Claes H Dohlman

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (104)216.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate associations between preoperative diagnosis, soft contact lens (SCL) retention and complications. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 92 adult patients (103 eyes) who received a Boston keratoprosthesis type I at the Massachusetts's Eye and Ear Infirmary or the Flaum Eye Institute. Records were reviewed for preoperative diagnosis, SCL retention and subsequent complications. Preoperative categories included 16 autoimmune (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis), 9 chemical injury and 67 'other' (aniridia, postoperative infection, dystrophies, keratopathies) patients. 50% of the lenses had been lost the first time after about a year. A subset (n=17) experienced more than 2 SCL losses per year; this group is comprised of 1 patient with autoimmune diseases, 2 patients with chemical injuries and 14 patients with 'other' diseases. The preoperative diagnosis was not predictive of contact lens retention. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the absence of a contact lens was an independent risk factor for postoperative complications, such as corneal melts with or without aqueous humour leak/extrusion and infections. Presence of a contact lens after Boston keratoprosthesis implantation decreases the risk of postoperative complications; this has been clinically experienced by ophthalmologists, but never before has the benefit of contact lens use in this patient population been statistically documented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    The British journal of ophthalmology 08/2015; DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-306396 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic vitritis is a poorly understood complication after Boston keratoprosthesis surgery with unclear etiology. We sought to determine whether an association exists between periprosthetic corneal tissue loss and the development of idiopathic vitritis in keratoprosthesis recipients. Thirteen Boston type I keratoprosthesis recipient eyes with a history of idiopathic vitritis and 34 type I keratoprosthesis recipient eyes with no history of idiopathic vitritis underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) at a median time postoperatively of 2.4 years versus 1.9 years (range, 0.5-14.2 vs. 0.1-13.6 years), respectively. Areas of corneal graft tissue loss ("gaps") around the keratoprosthesis stem were identified and analyzed by 2 masked observers. The difference in the presence, number, and size of gaps was compared between cases and controls. A periprosthetic gap was identified more commonly in idiopathic vitritis cases than in controls on AS-OCT (11/13, 86% vs. 11/34, 33.3%, P < 0.001). The number of gaps between cases and controls was also significantly different (2.6 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.8, P < 0.001), but not the estimated gap area (0.056 ± 0.049 mm vs. 0.039 ± 0.025 mm, P = 0.22). A significantly higher proportion of keratoprosthesis recipient eyes with idiopathic vitritis had corneal tissue loss around the keratoprosthesis stem than did controls. Tissue loss could serve as an entry point for debris or bacterial components, triggering idiopathic vitritis. Our study underscores the utility of AS-OCT imaging in the postoperative management of keratoprosthesis patients.
    Cornea 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000557 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to report outcomes of type I Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) as primary corneal surgery in nonautoimmune corneal disorders. In this retrospective, observational, large single-center case series of 43 eyes (37 patients) that were followed for an average of 39 months (1-6 years), primary implantation of the type I Boston KPro was performed in all patients. Visual acuity at year 1, visual acuity at last follow-up, and postoperative complication rates were examined for all eyes. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/60 to light perception, with vision of 20/200 or worse in 88%. Vision was ≥20/200 at 1 year in 77% of eyes (P < 0.0001). Complications included retroprosthetic membrane formation (51%), glaucoma progression (47%), corneal melt (19%), and sterile vitritis (14%). In a large series with long follow-up, primary Boston KPro effectively restored vision. Close follow-up is needed to manage the known complications after Boston KPro.
