk persisted after adjusting for previously identified heart failure risk factors in the Health ABC Study, body mass index, incident coronary heart disease, and inflammatory markers (HR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.33-2.50; P <.001). Percent predicted (%) FVC and FEV(1) had a linear association with heart failure risk (HR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.32 and 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26, per 10% lower %FVC and %FEV(1), respectively; both P <.001 in fully adjusted models). Findings were consistent in sex and race subgroups and for heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Abnormal spirometric findings in older adults without clinical lung disease are associated with increased heart failure risk.
    The American journal of medicine 04/2011; 124(4):334-41. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.12.006 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A shared understanding of medical conditions between patients and their health care providers may improve self-care and outcomes. In this study, the concordance between responses to a medical history self-report (MHSR) form and the corresponding provider documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) of 19 select co-morbidities and habits in 230 patients with heart failure were evaluated. Overall concordance was assessed using the κ statistic, and crude, positive, and negative agreement were determined for each condition. Concordance between MHSR and EHR varied widely for cardiovascular conditions (κ = 0.37 to 0.96), noncardiovascular conditions (κ = 0.06 to 1.00), and habits (κ = 0.26 to 0.69). Less than 80% crude agreement was seen for history of arrhythmias (72%), dyslipidemia (74%), and hypertension (79%) among cardiovascular conditions and lung disease (70%) and peripheral arterial disease (78%) for noncardiovascular conditions. Perfect agreement was observed for only 1 of the 19 conditions (human immunodeficiency virus status). Negative agreement >80% was more frequent than >80% positive agreement for a condition (15 of 19 [79%] vs 8 of 19 [42%], respectively, p = 0.02). Only 20% of patients had concordant MSHRs and EHRs for all 7 cardiovascular conditions; in 40% of patients, concordance was observed for ≤5 conditions. For noncardiovascular conditions, only 28% of MSHR-EHR pairs agreed for all 9 conditions; 37% agreed for ≤7 conditions. Cumulatively, 39% of the pairs matched for ≤15 of 19 conditions. In conclusion, there is significant variation in the perceptions of patients with heart failure compared to providers' records of co-morbidities and habits. The root causes of this variation and its impact on outcomes need further study.
    The American journal of cardiology 02/2011; 107(4):569-72. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.10.017 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with heart failure (HF) are hospitalized over a million times annually in the United States. Hospitalization marks a fundamental change in the natural history of HF, leading to frequent subsequent rehospitalizations and a significantly higher mortality compared with nonhospitalized patients. Three-fourths of all HF hospitalizations are due to exacerbation of symptoms in patients with known HF. One-half of hospitalized HF patients experience readmission within 6 months. Preventing HF hospitalization and rehospitalization is important to improve patient outcomes and curb health care costs. To implement cost-effective strategies to contain the HF hospitalization epidemic, optimal schemes to identify high-risk individuals are needed. In this review, we describe the risk factors that have been associated with hospitalization risk in HF and the various multimarker risk prediction schemes developed to predict HF rehospitalization. We comment on areas that represent gaps in our knowledge or difficulties in interpretation of the current literature, representing opportunities for future research. We also discuss issues with using HF readmission rate as a quality indicator.
    Journal of cardiac failure 01/2011; 17(1):54-75. DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.08.010 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a combined 12-week home-based exercise (EX)/cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program (n=18) with CBT alone (n=19), EX alone (n=20), and with usual care (UC, n=17) in stable New York Heart Association Class II to III heart failure (HF) patients diagnosed with depression. Depressive symptom severity [Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D)], physical function [6-min walk test (6MWT)], and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) were evaluated at baseline (T1), after the 12-week intervention/control (T2), and following a 3-month telephone follow-up (T3). A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine group differences. Depression severity was dichotomized as minor (HAM-D, 11-14) and moderate-to-major depression (HAM-D, >/=15), and group intervention and control responses were also evaluated on that basis. The greatest reduction in HAM-D scores over time occurred in the EX/CBT group (-10.4) followed by CBT (-9.6), EX (-7.3), and UC (-6.2), but none were statistically significant. The combined group showed a significant increase in 6-min walk distance at 24 weeks (F=13.5, P<.001). Among all groups with moderate-to-major depression, only those in CBT/EX had sustained lower HAM-D scores at 12 and 24 weeks, 6MWT distances were significantly greater at 12 (P=.018) and 24 (P=.013) weeks, and the greatest improvement in HRQOL also occurred. Interventions designed to improve both physical and psychological symptoms may provide the best method for optimizing functioning and enhancing HRQOL in patients with HF.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 08/2010; 69(2):119-31. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.013 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2010; 16(8). DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.06.378 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2010; 16(8). DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.06.108 · 3.07 Impact Factor