B H Toh

Monash University (Australia), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (138)924.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases result from chronic targeted immune responses that lead to tissue pathology and disease. The potential of autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation as a treatment for autoimmunity is currently being trialled but disease relapse is an issue. We have previously shown in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that the transplantation of bone marrow (BM) transduced to encode the autoantigen myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can prevent disease induction. However these studies were performed using lethal irradiation to generate BM chimeras and a critical factor for translation to humans would be the ability to utilize low toxic preconditioning regimes. In this study, treosulfan was used as a nonmyeloablative agent to generate BM chimeras encoding MOG and assessed in models of EAE induction and reversal. We find that treosulfan conditioning can promote a low degree of chimerism that is sufficient to promote antigen specific tolerance and protect mice from EAE. When incorporated into a curative protocol for treating mice with established EAE, nonmyeloablative conditioning and low chimerism was equally efficient in maintaining disease resistance. These studies further underpin the potential and feasibility of utilizing a gene therapy approach to treat autoimmune disease.
    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2012; 12(8):2062-71. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloablative transplantation of bone marrow (BM) engineered to express myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) establishes central intrathymic tolerance and completely prevents MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Here we asked whether non-myeloablative transplantation of MOG expressing BM (pMOG-bone marrow transplantation (BMT)) can also provide the same protection. Using stepwise reduction of irradiation doses, 275 cGy irradiation with pMOG-BMT protected 100% of mice from EAE development even with two subsequent re-challenge with MOG. Irradiation doses <275 cGy produced dose-dependent partial protection with significant disease protection still evident at 50 cGy. Splenocytes from 275 cGy recipients proliferated to MOG stimulation in vitro, indicating that MOG-reactive cells are present in the periphery but failed to induce disease. MOG-stimulated splenocytes produced little or no interleukin-17, interferon-γ, granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor-α compared with EAE control. Adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells from EAE-resistant mice into Rag2(-/-) mice devoid of MOG expression resulted in MOG-induced EAE in ∼74% of mice. Treatment of EAE-resistant mice with anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody-induced EAE in 67% of mice. We conclude that non-myeloablative transplantation of self-antigen expressing BM induces robust peripheral tolerance that completely prevented EAE development. Our findings implicate clonal anergy and the PD-1 pathway in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 10 November 2011; doi:10.1038/gt.2011.179.
    Gene therapy 11/2011; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excess accumulation of vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important pathological process in cardiovascular diseases including diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. We explored how a recently identified molecule, cell division autoantigen 1 (CDA1), influences the profibrotic TGF-beta pathway leading to vascular ECM accumulation. Expression levels of genes encoding for CDA1, TGF-beta and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were examined in aorta from Apoe(-/-) mice with or without diabetes. We used retroviral and adenoviral constructs to knockdown or overexpress Tspyl2, the gene encoding CDA1, in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with or without TGF-beta treatment in order to demonstrate the role of CDA1 in TGF-beta signalling. In vivo studies indicated that the mRNA levels of CDA1-encoding gene Tspyl2 and protein levels of CDA1 were elevated in the aorta of diabetic Apoe(-/-) mice, accompanied by increased levels of Tgf-beta (also known as Tgfb1), Ctgf and ECM accumulation. In vitro studies in vascular cells showed that TGF-beta treatment rapidly increased CDA1 protein levels, which then amplified TGF-beta signalling leading to upregulation of ECM genes. Knockdown of CDA1-encoding gene Tspyl2 to reduce cellular CDA1 level markedly attenuated TGF-beta-stimulated MAD homologue 3 (drosophila; SMAD3) phosphorylation and transcriptional activities. CDA1 overproduction increased and Tspyl2 knockdown decreased expression of TGF-beta receptor type I, TbetarI (also known as Tgfbr1), but not TGF-beta receptor type II, TbetarII (also known as Tgfbr2), providing a mechanism for CDA1's action in modulating TGF-beta signalling. Knockdown of CDA1-encoding gene Tspyl2 also blocked the profibrotic effect of TGF-beta in VSMCs. CDA1 plays an important role in vascular ECM accumulation by amplifying TGF-beta signalling. This is critical for the profibrotic effect of TGF-beta in the vasculature. CDA1 is therefore a potential target for attenuating vascular ECM accumulation caused by enhanced TGF-beta action, as seen in diabetic atherosclerosis.
    Diabetologia 10/2009; 53(1):170-9. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cardinal feature of organ-specific autoimmunity is destructive pathology in the target organ. In human and experimental models of autoimmune gastritis, mononuclear cell infiltration and cellular destruction in the gastric mucosa are disease hallmarks. Strategies to cure autoimmune disease must not only establish immunological tolerance to autoantigen, but also rid the organ of pathogenic autoreactive cells. The present study has assessed the effect of prednisolone treatment in clearing the inflammatory infiltrate in experimental autoimmune gastritis and in preventing disease relapse in athymic compared with euthymic mice. Experimental autoimmune gastritis was induced by neonatal thymectomy or by transgenic expression of GM-CSF (PC-GMCSF mice). Groups of mice were treated with prednisolone (10 mg/kg per day) for 10 weeks or with prednisolone for 10 weeks followed by 10 weeks without prednisolone. Stomachs were examined for gross morphological changes, and by histology and immunohistochemistry for composition of inflammatory infiltrate and gastric mucosal integrity. Autoantibody to gastric H+/K+ ATPase was determined by ELISA. Prednisolone promoted remission of gastritis in both mouse models of experimental autoimmune gastritis, evident by reduction in stomach size, clearing of gastric inflammatory infiltrate, and regeneration of the gastric mucosa. Prednisolone withdrawal resulted in disease relapse in all PC-GMCSF mice, whereas approximately 40% of neonatal thymectomy mice retained normal stomach morphology and remained free of gastric pathology. It is concluded that prednisolone promotes remission and gastric mucosal regeneration in experimental autoimmune gastritis. Prolonged remission of autoimmune gastritis in some athymic mice suggests a role for the thymus in disease relapse.
    The Journal of Pathology 08/2006; 209(3):384-91. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used an autoimmune serum from a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus to clone a cDNA of 2808 base pairs. Its open reading frame of 2079 base pairs encodes a predicted polypeptide of 693 amino acids named CDA1 (cell division autoantigen-1). CDA1 has a predicted molecular mass of 79,430 Daltons and a pI of 4.26. The size of the cDNA is consistent with its estimated mRNA size. CDA1 comprises an N-terminal proline-rich domain, a central basic domain, and a C-terminal bipartite acidic domain. It has four putative nuclear localization signals and potential sites for phosphorylation by cAMP and cGMP-dependent kinases, protein kinase C, thymidine kinase, casein kinase II, and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDA1 is phosphorylated in HeLa cells and by cyclin D1/CDK4, cyclin A/CDK2, and cyclin B/CDK1 in vitro. Its basic and acidic domains contain regions homologous to almost the entire human leukemia-associated SET protein. The same basic region is also homologous to nucleosome assembly proteins, testis TSPY protein, and an uncharacterized brain protein. CDA1 is present in the nuclear fraction of HeLa cells and localizes to the nucleus and nucleolus in HeLa cells transfected with CDA1 or its N terminus containing all four nuclear localization signals. Its acidic C terminus localizes mainly to the cytoplasm. CDA1 levels are low in serum-starved cells, increasing dramatically with serum stimulation. Expression of the CDA1 transgene, but not its N terminus, arrests HeLa cell growth, colony numbers, cell density, and bromodeoxyuridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of CDA1 to arrest cell growth is abolished by mutation of the two CDK consensus phosphorylation sites. We propose that CDA1 is a negative regulator of cell growth and that its activity is regulated by its expression level and phosphorylation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2001; 276(36):33665-74. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the identification and characterization of a novel 74-kd brain-specific autoantigen that is reactive with serum from a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We determined the molecular weight, tissue distribution and subcellular distribution of the autoantigen and obtained limited amino acid sequence after purification by ion-exchange chromatography and trypsin digestion. We identified the 74-kd autoantigen as synapsin I on the basis of the following observations. First, the autoantigen has properties consistent with synapsin I: molecular weight of approximately equals 74 kd, brain-specific distribution, presence in cytosol and on synaptosomes, and association with taxol-stabilized microtubules. Second, limited amino acid sequence determination after trypsin digestion of the autoantigen shows identity with synapsin I. Third, the autoimmune serum immunoblots fusion proteins that incorporate rat synapsin Ia. The autoantibodies reactive to synapsin Ia are of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM class. This is the first report of autoantibodies that are reactive to synapsin Ia. Autoantibodies that are reactive to synapsin Ia are not restricted to discoid lupus erythematosus patients, because we found identical reactivity in two of 18 sera from dsDNA-positive systemic lupus erythematosus patients and in two of 14 rheumatoid factor-positive sera. Whether autoantibodies to synapsin I are associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations is currently unknown.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 06/2001; 49(3):276-83. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum autoantibodies to the glycolytic enzyme enolase have been reported in a diverse range of inflammatory, degenerative, and psychiatric disorders. Diseases in which these antibodies have been reported in high incidence include autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (80%, 35 of 44), primary (69%, 60 of 87), and secondary (58%, 14 of 24) membranous nephropathy, cancer-associated retinopathy (68.8%, 11 of 16), autoimmune hepatitis type 1 (60%, 12 of 20), mixed cryoglobulinemia with renal involvement (63.6%, seven of 11), cystoid macular edema (60%, six of 10), and endometriosis (50%, 21 of 41). In autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 patients, all had chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with demonstrated antibody reactivity to candida enolase, which is suggestive of cross reactivity or epitope mimicry. Formation of autoantibodies to enolase may be a normal process, with reported incidence in apparently healthy subjects ranging from 0% (zero of 91) to 11.7% (seven of 60). Nonetheless, we suggest that excessive production of these autoantibodies, which are generated as a consequence of uptake of enolase by antigen-presenting cells and subsequent B cell activation, can potentially initiate tissue injury as a result of immune complex deposition.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 04/2001; 49(2):138-45. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamin family of GTP-binding proteins has been implicated as playing an important role in endocytosis. In Drosophila shibire, mutations of the single dynamin gene cause blockade of endocytosis and neurotransmitter release, manifest as temperature-sensitive neuromuscular paralysis. Mammals express three dynamin genes: the neural specific dynamin I, ubiquitous dynamin II, and predominantly testicular dynamin III. Mutations of dynamin I result in a blockade of synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here, we show that dynamin II plays a key role in controlling constitutive and regulated hormone secretion from mouse pituitary corticotrope (AtT20) cells. Dynamin II is preferentially localized to the Golgi apparatus where it interacts with G-protein betagamma subunit and regulates secretory vesicle release. The presence of dynamin II at the Golgi apparatus and its interaction with the betagamma subunit are mediated by the pleckstrin homology domain of the GTPase. Overexpression of the pleckstrin homology domain, or a dynamin II mutant lacking the C-terminal SH3-binding domain, induces translocation of endogenous dynamin II from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane and transformation of dynamin II from activity in the secretory pathway to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Thus, dynamin II regulates secretory vesicle formation from the Golgi apparatus and hormone release from mammalian neuroendocrine cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2001; 276(6):4251-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms leading to breakdown of immunological tolerance and initiation of autoimmunity are poorly understood. Experimental autoimmune gastritis is a paradigm of organ-specific autoimmunity arising from a pathogenic autoimmune response to gastric H/K ATPase. The gastritis is accompanied by autoantibodies to the gastric H/K ATPase. The best characterized model of experimental autoimmune gastritis requires neonatal thymectomy. This procedure disrupts the immune repertoire, limiting its usefulness in understanding how autoimmunity arises in animals with intact immune systems. Here we tested whether local production of GM-CSF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is sufficient to break tolerance and initiate autoimmunity. We generated transgenic mice expressing GM-CSF in the stomach. These transgenic mice spontaneously developed gastritis with an incidence of about 80% after six backcrosses to gastritis-susceptible BALBc/CrSlc mice. The gastritis is accompanied by mucosal hypertrophy, enlargement of draining lymph nodes and autoantibodies to gastric H/K ATPase. An infiltrate of dendritic cells and macrophages preceded CD4 T cells into the gastric mucosa. T cells from draining lymph nodes specifically proliferated to the gastric H/K ATPase. CD4 but not CD8 T cells transferred gastritis to nude mouse recipients. CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from the spleen retained anergic suppressive properties that were reversed by IL-2. We conclude that local expression of GM-CSF is sufficient to break tolerance and initiate autoimmunity mediated by CD4 T cells. This new mouse model should be useful for studies of organ-specific autoimmunity.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2001; 166(3):2090-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has previously been reported that neonatal BALB.D2 mice injected with native proton pump antigens without adjuvant develop an irreversible gastritis (Claeys et al, 1997). The ease of inititating gastritis in the neonate stands in contrast with the difficulty in initiating gastritis in adult mice that require repeated immunisation in adjuvant that is reversible following cessation of immunisation (Scarff et al, 1997). In view of these contrasting observations, we set out to ascertain whether we could confirm the observations in neonatal mice as well as further characterise the pathology and the autoantibody response. We found that neonatal gastritis-susceptible BALB/c mice (n=12), immunised with either pig or mouse gastric membranes in the absence of adjuvant, develop gastritis without circulating antibody to parietal cells detected by immunofluorescence, a hallmark of murine and human gastritis (Toh et al, 1997). However, mice immunized with pig gastric membranes (n=6) had circulating antibodies reactive by immunofluorescence to recombinant alpha and/or beta subunit of gastric H+/K+-ATPase expressed by insect cells (Sfalpha and Sfbeta). Four mice from this cohort with antibodies to Sfbeta also had reactivity to gastric H+/K+-ATPase by ELISA, and 3 immunoblotted the beta but not the alpha subunit of the ATPase. In the cohort of mice immunised with mouse gastric membranes (n=6), four produced antibodies reactive by immunofluorescence to Sfalpha, two of which were also reactive to Sfbeta and one developed antibodies detected by ELISA to gastric H+/K+-ATPase. However, no members of this cohort had antibodies reactive by immunoblotting to either the beta or alpha subunit of the ATPase. In all cases gastritic stomachs were characterised by areas deficient in ribosome-rich zymogenic cells and marked reductions in H+/K+-ATPase-positive parietal cells. Metaplasia detected by Maxwell stain, as clusters of mucus-producing cells throughout gastric units, were non-reactive to stomach mucin autoantibody suggesting the mucins comprise other and/or aberrant form(s). Compared to our previous observations in adult mice, our present data confirms that gastric autoimmunity is more readily induced in the neonate than the adult. Our data also affirms that while the neonatal immune system can mount a damaging inflammatory cellular immune response to gastric antigens, it develops an altered antibody response.
    Autoimmunity 02/2001; 34(2):81-94. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of experimental models of organ-specific autoimmunity involve a period of peripheral T cell lymphopenia prior to disease onset. In particular, experimental autoimmune gastritis, induced in susceptible mouse strains by neonatal thymectomy, is a CD4+ T cell mediated autoimmune disease. We have previously demonstrated that this disease displays the hallmarks of a Th1-mediated DTH inflammatory response with an essential role for IFN-gamma very early in the pathogenesis of disease. Given the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune responses, a potential source of early IFN-gamma production in these lymphopenic mice is the innate immune response. Here we have assessed the contribution of innate immunity to the induction of experimental autoimmune gastritis, in particular, the role of natural killer (NK) cells in production of IFN-gamma. Analysis of NK cells and macrophages revealed no difference in either the number or activation status between euthymic and neonatally thymectomised mice. Furthermore, in vivo depletion of NK cells immediately after neonatal thymectomy of (BALB/cCrSlcxC57BL/6) F1 mice demonstrated no reduction in disease incidence compared to control groups of neonatally thymectomised mice. Therefore, we conclude that NK cells are not the primary source of IFN-gamma required for the pathogenesis of autoimmune gastritis following neonatal thymectomy but rather the small cohort of T cells in the periphery of lymphopenic mice are likely to be responsible for the IFN-gamma production.
    Autoimmunity 02/2001; 34(2):147-54. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein p230 is a peripheral membrane protein associated with the cytoplasmic face of the TGN. TGNp230 is an extensively coiled-coil protein with flexible amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends, associates with non-clathrin-coated vesicles arising from the TGN, and is implicated in vesicle biogenesis. Here we used an autoimmune serum from a patient with S ogren's syndrome to clone partial cDNAs from a human hepatoma HepG2 expression library. The partial cDNAs encoded a novel amino-terminal splice variant of TGNp230. Specific reactivity of the autoimmune serum for p230 is supported by immunofluorescene staining of the Golgi apparatus, immunoblotting of a > 200-kDa HeLa cell protein, and reactivity with a bacterially expressed GST-p230 fusion protein. The alternative splicing occurs within the first proline-rich domain of p230. It comprises a deletion of 30 bp followed immediately by an additional 66 bp absent in the published sequence. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the splicing occurs independently of previously reported carboxyl-terminal splicing, and that this novel splice variant is more frequent than the previously reported p230. The novel splice variant of p230 is also located at the TGN. We propose that p230 splice variants may be implicated in selection of cargo molecules for vesicles arising from the TGN.
    European Journal of Cell Biology 12/2000; 79(11):790-4. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Casein kinase I (CKI) are a family of conserved second messenger-independent serine/threonine protein kinases found in all eukaryotes. The avian and mammalian CKI alpha isoform has four splice variants differing in the presence or absence of 28 amino acids ('(L)' insertion) in the catalytic domain and/or 12 amino acids ('(S)' insertion) in the regulatory domain. Here we report the isolation of cDNAs encoding human CKIalpha(L) and CKIalpha(S). We find human CKIalpha(L) has a preference to phosphorylate phosvitin over casein, with a higher K(m) for casein than phosvitin, the reverse being the case for human CKIalpha(S). Both human CKIalpha(L), and CKIalpha(S) are derived from 4.2-kb mRNA transcripts and 2.4-kb transcripts, the latter probably generated by use of an alternate polyadenylation signal identified in the longer transcripts. The 4. 2-kb transcripts contain six RNA-destabilising AU-rich element (ARE) motifs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), while the 2.4-kb transcripts contain a single ARE motif. In vitro analysis of CKI alpha 3'-UTR RNA sequences suggests that in HeLa cells, the longer 3'-UTR transcripts are likely to degrade approximately 13 times faster than the shorter 3'-UTR transcripts. This is the first report of a kinase mRNA containing multiple RNA-destabilising AREs in the longer of two mRNA transcripts.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2000; 1492(2-3):425-33. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • F Alderuccio, B H Toh
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune gastritis in humans is a chronic inflammatory disease of the stomach accompanied by specific destruction of gastric parietal and zymogenic cells resulting in pernicious anemia. Human gastritis can be accurately reproduced in mice and is characterised by autoantibodies to the alpha- and beta-subunits of the gastric H/K ATPase (the enzyme responsible for gastric acid secretion) and cellular destruction of parietal and zymogenic cells within the gastric gland. Studies with these mouse models have given us our current concepts of the immunopathogenesis of the gastritis. Mouse models have shown that a T cell response is generated to the alpha- and beta-subunits of the H/K ATPase and that an immune response to the beta-subunit seems to be required for disease initiation. Using these models, we have defined key events associated with a damaging autoimmune response to the gastric H/K ATPase. The mechanisms associated with the cellular destruction associated with autoimmune gastritis are not know, but may involve signaling through death inducing pathways such as the Fas/FasL and TNF/TNFR pathways. This knowledge should permit us to develop strategies to prevent and treat the gastritis.
    Histology and histopathology 08/2000; 15(3):869-79. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human autoantibodies to proteins of the mitotic apparatus have demonstrated clinical utility and usefulness as molecular probes for identification and characterization of novel autoantigens, as exemplified by autoantibodies to centromere proteins. In contrast, there have been very few reports of autoantibodies with reactivity to antigens located along mitotic chromosome arms, but not in interphase nuclei. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize autoantibodies with reactivity to mitotic chromosomal antigens (MCAs) located exclusively on mitotic chromosome arms, and to determine if patients with these autoantibodies have common clinical features. Routine immunofluorescence screening of serum samples referred for antinuclear antibody investigation over a 10-year period was used to identify autoantibodies to MCAs. MCAs were identified by exclusive immunofluorescence staining of mitotic chromosome arms with no staining of interphase nuclei. MCA-reactive sera were further characterized for patterns of staining on mitotic chromosome arms and sensitivities to chemical and enzymatic treatments, and for one of these sera, its ability to abrogate progression through mitosis when microinjected into cells. Of 60,000 sera screened for antinuclear antibodies by immunofluorescence, we identified three IgG autoantibodies reacting exclusively to MCAs. The anti-MCA autoantibodies did not react with condensed chromatin in spermatozoa or in apoptotic HeLa cells. Reactivity of all three sera was abrogated by treatment with protease, but not RNase, indicating that the MCAs are protein in nature and do not contain RNA epitopes. The three anti-MCA antibodies seem to react to three different antigens because they gave different patterns of staining of chromosome arms, reacted with chromosomes in different stages of mitosis, and displayed different sensitivities to treatment with DNase 1, salt, and phosphatases. Phosphatase treatment suggests that MCA1 and MCA2 contain serine/threonine phosphoepitope(s) and MCA3 tyrosine phosphoepitope(s). Loss of MCA2 reactivity to DNase 1 treatment and its retention after salt extraction suggests that it is a chromosomal scaffold protein. Sensitivity of all three MCAs to acid suggests that they are histone-like or histone-associated proteins. We report the identification of three novel MCA-reactive sera. Patient diagnoses included discoid lupus erythematosus, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Sjögren's syndrome, and polymyalgia rheumatica. The reactivity of anti-MCA antibodies with phosphoepitopes is likely to explain restriction of immunofluorescence staining to chromosome arms during mitosis. Microinjection of MCA1-reactive antibodies led to metaphase arrest, without any change in morphology of the mitotic spindle or metaphase chromosomes suggesting that MCA1 may have a role in sister chromatid separation.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 06/2000; 48(3):172-82. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The catalytic alpha and glycoprotein beta subunits of the gastric H/K ATPase are major molecular targets in human and mouse autoimmune gastritis. We have previously shown that the H/K ATPase beta subunit is required for the initiation of mouse gastritis and identified a gastritogenic H/K ATPase beta subunit peptide (H/Kbeta253-277). Here we report the generation of MHC class II-restricted TCR transgenic mice using V(alpha)9 and V(beta)8.3 TCR chains with specificity for the gastritogenic H/Kbeta253-277 peptide. We found an 8-fold reduction in CD4(+) T cells in the thymus of the transgenic mice. Despite the reduction in intrathymic CD4(+) T cells, V(beta)8. 3-expressing T cells comprised the majority (>90%) of peripheral spleen and lymph node T cells. These peripheral T cells retained their capacity to proliferate in vitro to the H/Kbeta253-277 peptide. Using the responsive T cells, we have restricted the gastritogenic T cell epitope to H/Kbeta261-274. Despite the capacity of the peripheral T cells to proliferate in vitro to the peptide, the majority ( approximately 80%, 13 of 16) of transgenic mice remained free of gastritis while a minority (20%, three of 16) spontaneously developed an invasive and destructive gastritis. Our results confirm that H/Kbeta261-274 is a gastritogenic peptide. The data also suggest that CD4 T cell tolerance to the gastritogenic peptide in the transgenic mice is maintained by a combination of intrathymic and peripheral tolerance mechanisms.
    International Immunology 03/2000; 12(3):343-52. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of autoimmune gastritis is the result of lymphocyte infiltration of the gastric mucosa, however, the events leading to the selective extravasation of autoreactive lymphocytes are unclear. Here we have examined the expression of adhesion molecules in the gastric mucosa of BALB/c mice with neonatal thymectomy-induced gastritis. The overall area of vascular endothelium was not significantly different between gastritic and non-gastritic mice. However, a significant increase in the area of mucosal endothelium expressing MAdCAM-1 in gastritic mice was observed. Treatment of neonatally thymectomized BALB/c mice with a MAdCAM-1 specific monoclonal antibody (MECA 367) reduced the incidence of autoimmune gastritis from 80 to 26%. Treatment with a monoclonal antibody (R1-2) directed to the MAdCAM-1 ligand, alpha4beta7, also resulted in a reduction in the incidence of gastritis to 40%. These findings identify the alpha4beta7/MAdCAM-I interaction as a pivotal event in the initiation of autoimmune gastritis.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 03/2000; 67(2):169-73. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that autoimmune gastritis can be elicited in mice by immunisation with the gastric parietal cell H/K ATPase alphabeta heterodimer, and, furthermore, have identified the H/K ATPase beta-subunit epitope, H/Kbeta253-277 as the dominant epitope of the gastric H/K ATPase. Using gastric H/K ATPase-immunised mice, here we have generated two T cell hybridomas specific for the H/Kbeta253-277 peptide, namely 4B11.F4.5 and 1E4.C1. Hybridoma 4B11.F4.5 uses Valpha8 and Vbeta8.2 TCR chains and 1E4.C1 uses Valpha9 and V1beta8.3 chains. Although both hybridomas are specific for H/Kbeta253-277, T cell assays using overlapping 14-mers of the 25-mer epitope showed that the two autoreactive TCRs recognise different regions of the 25-mer. The TCR from 1E4.C1 has been used to generate a TCR beta-chain transgenic mouse. >80% of peripheral CD4+ T cells utilise the Vbeta8.3 transgene. As expected, 1E4-TCR beta-chain transgenic mice are susceptible to neonatal thymectomy induced autoimmune gastritis. While none of the 1E4-TCR beta chain transgenic mice spontaneously developed a destructive gastritis, a minority (20%) of the transgenic mice developed a non-invasive and non-destructive gastritis. This suggests that the pathogenic T cells are maintained in a tolerant state in the periphery of the transgenic mice.
    Autoimmunity 01/2000; 33(1):1-14. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early endosomal autoantigen EEA1 is essential for early endosomal membrane fusion. It binds to endosomes via a C-terminal domain (EEA1-CT). To identify proteins interacting with EEA1-CT, we screened a human brain library in the yeast two-hybrid system. Fourteen clones reacted strongly with EEA1-CT. Sequencing of these clones revealed that they all contained the ORF of the small GTPase, Rab5b. Further two-hybrid analysis suggested that Rab5b also interacts with the N-terminus of EEA1 (EEA1-NT). The interaction of both EEA1-CT and EEA1-NT with Rab5b was confirmed biochemically, and was found to be GTP dependent. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that EEA1 colocalizes with Rab5b on early endosomes. Although EEA1-CT and EEA1-NT interacted strongly with wild-type Rab5b in the two-hybrid system, we detected no interaction with wild-type Rab5a, even though GTPase-deficient mutants of both Rab5a and Rab5b interacted equally well with EEA1. This difference could not be explained by differences in intrinsic GTPase activities, as these were found to be very similar. Instead, we speculate that yeast may contain a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity that stimulates Rab5a but not Rab5b. In contrast, pig brain cytosol was found to contain a GAP activity that stimulates the GTPase activity of Rab5b in preference to that of Rab5a. These data provide evidence that EEA1 interacts with both Rab5a and Rab5b, and that the GTPase activities of the two proteins are differentially regulated in vivo.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 11/1999; 265(1):361-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    W Pollock, B H Toh
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    ABSTRACT: Ro/SS-A autoantibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome may be missed during routine screening for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) by immunofluorescence using HEp-2 cells. To investigate the use of HEp-2 cells transfected with human 60 kDa Ro/SS-A for routine detection of these antibodies. 10,500 sera were screened at a dilution of 1:200 for Ro/SS-A antibodies, identified by intense immunofluorescence staining in 10-15% of hyperexpressing cells of either the nucleus and nucleolus combined or the nucleus alone. Ro/SS-A antibodies were identified in 160/2100 ANA positive sera (8%), of which seven were ANA negative (titre < 200) and 33 had weak ANA titres (200) in 85-90% of non-hyperexpressing "background" cells. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the presence of Ro/SS-A antibodies in 110 newly diagnosed Ro/SS-A positive sera. Of these, 50 reacted with Ro/SS-A, 51 with Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B, and nine with Ro/SS-A and other extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) specificities. Fifteen sera which did not show Ro/SS-A antibodies by immunofluorescence tested positive for Ro/SS-A by immunodiffusion, counter-immunoelectrophesis, or ELISA; of these, 14 had ANA titres > 200. Clinical data from 95 Ro/SS-A positive patients showed that 52% had SLE, 24% Sjögren syndrome, 8% rheumatoid arthritis, and 16% other diseases. (1) HEp-2 cells transfected with human 60 kDa Ro/SSA are useful for routine immunofluorescence detection for Ro/SS-A antibodies with a positive predictive value of 100%; (2) sera positive for Ro/SS-A antibodies by immunofluorescence should be tested for ENA by other methods because > 50% of these sera will have another ENA reactivity in addition to Ro/SS-A; (3) detection of Ro/SS-A by immunofluorescence may be missed in the presence of high titre ANAs; (4) with a detection sensitivity of 91%, a negative immunofluorescence results for Ro/SS-A does not exclude the presence of this autoantibody.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology 09/1999; 52(9):684-7. · 2.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
225 Downloads
924.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1975–2012
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Pathology Board
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2000
    • Nanyang Technological University
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 1978–1999
    • Alfred Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1995
    • National University of Singapore
      • Department of Pathology
      Singapore, Singapore
  • 1989–1992
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia