Petr Kanovsky

University Hospital Motol, Praha, Praha, Czech Republic

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Publications (110)317.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Sonothrombolysis is a new treatment method for patients with acute ischemic stroke (IS). Various ultrasound frequencies and intensities are being tested these days. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the safety and efficacy of sonothrombolysis using 2 diagnostic probes and bilateral monitoring in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve consecutive IS patients (7 males; age 47 - 78, average 64.1 ± 9.4 years) with acute MCA occlusion and contraindication of thrombolysis were included in the study. 60-min bilateral 2-MHz pulsed-wave Doppler monitoring of the area of occlusion was performed in all patients (Group 1). The control group consisted of 37 IS patients (20 males; age 32 - 78, average 62.2 ± 12.1 years) treated with standard sonothrombolysis and selected from the Thrombotripsy Study database (Group 2). The differences in number of recanalized arteries after a 1 h treatment, independent patients (modified Rankin scale [mRS] value of 0 - 2) after 90 days and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages (SICH) were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: Complete recanalization was found in 4 (30.0%) Group 1 and in 12 (32.4%) Group 2 patients. Seven (58.3%) Group 1 and 22 (59.5%) Group 2 patients were independent after 90 days. SICH was found in none of Group 1 patients and in 1 (2.7%) of the Group 2 patients (P>0.05 in all cases). CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, sonothrombolysis using 2 probes and bilateral monitoring is safe but not more effective than standard sonothrombolysis in acute IS patients with MCA occlusion.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 06/2014; 158(2):233-237. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (peginterferon) beta-1a is being developed for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, with less frequent dosing than currently available first-line injectable treatments. We assessed the safety and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a after 48 weeks of treatment in the placebo-controlled phase of the ADVANCE trial, a study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We did this 2-year, double-blind, parallel group, phase 3 study, with a placebo-controlled design for the first 48 weeks, at 183 sites in 26 countries. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age 18-65 years, with Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤5) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive voice response or web system, and stratified by site, to placebo or subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 μg once every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate at 48 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00906399. FINDINGS: We screened 1936 patients and enrolled 1516, of whom 1512 were randomly assigned (500 to placebo, 512 to peginterferon every 2 weeks, 500 to peginterferon every 4 weeks); 1332 (88%) patients completed 48 weeks of treatment. Adjusted annualised relapse rates were 0·397 (95% CI 0·328-0·481) in the placebo group versus 0·256 (0·206-0·318) in the every 2 weeks group and 0·288 (0·234-0·355) in the every 4 weeks group (rate ratio for every 2 weeks group 0·644, 95% CI 0·500-0·831, p=0·0007; rate ratio for the every 4 weeks group 0·725, 95% CI 0·565-0·930, p=0·0114). 417 (83%) patients taking placebo, 481 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 2 weeks, and 472 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 4 weeks reported adverse events including relapses. The most common adverse events associated with peginterferon beta-1a were injection site reactions, influenza-like symptoms, pyrexia, and headache. 76 (15%) patients taking placebo, 55 (11%) patients taking study drug every 2 weeks, and 71 (14%) patients taking study drug every 4 weeks reported serious adverse events; relapse, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection were the most common. INTERPRETATION: After 48 weeks, peginterferon beta-1a significantly reduced relapse rate compared with placebo. The drug might be an effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with less frequent administration than available treatments.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (peginterferon) beta-1a is being developed for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, with less frequent dosing than currently available first-line injectable treatments. We assessed the safety and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a after 48 weeks of treatment in the placebo-controlled phase of the ADVANCE trial, a study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We did this 2-year, double-blind, parallel group, phase 3 study, with a placebo-controlled design for the first 48 weeks, at 183 sites in 26 countries. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age 18-65 years, with Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤5) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive voice response or web system, and stratified by site, to placebo or subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 μg once every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate at 48 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00906399. FINDINGS: We screened 1936 patients and enrolled 1516, of whom 1512 were randomly assigned (500 to placebo, 512 to peginterferon every 2 weeks, 500 to peginterferon every 4 weeks); 1332 (88%) patients completed 48 weeks of treatment. Adjusted annualised relapse rates were 0·397 (95% CI 0·328-0·481) in the placebo group versus 0·256 (0·206-0·318) in the every 2 weeks group and 0·288 (0·234-0·355) in the every 4 weeks group (rate ratio for every 2 weeks group 0·644, 95% CI 0·500-0·831, p=0·0007; rate ratio for the every 4 weeks group 0·725, 95% CI 0·565-0·930, p=0·0114). 417 (83%) patients taking placebo, 481 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 2 weeks, and 472 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 4 weeks reported adverse events including relapses. The most common adverse events associated with peginterferon beta-1a were injection site reactions, influenza-like symptoms, pyrexia, and headache. 76 (15%) patients taking placebo, 55 (11%) patients taking study drug every 2 weeks, and 71 (14%) patients taking study drug every 4 weeks reported serious adverse events; relapse, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection were the most common. INTERPRETATION: After 48 weeks, peginterferon beta-1a significantly reduced relapse rate compared with placebo. The drug might be an effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with less frequent administration than available treatments.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by missense AFG3L2 mutations. To examine the occurrence of SCA28 in the Czech Republic, we screened 288 unrelated ataxic patients with hereditary (N = 49) and sporadic or unknown (N = 239) form of ataxia for mutations in exons 15 and 16, the AFG3L2 mutation hotspots. A single significant variant, frameshift mutation c.1958dupT leading to a premature termination codon, was identified in a patient with slowly progressive speech and gait problems starting at the age of 68 years. Neurological examination showed cerebellar ataxia, mild Parkinsonian features with predominant bradykinesia, polyneuropathy of the lower limbs, and cognitive decline. However, other common SCA28 features like pyramidal tract signs (lower limb hyperreflexia, positive Babinski sign), ophthalmoparesis or ptosis were absent. The mutation was also found in a patient's unaffected daughter in whom a targeted examination at 53 years of age revealed mild imbalance signs. RNA analysis showed a decreased ratio of the transcript from the mutated AFG3L2 allele relative to the normal transcript in the peripheral lymphocytes of both patients. The ratio was increased by puromycin treatment, indicating that the mutated transcript can be degraded via nonsense-mediated RNA decay. The causal link between the mutation and the phenotype of the patient is currently unclear but a pathogenic mechanism based on AFG3L2 haploinsufficiency rather than the usual dominant-negative effect of missense AFG3L2 mutations reported in SCA28, cannot be excluded.
    The Cerebellum 11/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Epidemiology 07/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) presents with fairly symmetrical, levodopa unresponsive parkinsonism and additional features like autonomic dysfunction, cerebellar and corticospinal tract involvement. Marked asymmetry in atypical parkinsonism suggests alternative diagnosis like Corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: We describe five unusual cases, who presented initially with markedly asymmetric parkinsonism, rigid dystonic abnormal limb posturing and subsequently developed clinical and/or radiological features consistent with probable MSA-P. RESULTS: Using the internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for probable MSA-P after 5 years from disease onset. Case 4 and 5 had characteristic MRI features and Case 2 was pathologically confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: We use these cases to highlight that MSA-P MSA-P can present rarely with very marked asymmetry, dystonic limb and myoclonic jerks leading to a diagnosis of CBS at onset.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 06/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Using functional scales and face video analysis, changes in central facial paresis are monitored in patients with stroke after orofacial therapy and correlations between changes in mimicry, mental function and overall quality of life of patients after stroke are made. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized study of patients after stroke with facial paresis. The functional status of the experimental group of 50 cases with orofacial regulation therapy and 49 control cases without mimicry therapy is observed after four weeks of rehabilitation. RESULTS: Changes in mimicry functions evaluated by the House-Brackmann Grading System (HBGS) clinical range and using 2D video analysis of the distance between the paretic corner of the mouth and earlobe at rest and during smiling were statistically better in the experimental group than in controls. Changes in mental function - depression using Beck Depression Inventory and changes in the quality of life using Bartle index and modified Rankin score (scale) were significantly greater in the experimental group. There was a very close relationship between the changes in mimicry, mental state and overall quality of life according to the Spearman correlative coefficient. CONCLUSION: Orofacial rehabilitation therapy for patients with paresis after stroke has a significant influence on the adjustment of mimicry, mental functions and overall quality of life after 4 weeks of treatment.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 03/2013; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Early recanalization of the occluded cerebral artery is substantial for clinical improvement in acute ischemic stroke (IS) patients. The rate of achieved recanalizations using IVT is low. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of bridging full-dose intravenous-intraarterial (IV-IA) thrombolysis to IVT alone in acute IS patients with occluded MCA. METHODS: Seventy-nine consecutive IS patients with MCA occlusion were treated either with IVT alone (historic controls, Group 1) or with full-dose IV-IA thrombolysis (Group 2). Stroke severity was evaluated using NIHSS, achieved recanalizations using transcranial Doppler (Group 1) or angiography (Group 2). Occurrence of ICH including SICH was evaluated after 24 hours. 90-day clinical outcome was evaluated using modified Rankin Scale (mRS). RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 50 patients (24 males, mean age 70.8 ± 10.2 years) and Group 2 of 29 patients (14 males, mean age 67.8 ± 10.0 years). No difference was found in the initial NIHSS (median 16 vs. 17) and other baseline parameters including time from stroke onset to IVT. Patients treated with bridging therapy had a higher number of achieved MCA recanalization (75.9 vs. 32.0%, P=0.0002), similar number of SICH (6.0 vs. 6.9%, P=1.000) and 34.5% of them achieved mRS 0-2 versus 28.0% of patients treated with IVT (P=0.546). Patients with shorter TR had significantly better clinical outcome (P=0.019). CONCLUSION: Bridging IV-IA thrombolysis seems to be safe and more effective than IVT alone in acute stroke patients with MCA occlusion.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 02/2013; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To summarize the 2010 EFNS/MDS-ES evidence-based treatment recommendations for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD). This summary includes the treatment recommendations for early and late PD. For the 2010 publication, a literature search was undertaken for articles published up to September 2009. For this summary, an additional literature search was undertaken up to December 2010. Classification of scientific evidence and the rating of recommendations were made according to the EFNS guidance. In cases where there was insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement ('good practice point') is made. For each clinical indication, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2013; 20(1):5-15. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Task Force was convened by the EFNS/MDS-ES Scientist Panel on Parkinson's disease (PD) and other movement disorders to systemically review relevant publications on the diagnosis of PD. Following the EFNS instruction for the preparation of neurological diagnostic guidelines, recommendation levels have been generated for diagnostic criteria and investigations. For the clinical diagnosis, we recommend the use of the Queen Square Brain Bank criteria (Level B). Genetic testing for specific mutations is recommended on an individual basis (Level B), taking into account specific features (i.e. family history and age of onset). We recommend olfactory testing to differentiate PD from other parkinsonian disorders including recessive forms (Level A). Screening for pre-motor PD with olfactory testing requires additional tests due to limited specificity. Drug challenge tests are not recommended for the diagnosis in de novo parkinsonian patients. There is an insufficient evidence to support their role in the differential diagnosis between PD and other parkinsonian syndromes. We recommend an assessment of cognition and a screening for REM sleep behaviour disorder, psychotic manifestations and severe depression in the initial evaluation of suspected PD cases (Level A). Transcranial sonography is recommended for the differentiation of PD from atypical and secondary parkinsonian disorders (Level A), for the early diagnosis of PD and in the detection of subjects at risk for PD (Level A), although the technique is so far not universally used and requires some expertise. Because specificity of TCS for the development of PD is limited, TCS should be used in conjunction with other screening tests. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging at 1.5 T are recommended as neuroimaging tools that can support a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA) or progressive supranuclear palsy versus PD on the basis of regional atrophy and signal change as well as diffusivity patterns (Level A). DaTscan SPECT is registered in Europe and the United States for the differential diagnosis between degenerative parkinsonisms and essential tremor (Level A). More specifically, DaTscan is indicated in the presence of significant diagnostic uncertainty such as parkinsonism associated with neuroleptic exposure and atypical tremor manifestations such as isolated unilateral postural tremor. Studies of [(123) I]MIBG/SPECT cardiac uptake may be used to identify patients with PD versus controls and MSA patients (Level A). All other SPECT imaging studies do not fulfil registration standards and cannot be recommended for routine clinical use. At the moment, no conclusion can be drawn as to diagnostic efficacy of autonomic function tests, neurophysiological tests and positron emission tomography imaging in PD. The diagnosis of PD is still largely based on the correct identification of its clinical features. Selected investigations (genetic, olfactory, and neuroimaging studies) have an ancillary role in confirming the diagnosis, and some of them could be possibly used in the near future to identify subjects in a pre-symptomatic phase of the disease.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2013; 20(1):16-34. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: In Assessment of OraL Laquinimod in PrEventing ProGRession in Multiple SclerOsis (ALLEGRO), a phase III study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), oral laquinimod slowed disability and brain atrophy progression, suggesting laquinimod may reduce tissue damage in MS. MRI techniques sensitive to the most destructive aspects of the disease were used to further investigate laquinimod's potential effects on inflammation and neurodegeneration. METHODS: 1106 RRMS patients were randomised 1:1 to receive once-daily oral laquinimod (0.6 mg) or placebo for 24 months. White matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and thalamic fractions were derived at months 0, 12 and 24. Also assessed were evolution of gadolinium-enhancing and/or new T2 lesions into permanent black holes (PBH); magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), WM, GM and T2 lesions; and N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) levels in WM. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, laquinimod-treated patients showed lower rates of WM at months 12 and 24 (p=0.004 and p=0.035) and GM (p=0.004) atrophy at month 12 and a trend for less GM atrophy at month 24 (p=0.078). Laquinimod also slowed thalamic atrophy at month 12 (p=0.005) and month 24 (p=0.003) and reduced the number of PBH at 12 and 24 months evolving from active lesions (all p<0.05). By month 24, MTR decreased significantly in NABT (p=0.015), WM (p=0.011) and GM (p=0.034) in placebo-treated patients, but not in laquinimod-treated patients. WM NAA/Cr tended to increase with laquinimod and decrease with placebo at 24 months (p=0.179). CONCLUSIONS: Oral laquinimod may reduce (at least in the initial phase of treatment) some of the more destructive pathological processes in RRMS patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ALLEGRO trial identifier number with clinicaltrials.gov is NCT00509145. KEYWORDS: MRI, Multiple Sclerosis
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 01/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives- Ultrasound has various biological effects in the human body. The effects of continuous monitoring with ultrasound (sonolysis) on vasodilatation of the radial artery were described recently. We wanted to ascertain whether similar changes in the blood flow velocity during sonolysis could also be detected in the middle cerebral artery. Methods- Fifteen healthy volunteers (6 male and 9 female; age range, 23-68 years; mean ± SD, 47.1 ± 15.1 years) were subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery sonolysis using a diagnostic transcranial probe with a 2-MHz Doppler frequency and measurement of the blood flow velocity at 2-minute intervals. During a second session, a flow curve was recorded for 10 seconds at 2-minute intervals. The peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, and resistive index were recorded during both measurements. Results- Irregular changes in the measured blood flow parameters were recorded during both sessions. Changes in particular hemodynamic parameters during both measurements were similar. The changes in the peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, and resistive index were not significantly different between the two measurements (P < .05 in all cases). Conclusions- As opposed to sonolysis of the radial artery, sonolysis of the middle cerebral artery using a diagnostic 2-MHz frequency in healthy volunteers did not lead to changes in the flow curve or peripheral vasodilatation.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 11/2012; 31(11):1789-94. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stroke and acute myocardial infarction are the leading causes of death and disability in industrialized countries. Multiple interactions exist between the various forms of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and risk factors for development of stroke and major cardiovascular events are similar. There is currently no clear link between acute coronary syndrome and stroke, although it has been repeatedly described. In addition, there are currently no clear recommendations for how to proceed in the case of signs of myocardial damage in patients with acute stroke and how to manage the next follow-up. Methods-Design. In this prospective observational trial, 500 consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted at the Comprehensive Stroke Center will be enrolled within 12 h from stroke onset. The set of examinations will consist of: 1) Acute brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging 2) Laboratory tests: A) within 12 h from stroke onset: NT pro B-type of natriuretic peptide, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, creatinekinase MB, troponin T (cTnT), interleukin 6, procalcitonin, high sensitive C-reactive protein and D-dimers. B) control level of cTnT after 4 h from admission C) non-acute laboratory samples within 60 h from stroke onset: glycated haemoglobine, serum lipids; 3) Electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission and 4 h from stroke onset; 4) Transesophageal or transthoracal echocardiography and 24-h ECG-Holter within 15 days from stroke onset; 5) Neurosonological examination within 60 h from stroke onset; 6) Thirty patients with a positive finding of acute myocardial ischemia (ECG, cTnT) will be examined by coronary angiography (CAG); 7) Epidemiological data will be acquired. Statistics. The epidemiological characteristics of the whole sample of patients; correlation between differences between group of cardioembolic ischemic stroke patients and group of patients with ischemic stroke of another etiology; correlation of infarction volume on DWI-MRI with the level of cTnT; correlation of the ECG findings with the level of cTnT and clinical signs; correlation of the CAG findings with level of cTnT and ECG findings will be statistically evaluated at the 5% level of statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The main goal of the project is to improve identification of patients with acute coronary syndrome and with concurrent acute ischemic stroke as these patients require specific treatment and secondary prevention of ischemic events. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01541163.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 09/2012; 156(3):284-9. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (IgG index) and number of oligoclonal bands (OCB) among particular types of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: 120 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were examined from 29 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients and 91 MS patients (77 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR), 6 patients with primary progressive course of the disease (PP) and 8 patients in secondary progression (SP); mean age = 42 years (range = 18 to 70 years). Albumin and IgG in serum and CSF was evaluated using nephelometry; an albumin quotient (CSF albumin / serum albumin), an IgG quotient (CSF IgG / serum IgG) and an IgG index (IgG quotient / albumin quotient) were then calculated. OCB were assessed using isoelectric focusing (IEF) on agarose gel, followed by immunoblotting. All patients were evaluated using the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between the IgG index and OC bands relative to particular types of MS were found. Further, there were no significant correlations between EDSS values and intrathecal synthesis (IgG index: QIgG / Qalbumin) and OC bands. CONCLUSION: No difference in intrathecal synthesis (IgG index) and the number of OCB between different types of MS was confirmed.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 06/2012; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to review the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the prodromal phase of PD, before the PD diagnosis is made. A retrospective review of 82 PD patients was performed. Hospital inpatient notes and outpatient clinic admission notes were reviewed. The initial complaints prompting patients to seek medical attention were noted, as were the initial diagnoses. The symptoms were considered retrospectively to be associated with PD. Musculoskeletal pain was present as a prodromal PD symptom in 27 (33%) cases initially diagnosed with osteoarthritis, degenerative spinal disease, and frozen shoulder. The mean time from the initial symptom appearance to dopaminergic treatment was 6.6 years in the musculoskeletal pain group and 2.3 years in the group with typical PD signs. Significant improvement of musculoskeletal pain after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment was present in 23 (85%) cases. Of the PD patients who went on to develop motor features of PD, one third manifested musculoskeletal pain as the initial symptom. A good response to L-DOPA therapy was seen in 85% of cases presenting with musculoskeletal pain. Our findings suggest that musculoskeletal pain may be a significant feature in earlier PD stages.