    Cornea 01/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000357 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    Claes H. Dohlman · Andrea Cruzat · Michelle White
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    ABSTRACT: “Artificial corneas” have been attempted in severe corneal disease for at least 230 years, with largely disappointing results until recently. ‘The Boston Keratoprosthesis’ (B-Kpro) has been part of this history on and off for a half century. Developed from several previously known concepts, it was originally made of PMMA plastics in a collar button design (Type I), to be implanted into a corneal graft carrier and then transplanted to the patients’ cornea. (A Type II with an additional stem for lid penetration is occasionally used in end-stage dry eyes.)Management and device changes have over the years led to marked clinical improvements. Thus, postoperative infections have been drastically reduced by using low-dose prophylactic antibiotics. The corneal surface has been found to be well protected from evaporative damage by a soft contact lens or a conjunctional flap. Postoperative tissue melt around the device has been markedly reduced by improvement of nutrition from the aqueous (perforated back plates) and better anti-inflammatory strategies. Titanium alloys can be used for non-transparent parts to reduce inflammation and increase biointegration. Retroprosthesis membranes and retina complications have similarly been markedly reduced. However, post-operative glaucoma is still a stubborn problem that can cause long-term attrition of vision. Autoimmune diseases are particularly treacherous and B-KPros should not at present be used routinely. About 12,000 Boston Keratoprostheses have so far been distributed world-wide. Robust research is presently on-going to improve long-term safety, especially for the developing world.
    Spektrum der Augenheilkunde 01/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1007/s00717-014-0240-7 · 0.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to revisit the clinical paradigm attributed to Boston keratoprosthesis recipients presenting with idiopathic vitreous inflammation. A retrospective chart review was performed of keratoprosthesis recipients at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, from January 2000 to August 2013, for demographic data, indication(s) for surgery, timing and presentation of vitreous inflammation, and best-corrected visual acuity at baseline, on presentation, and after resolution of vitritis. Twenty-three (23 eyes) of 346 patients developed idiopathic vitreous inflammation after keratoprosthesis implantation. Six of 23 patients presented with signs and symptoms similar to infectious endophthalmitis but were culture negative. The proportion of patients who fit the previous paradigm of sudden painless loss of vision without external signs of infection ("sterile vitritis") at their first presentation with vitritis was only 4 of 23. Vision decline was variable (median, 9 lines on Snellen chart; range, 0-24), as was time to recovery of best vision (median, 8.9 weeks; range, 0.9-36.7). Nine eyes had repeat bouts (43 episodes in 23 patients). Ten of 43 episodes did not recover to baseline vision. Seventeen of 23 eyes with idiopathic vitritis after keratoprosthesis later developed other complications. The current paradigm for idiopathic vitritis after keratoprosthesis implantation includes sudden painless loss of vision with full recovery of vision on treatment with periocular corticosteroids. However, idiopathic vitritis after keratoprosthesis can also mimic infectious endophthalmitis with pain and external signs of inflammation. Visual loss can be gradual. Vision may not recover to baseline despite treatment. Vitritis may be a part of a common pathway of chronic inflammation after keratoprosthesis.
    Cornea 12/2014; 34(2). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000328 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Alja Crnej · Masahiro Omoto · Thomas H Dohlman · Claes H Dohlman · Reza Dana
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Purpose To compare corneal inflammation after syngeneic and allogeneic penetrating keratoplasty (PK) with miniature Keratoprosthesis (m-KPro) implantation in mice. Methods BALB/C (syngeneic) or C57BL/6 (allogeneic) corneas were transplanted onto BALB/C host beds as part of PK or m-KPro implantation. Corneal inflammation was assessed by determining the frequencies of CD45+ leukocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD11b+ cells, and Gr-1+ granulocytes/monocytes by flow cytometry at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-transplantation. In addition, expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were analyzed using Real-Time qPCR at 8 weeks post-transplantation. Results Cell frequencies in the syngeneic (syn) and allogeneic (allo) m-KPro groups were higher compared with the syngeneic and allogeneic PK groups, respectively, at all time points. However, after week four, frequencies of all analyzed immune cells were higher in the alloPK group as compared with synKPro group. At eight weeks, the expression of TNFα was higher in synKPro, alloPK, and alloKPro groups compared to the naïve and synPK groups. The expression of IL-1β was significantly higher in both KPro groups as compared to PK groups. Conclusion Although the m-KPro device augments the inflammatory response in the cornea after its implantation, allogenicity (of the carrier tissue) is also a significant contributor to corneal inflammation. These data suggest that using syngeneic or decellularized corneal tissue as a Boston-KPro carrier could reduce the post-operative inflammation response. Copyright © 2014 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 12/2014; 56(1). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-15884 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    Rony R Sayegh · Claes H Dohlman · Scott H Greenstein · Eli Peli
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the through-focus curve for eyes implanted with a type 1 Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) and compare it to that of pseudophakic controls with fixed pupil sizes. The results should assist in evaluating postoperative visual quality after surgery. They should also help to determine the necessary KPro inventories in terms of refractive power steps. Autorefraction and manifest refraction were performed on all eyes. The monocular through-focus acuity curve was plotted in reference to the best-corrected visual acuity by spectacle plane defocus ranging from +5.00 to -5.00 dioptres in 0.50 dioptre increments. These measurements were obtained on KPro-implanted eyes, pseudophakic eyes as controls, and on the same control eyes after fixing the pupil diameter to 3 and 2 mm using black painted iris contact lenses. Ten KPro eyes and five control eyes were included. Good agreement was noted between the subjective refractions and autorefraction in KPro eyes. The average through-focus curve for the control eyes was significantly steeper than that of the KPro curve, but became comparable after fixing the control pupil to 2 and 3 mm. The KPro's wide depth-of-focus makes the visual acuity less dependent on an exact refractive correction at distance and explains the 'pseudoaccomodation' experienced by these patients. This is primarily due to the small pupil diameter of the KPro. The current manufacturing steps in 0.50 dioptre increments appears to be sufficient. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.
    Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 11/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1111/opo.12181 · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Marie-Claude Robert · Claes H Dohlman
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Use of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) has grown significantly, both in the United States and overseas over the course of the last decade. It is the most frequently employed keratoprosthesis for the management of complex corneal blindness. Improving outcomes and reductions in devastating complications such as corneal melting and infection have motivated this increase in use. We review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of corneal melting following B-KPro as well as the advances in B-KPro design and postoperative care that have halted the occurrence of melting. Eyes with autoimmune diseases such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, and mucous membrane pemphigoid remain particularly vulnerable to corneal melt, leak, and extrusion. The development of new strategies to prevent melting in eyes with autoimmune disease is crucial to improve the outcomes of this group of patients, as they are often those with the most desperate need for visual rehabilitation with a B-KPro.
    Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014; 29(5-6):349-57. DOI:10.3109/08820538.2014.959186 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel 10-mg/mL infliximab eye drop, to characterize its physical and biological stability under recommended storage conditions, and to assess the formulation's toxicity to ocular surface epithelium in vitro. Infliximab (10 mg/mL) was reconstituted using equal volumes of sterile water and 1% carboxymethylcellulose artificial tears. Aliquots were stored in either a 4 degrees C refrigerator or -20 degrees C freezer for up to 45 days. Physical stability was assessed through monitoring the solution's appearance, pH, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorbance and scattering, as well as protein gel electrophoresis. Biological stability was assayed through binding to tumor necrosis factor-alpha using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro cytotoxicity to human corneal-limbal epithelial cells was examined following a 4-hour exposure to the study drug. Refrigerated and frozen infliximab eye drops remained clear and colorless for the duration of study. The formulation's pH (7.0) was comparable to that of the artificial tear vehicle alone. Low levels of ultraviolet-visible-near infrared light absorbance and scattering established the lack of protein precipitate after refrigeration or freezing. Protein gel electrophoresis performed under reducing conditions revealed the presence of two main protein bands of approximately 50 kDa and 25 kDa, representing immunoglobulin G heavy and light chains. The migration pattern of the proteins did not change under the different storage conditions and between day 10 and 45 after formulation. Infliximab binding to tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained stable for up to 45 days, with conservation of 101% and 102% of its initial binding activity when refrigerated or frozen, respectively. In vitro human corneal-limbal epithelial cultures showed no increase in cytotoxicity with infliximab treatment when compared to vehicle and culture media controls (P > 0.05). Infliximab can be formulated as an eye drop and remains stable when stored in accordance with current regulations regarding compounded eye drops. The demonstrated physical and biological stability as well as in vitro innocuity of this infliximab eye drop formulation may facilitate future clinical investigation targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha as a modulator of various ocular surface diseases.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding 09/2014; 18(5):418-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a modified ex vivo corneal cross-linking method that increases stromal resistance to enzymatic degradation for use as a carrier for the Boston keratoprosthesis. Methods: Ex vivo cross-linking of human corneas was performed using Barron artificial anterior chambers. The corneas were deepithelialized, pretreated with riboflavin solution (0.1% riboflavin/20% dextran), and irradiated with ultraviolet A (UV-A) light (λ = 370 nm, irradiance = 3 mW/cm) for various durations. The combined effect of UV-A and gamma (γ) irradiation was also assessed using the commercially available γ-irradiated corneal donors. The corneas were then trephined and incubated at 37°C with 0.3% collagenase A solution. The time to dissolution of each cornea was compared across treatments. Results: Deepithelialized corneas (no UV light, no riboflavin) dissolved in 5.8 ± 0.6 hours. Cross-linked corneas demonstrated increased resistance to dissolution, with a time to dissolution of 17.8 ± 2.6 hours (P < 0.0001). The corneal tissues' resistance to collagenase increased with longer UV-A exposure, reaching a plateau at 30 minutes. Cross-linking both the anterior and posterior corneas did not provide added resistance when compared with cross-linking the anterior corneas only (P > 0.05). γ-irradiated corneas dissolved as readily as deepithelialized controls regardless of whether they were further cross-linked (5.6 ± 1.2 hours) or not (6.1 ± 0.6 hours) (P = 0.43). Conclusions: Collagen cross-linking of the deepithelialized anterior corneal surface for 30 minutes conferred optimal resistance to in vitro keratolysis by collagenase A.
    Cornea 07/2014; 33(9). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000185 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To establish a murine model for keratoprosthesis. Methods: A miniature keratoprosthesis (m-KPro) device was created consisting of a poly[methyl methacrylate] front part and a titanium back plate, designed after the Boston KPro, which is in widespread clinical use. BALB/c mice were used and a 2 mm in diameter donor cornea was punched out. After 2-mm trepanation of the syngeneic recipient cornea, extracapsular crystalline lens extraction was performed. The m-KPro was assembled onto the cornea button in a similar manner to human KPro implantation. The cornea-device complex was secured to the recipient bed with eight interrupted 11-0 sutures. All mice (n = 10) were followed up for 8 weeks postoperatively. Results: All m-KPros were successfully implanted and retained in all 10 animals. There were no critical complications such as endophthalmitis, corneal melting, device extrusions, leakage, extensive inflammation, or weight loss in the animals. We observed mild to moderate donor and host corneal neovascularization in all cases throughout the follow-up period. Conclusions: We have established a novel murine model of KPro implantation that we anticipate will serve as a good experimental system for evaluating host responses after KPro surgery.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 05/2014; 55(6). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-14058 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Liqiang Wang · Yifei Huang · Chodosh James · Claes H Dohlman
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    ABSTRACT: The Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro) is one of several types of artificial cornea manufactured worldwide that are being implanted in increasing numbers in patients with severe corneal diseases and graft failures. To summerize the advances in design of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis and in the treatment strategies to conquer the post operative complications have expanded the indications and application of this technology. Many modifications to the design of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis and treatment of the patient in the post operative period have occurred. Also, the technology has been more widely accepted as a primary surgical option for patients with a poor preoperative prognosis for traditional penetrating keratoplasty. The outcomes of visual acuity, retention, and post-operative infection rates have all significantly improved since the technology has been modified and offers patients an alternative for visual rehabilitation. This is implanted into a carrier corneal graft or into the patient's own cornea. The allograft cornea can be the carrier, which may solve the shortage of donor cornea in China.
    [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology 04/2014; 50(4):307-12. DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.04124081.2014.04.018
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate glaucoma onset and progression after implantation of Boston Keratoprostheses (B-KPro) and the role of glaucoma surgery. Records of patients with B-KPro implantation during 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. Parameters relevant to B-KPro surgery and glaucoma status were recorded. The data were analyzed in 5 groups based on the preoperative diagnosis. One hundred six eyes of 87 patients were included, and the average age was 54 ± 6.7 years. Forty-six percent were female. Eighteen eyes had a B-KPro with a titanium back plate, and the others had a poly(methyl methacrylate) back plate. Thirty-three eyes were pseudophakic, and the rest were left aphakic. The follow-up time was 3.3 ± 1.0 years. Indications for implantation included past infection, congenital glaucoma, trauma, autoimmune diseases, aniridia, burns, and others. Sixty-six percent of the eyes had glaucoma preoperatively, and 26% developed de novo glaucoma afterward. The mean intraocular pressure (by finger palpation) was 16.5 ± 5.7 mm Hg. Reliable visual field tests were only available in 59% of the eyes; hence, the cup-to-disc ratio of the optic nerve head was used as the main outcome measure. In B-KPro-implanted eyes with glaucoma, 65% had undergone glaucoma surgery at some point, and 30% did not show progression. Thirty-one percent of the total cohort had disc pallor with a cup-to-disc ratio of <0.8. Glaucoma in B-KPro remains a challenge, despite aggressive attempts to slow down its progression. Patients with glaucoma before B-KPro implantation should be considered for glaucoma surgery before or simultaneously with B-KPro implantation. The high number of eyes with disc pallor suggests that additional mechanisms other than elevated intraocular pressure may play a role in optic neuropathy.
    Cornea 02/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000067 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate early retinal damage after induction of ocular surface alkali burns and the protective effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockade. Alkali injury was induced in mouse corneas by using 1 N NaOH. Retinal damage was assessed using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, 15 minutes to 14 days postburn. Immune cell infiltration was assessed by CD45 immunolocalization. Retinal cytokines were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for interleukin (IL)1β, IL2, IL6, TNF-α, CCL5, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Protection against retinal damage was attempted with a single dose of either anti-TNF-α antibody (infliximab, 6.25 mg/kg) or control immunoglobulin G (IgG), administered intraperitoneally 15 minutes after the burn was inflicted. Corneal injury was evaluated by using TUNEL and CD45 immunolocalization and by quantifying corneal neovascularization. There was significant damage to the retina within 24 hours of the corneal burn being inflicted. TUNEL+ labeling was present in 80% of the retinal ganglion cells, including a few CD45+ cells. There was a 10-fold increase in the retinal inflammatory cytokines in the study groups compared with that in controls. A single intraperitoneal dose of anti-TNF-α antibody, administered 15 minutes after the burn, markedly reduced retinal TUNEL+, CD45+ labeling, and inflammatory cytokine expression, compared with that in the controls. Additionally, TNF-α blockade caused a marked reduction in corneal neovascularization, and in cornea TUNEL and CD45 labeling, 5 days after the burn. This study shows that alkali corneal burns can induce significant retinal damage within 24 hours. A single dose of anti-TNF-α antibody, administered 15 minutes after inflicting the burn, provides significant retinal and corneal protection. This could lead to the discovery of novel therapies for patients with alkali injuries.
    Cornea 01/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000071 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the cumulative worldwide incidence of infectious endophthalmitis and associated vision loss after Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) Type I/II implantation and to propose both safe and inexpensive prophylactic antibiotic regimens. Two retrospective methods were used to determine the incidence, visual outcomes and aetiologies of infectious endophthalmitis associated with the B-KPro divided per decade: (i) systematic review of the literature from 1990 through January 2013 and (ii) a surveillance survey sent to all surgeons who implanted B-KPros through 2010 with 1-year minimum follow-up. In addition, a single-Boston surgeon 20-year experience was examined. From 1990 through 2010, there were 4729 B-KPros implanted worldwide by 209 U.S. surgeons and 159 international surgeons. The endophthalmitis cumulative mean incidence declined from 12% during its first decade of use to about 3% during its second decade in the Unites States and about 5% internationally during the second decade. There remains a large incidence range both in the United States (1-12.5%) and internationally (up to 17%). Poor compliance with daily topical antibiotics is an important risk factor. While Gram-positive organisms remained dominant, fungal infections emerged during the second decade. Daily prophylactic topical antibiotics have dramatically reduced the endophthalmitis incidence. Although Gram-positive organisms are the most common aetiology, antimicrobials must be inclusive of Gram-negative organisms. Selection of prophylactic regimens should be tailored to local antibiotic susceptibility patterns, be cost-effective, and should not promote the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. An example of a broad-spectrum, low-cost prophylactic option for non-autoimmune patients includes trimethoprim/polymyxinB once daily.
    Acta ophthalmologica 01/2014; 92(7). DOI:10.1111/aos.12309 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT) and a motion sensor. The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS) comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline) IOP. On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg) and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg) (P=0.45), suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001), and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001). Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001). Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute), during which the IOP is not expected to change. IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.
    Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 01/2014; 8:177-85. DOI:10.2147/OPTH.S54753
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of light damage to the retina by a surgical microscope during implantation of a Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) in rabbits. The retinal irradiance from a Zeiss OPMI Lumera S7 operating microscope was measured at the working distance (16.5 cm). Light transmittance through an isolated B-KPro was measured. A B-KPro was implanted into 1 eye of 12 rabbits with the optic covered during the procedure. The operated eyes were then continuously exposed to a fixed light intensity under the microscope for 1 hour. Fluorescein angiography was carried out on days 2 and 9 postsurgery, after which the animals were euthanized. Further, we compared the potential of these retinal exposures to well-accepted light safety guidelines applicable to humans. Light transmittance of B-KPro revealed a blockage of short wavelengths (<390 nm) and of long wavelengths (1660-1750 nm) of light. In addition, the surgical microscope filtered a part of the blue, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths. Neither fluorescein angiography nor a histological examination showed any morphological retinal changes in our rabbits. Moreover, the retinal exposures were well below the safety limits. Modern surgical microscopes have filters incorporated in them that block the most damaging wavelengths of light. The B-KPro is made of 100% poly(methyl methacrylate), which makes it in itself a blocker of short wavelengths of light. No damage could be demonstrated in the animal study, and the retinal exposures were well below the safety limits. Together, these results suggest that light exposures during B-KPro surgery present a low risk of photochemical damage to the retina.
    Cornea 12/2013; 91(2). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000029 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world.
    Journal of Ophthalmology 11/2013; 2013(6):686587. DOI:10.1155/2013/686587 · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Andrea Cruzat · Anita Shukla · Claes H Dohlman · Kathryn Colby
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the anatomy of the graft-host junction and anterior chamber angle after Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro) placement using oversized (9.5-mm) and standard (8.5-mm) back plates. Six patients with 9.5-mm titanium back plates and 10 patients with 8.5-mm titanium back plates were imaged by anterior segment optical coherence tomography 6 to 12 months after KPro placement. The location of the graft-host junction in relation to the back plate, the corneal thickness at the graft-host junction, and the anterior chamber angle were assessed. The clinical outcomes and incidence of retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) formation in this cohort were retrospectively evaluated. The oversized back plates completely covered the graft-host junction in all quadrants, allowing the complete apposition of the posterior surface of the carrier graft with the host cornea, with decreased graft-host junction wound thickness. The standard back plates covered the posterior aspect of the carrier graft but not the graft-host junction or the host cornea, resulting in a significantly thicker graft-host junction. None of the patients with larger back plates developed a significant RPM during a 12-month follow-up period. One patient with a larger back plate developed a corneal melt at the KPro stem as a result of chronic exposure. Oversized KPro back plates effectively cover the graft-host junction without any adverse effects on angle anatomy or wound healing. This may be a strategy to provide better wound apposition, reduce RPM formation, and reduce angle closure from iris synechiae to the wound.
    Cornea 10/2013; 32(12). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0b013e3182a854ac · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Christine McLellan · Van Ngo · Sophia Pasedis · Claes H Dohlman
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients with a keratoprosthesis (artificial cornea) are required to use prophylactic vancomycin ophthalmic solution daily for life to prevent infection, a regimen which has proven to be highly successful. The objective of this study was to determine whether such vancomycin solutions would remain stable at room temperature for an extended period of time, beyond that suggested by available published stability data and used in current practice. By relaxing the storage requirement and extending the expiration date of this solution, it was hoped that patient adherence and satisfaction would increase. The studied vancomycin ophthalmic solutions were compounded at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Department of Pharmacy Services, Boston, Massachusetts, and were sent to an outside laboratory for high-performance liquid chromatography potency testing at predefined time points. Vancomycin 14-mg/mL ophthalmic solution compounded with 0.005% benzalkonium retains potency for at least 60 days at room temperature and 6 months frozen. Extending the beyond-use dating of vancomycin may lead to improved patient adherence by lowering costs and increasing convenience of storage and shipment of the medication.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding 08/2013; 12(5):456-459.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
216.82 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2015
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2014
    • Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Cornea Service
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • Schepens Eye Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States