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 05/2012; 319(1-2):102-4. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to assess personality characteristics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). Methods: We tested patients and controls with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales that have expected high sensitivity to apparent addictive behavior. We recorded mean disease duration and mean levodopa dose in the PD groups. Results: Of the 46 PD patients, 13 had ICD: hypersexuality, binge eating, or dopamine dysregulation. The PD patients with ICD had a longer duration of disease (11 vs. 5 y) and were taking higher doses of levodopa (900 vs. 500 mg/d). They scored above the pathologic threshold in 4 domains of the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and in 8 Clinical Subscales and Content Scales. The most significant abnormality was Alienation—Self and Others. Conclusions: ICDs in the general population have similarities to disorders of substance addiction. In PD patients, some person-ality profiles could play a role in development of ICDs or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The MMPI-2 may be a useful test for PD patients in general, and for detecting ICD in particular. F or patients at different stages of Parkinson disease (PD), the prevalence of psychiatric disorders ranges from 12% to 90%. The most common disorder in the natural evolution of PD is depression. Treatment with levodopa and dopamine agonists can cause psychosis and hypomania. Overdosing on antiparkinsonian agents can cause other recognized, although less frequent, psychi-atric disorders: hypersexuality and certain addictive behaviors. 1 There is increasing evidence for disorders on the impulsive-compulsive spectrum, related to the disease itself, its pharmacologic management, or both. In some PD patients, impulsive-compulsive behav-iors could result from compulsive consumption of do-paminergic medication, 2,3 which could be explained by an insufficiency of the dopaminergic reward system. 4 Impulsive-compulsive problems are linked by their incentive-based or reward-based and repetitive natures and their overlap with addictions. 5 Patients cannot adequately anticipate the negative consequences of their actions and tend to pursue compulsive reward-seeking activities. 6 These complications of PD are seen most often in patients who are taking higher doses of anti-parkinsonian drugs and in patients with a younger age at disease onset, preexisting or current depression, pre-existing recreational drug or alcohol use, and high novelty-seeking personality traits. 7 The behavioral, personality, and clinical correlates and other risk factors for these syndromes are not well understood. It is unknown whether behavior disorders such as impulse control disorders (ICD) and dopamine dysregulation syndrome arise simply from the use of dopaminergic medication or whether the primary patho-logic features of PD play a role. The relationships among dopamine replacement therapy, underlying individual predisposing factors, and behavioral disturbances are still being debated. 8 Repetitive and reward-seeking behaviors are prob-ably related to aberrant dopaminergic stimulation. 9 The same pathophysiological mechanism may be at work in persons with substance addiction, dependence on drugs or alcohol, and impulse control disturbances. 10 Psychiatric patients with substance addiction or impulse control disturbances manifest specific personality traits that differ from those of healthy controls. 11–13 This difference raises the question of whether PD patients who develop ICD also differ in their personality characteristics from PD patients who do not develop ICD, and from healthy controls. The aim of our study was to evaluate the personality features measured by the clinical scales and subscales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
    Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology 03/2012; 25(1):25-33. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess personality characteristics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). We tested patients and controls with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales that have expected high sensitivity to apparent addictive behavior. We recorded mean disease duration and mean levodopa dose in the PD groups. Of the 46 PD patients, 13 had ICD: hypersexuality, binge eating, or dopamine dysregulation. The PD patients with ICD had a longer duration of disease (11 vs. 5 y) and were taking higher doses of levodopa (900 vs. 500 mg/d). They scored above the pathologic threshold in 4 domains of the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and in 8 Clinical Subscales and Content Scales. The most significant abnormality was Alienation-Self and Others. ICDs in the general population have similarities to disorders of substance addiction. In PD patients, some personality profiles could play a role in development of ICDs or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The MMPI-2 may be a useful test for PD patients in general, and for detecting ICD in particular.
    Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology 02/2012; 25(1):25-33. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. At specific time periods following ischemic stroke (IS), acute coronary syndrome as ischemic heart disease (IHD) represents a higher risk of death than IS. Not all IS patients can undergo specific examination for IHD detection. The aim of this study was to assess exclusive risk factors (RFs) associated with IHD occurrence in IS patients. Knowledge of these RFs should help in stratifying IS patients for IHD detection. Materials and methods. This was a hospital-based, retrospective, single centre study. The sample consisted of 192 consecutive IS patients, divided into two subgroups - Subgroup 1 (54 patients without IHD; 55.6% males; 63.1 ± 11.8 years) and Subgroup 2 (138 patients with IHD; 39.1% males; 76.3 ± 9.6 years). The following factors were identified: age; sex; presence of arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus; plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density cholesterol, high-density cholesterol; body mass index; presence of carotid plaques. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical evaluation. Results. Of all identified risk factors only age (OR=1.109; 95% CI: 1.069 - 1.150, P=0.001) and the presence of arterial hypertension (OR=6.298; 95% CI: 2.215 - 17.905, P=0.003) were exclusively and significantly associated with the presence of IHD in IS patients. Conclusions. Age and arterial hypertension may be exclusive risk factors associated with IHD in IS patients.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 01/2012; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two proof-of-concept clinical trials have provided evidence that laquinimod reduces disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study at 139 sites in 24 countries. A total of 1106 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral laquinimod at a dose of 0.6 mg once daily or placebo for 24 months. The primary end point was the annualized relapse rate during the 24-month period. Secondary end points included confirmed disability progression (defined as an increase in the score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale that was sustained for at least 3 months) and the cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions and new or enlarging lesions on T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Treatment with laquinimod as compared with placebo was associated with a modest reduction in the mean (±SE) annualized relapse rate (0.30±0.02 vs. 0.39±0.03, P=0.002) and with a reduction in the risk of confirmed disability progression (11.1% vs. 15.7%; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.91; P=0.01). The mean cumulative numbers of gadolinium-enhancing lesions and new or enlarging lesions on T(2)-weighted images were lower for patients receiving laquinimod than for those receiving placebo (1.33±0.14 vs. 2.12±0.22 and 5.03±0.08 vs. 7.14±0.07, respectively; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Transient elevations in alanine aminotransferase levels to greater than three times the upper limit of the normal range were observed in 24 patients receiving laquinimod (5%) and 8 receiving placebo (2%). CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 3 study, oral laquinimod administered once daily slowed the progression of disability and reduced the rate of relapse in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. (Funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00509145.). Comment in Oral laquinimod for multiple sclerosis. [N Engl J Med. 2012] New and old: notable drug developments for clinical practice. [J Neurol. 2012]
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2012; 366(11):1000-1009. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • Pavel Otruba, Petr Kanovsky, Petr Hlustik
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    ABSTRACT: To confirm the changes in the results of EMG assessment of lower-limb peripheral nerves in patients treated with statins in the longer follow-up period of 3 years. Long-term treatment with statins may have adverse effects: affection of muscles or peripheral nervous system. The frequency of affection of the peripheral nervous system has not been thoroughly investigated; our previous study showed the signs of peripheral nerve damage in the results of EMG assessment. Forty-two patients (23 males, 19 females, mean age 51.9 and 52.3 years) with a definitive diagnosis of combined hyperlipidemia were studied. Other metabolic disorders or chronic ethanol abuse were excluded. Initial examinations included laboratory and neurophysiological measures (peroneal and tibial nerves: MNCV, CMAP, F-wave mean latency; superficial peroneal and sural nerve: SNCV, SNAP). Subsequently, treatment with simvastatin 20 mg daily was initiated. Patients were followed for 36 months with repeated neurophysiological examinations on 24 and 36 months after statin treatment initiation. None of the patients reported subjective symptoms typical for peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiological examination of lower-limb peripheral nerves demonstrated statistically significant prolongation of F-wave mean latency on peroneal and tibial nerves (p<0.0001, paired t-test). The study confirmed that long-term treatment with statins caused a clinically silent but still definite damage to peripheral nerves when the treatment lasts longer than 2 years.
    Neuro endocrinology letters 09/2011; 32(5):688-90. · 0.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

955 Citations
317.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University Hospital Motol
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2006–2013
    • Palacký University of Olomouc
      • Department of Neurology
      Olomouc, Olomoucky kraj, Czech Republic
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Neurology
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
    • St. Anne´s University Hospital
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2006–2012
    • University Hospital Olomouc
      • Department of Neurology
      Olomouc, Olomoucky kraj, Czech Republic
  • 2007–2011
    • University Hospital Ostrava
      • Department of Neurology
      Ostrava, Moravskoslezsky kraj, Czech Republic
  • 1997–2009
    • Masaryk University
      • I. neurologická klinika
      Brno, South Moravian Region, Czech Republic
  • 2008
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
    • St. Ann's University Hospital Brno
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2004–2005
    • Fakultní nemocnice Královské Vinohrady
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2000
    • Charles University in Prague
      • 1. lékařská fakulta
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic