[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess fatigue amongst young adults with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), to determine subgroups at risk for fatigue and to explore the relationship between fatigue and cardiopulmonary fitness and daily physical activity level.Participants: Young adults with spastic CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III, aged 16 to 24 years.
Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale) and self-reported daily physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities) were assessed for 56 participants using questionnaires. Daily physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometry (Vitamove system) over 72 hours. Progressive maximal aerobic cycling was used to measure cardiopulmonary fitness.
The mean Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score was 3.7 (SD 1.4). Forty percent of participants were fatigued, including 12.5% who were severely fatigued. Participants with bilateral CP (FSS = 4.2 (SD 1.4)) were more fatigued compared to those with unilateral CP (FSS = 3.1 (SD 1.3)) (p < 0.01). Levels of cardiopulmonary fitness (2.4 L/min (SD 0.8)) and daily physical activity (8.5% (SD 3.0)) were not significantly related to fatigue (respectively p = 0.10 and p = 0.55), although for cardiopulmonary fitness a trend was found.
Fatigue is already present at a relatively young age amongst adults with CP, and CP subtype is a determinant of fatigue. We did not find significant evidence for a cross-sectional relation of fatigue with cardiopulmonary fitness or daily physical activity.Trial registration: Nederland's trial register: NTR1785.
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 12/2014; 11(1):161. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To evaluate both the short and long term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention on physical fitness in adolescents and young adults with CP.
Single blind, randomized controlled trial.
Six university hospital/clinics in the Netherlands
Fifty-seven adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy classified in GMFCS level I-IV, of whom 42 completed the study.
A six-month lifestyle intervention consisting of physical fitness training combined with counselling sessions focused on physical behavior and sports participation.
Main outcome measures
Physical fitness including measures of cardiopulmonary fitness, muscle strength and body composition.
Favorable short and medium-term effects were found for peak oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and load on the anaerobic threshold and waist circumference. Favorable long-term effects were found for sum of skinfolds, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol.
This exploratory study showed that the lifestyle intervention was effective in improving cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition. Effects of body composition were maintained on the long term. However, the intervention needs to be optimized to increase muscle strength and for long term retention of effects on aerobic capacity.
Clinical trial registration number: NTR1785
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 10/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe in detail the health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy, compared with able-bodied references, and to assess differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and distribution of cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional. Subjects: Fifty ambulatory persons with spastic cerebral palsy, GMFCS level I or II, aged 16-24 years. Methods: Physical fitness measures were: (i) cardiopulmonary fitness by maximal cycle ergometry, (ii) muscle strength, (iii) body mass index and waist circumference, (iv) skin-folds, and (v) lipid profile. Results: Regression analyses, corrected for age and gender, showed that persons with bilateral cerebral palsy had lower cardiopulmonary fitness and lower hip abduction muscle strength than those with unilateral cerebral palsy. Comparisons between persons with GMFCS levels I and II showed a difference only in peak power during cycle ergometry. Cardiopulmonary fitness, hip flexion and knee extension strength were considerably lower (< 75%) in persons with cerebral palsy than reference values. Conclusion: The distribution of cerebral palsy affects fitness more than GMFCS level does. Furthermore, adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy have reduced health-related physical fitness compared with able-bodied persons. This stage of life has a strong influence on adult lifestyle, thus it is an important period for intervention.
Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 04/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess physical behaviour, including physical activity and sedentary behaviour, of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). We compared participant physical behaviour to that of able-bodied persons and assessed differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and CP distribution (unilateral/bilateral).
In 48 ambulatory persons aged 16 to 24 years with spastic CP and in 32 able-bodied controls, physical behaviour was objectively determined with an accelerometer-based activity monitor. Total duration, intensity and type of physical activity were assessed and sedentary time was determined (lying and sitting). Furthermore, distribution of walking bouts and sitting bouts was specified.
Adolescents and young adults with CP spent 8.6% of 24 hours physically active and 79.5% sedentary, corresponding with respectively 123 minutes and 1147 minutes per 24 hours. Compared to able-bodied controls, persons with CP participated 48 minutes less in physical activities (p < 0.01) and spent 80 minutes more sedentary per 24 hours (p < 0.01). Physical behaviour was not different between persons with GMFCS level I and II and only number of short sitting bouts were significantly more prevalent in persons with bilateral CP compared to unilateral CP (p < 0.05).
Ambulatory adolescents and young adults with CP are less physically active and spend more time sedentary compared to able-bodied persons, suggesting that this group may be at increased risk for health problems related to less favourable physical behaviour.Trial registration: Nederlands trial register: NTR1785.
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 04/2014; 11(1):49. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the 6-minute walk test predicts peak oxygen uptake and whether the 6-minute walk test is a clinically applicable alternative to cardiopulmonary exercise testing in ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy DESIGN: Cross-sectional SETTING: University hospital and rehabilitation centers PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy classified in GMFCS level I or II.
The covered distance during 6 minutes was measured with a 6-minute walk test. Peak oxygen uptake was obtained with cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer.
Univariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the outcomes of both tests. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine whether peak oxygen uptake could be predicted by the 6-minute walk test, sex, body mass and GMFCS level. A significant relationship (p<0.01) was found between the outcomes of the 6-minute walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise test with an explained variance of 21%. The multiple linear regression analysis showed an explained variance of 58% and a standard error of estimate corresponding to 18% of the mean peak oxygen uptake.
The 6-minute walk test is poorly related to peak oxygen uptake in ambulatory adolescents and young adults with CP. Due to a high standard error of estimate, the multiple regression model did not allow for prediction of peak oxygen uptake from the 6-minute walk test in ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 06/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into underlying mechanisms of inactive lifestyles among adults with spastic bilateral CP with a focus on aerobic capacity, oxygen consumption, and physical strain during walking at preferred walking speed, as well as fatigue. DESIGN: Cross sectional SETTING: University hospital PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six adults, aged 25-45 years, with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy, walking with (n=6) or without, (n=30) walking aids. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical strain during walking was defined as oxygen uptake during walking, expressed as percentage of peak aerobic capacity. Participants with spastic bilateral CP walked their preferred walking speed while oxygen uptake was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Peak aerobic capacity was measured during maximal cycle ergometry. An accelerometry-based Activity Monitor measured total daily walking time. Regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between aerobic capacity, oxygen uptake and physical strain of walking on the one hand and total daily walking time on the other hand. RESULTS: Neither aerobic capacity nor oxygen uptake during walking was related to total daily walking time (r2=0.29, p=0.10 and r2=0.27, p=0.16). Physical strain of walking at preferred walking speed was inversely related to total daily walking time (r2=0.44, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Physical strain during walking is moderately related to total daily walking time, implying that people with high physical strain during walking at preferred walking speed likely walk less in daily life.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 11/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a systematic review of the impact of cerebral palsy (CP) on the level of health-related physical fitness (body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscular endurance, and strength) in adults with CP compared with able-bodied adults.
The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PEDro were searched up to December 2010 for relevant comparative studies.
Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria (adults, comparative design, components of physical fitness) to select potential relevant studies.
Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality. A consensus method was used to solve disagreements.
Pooling data was not possible, but a best-evidence synthesis was conducted. Also, a description of the level of health-related physical fitness in CP was given (expressed as a percentage of able-bodied controls). Nine case-control studies were included (average age ± SD of subjects with CP, 21±3y): 3 investigated body composition; 5, cardiorespiratory endurance; 3, muscular strength; and 1, muscular endurance. Two of the studies investigated multiple fitness components. No studies on flexibility were found. Muscular strength (34%-60%), muscular endurance (27%-52%), and cardiorespiratory endurance (14%) showed significantly lower values in adults with CP compared with able-bodied controls. Studies on body composition reported conflicting results on the impact of CP.
The results of this review point to a reduction in 3 components of health-related physical fitness in young adults with CP compared with controls: muscular strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance. However, the level of evidence varies from moderate (muscular strength) to limited (muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance). Additional studies of high methodological quality are recommended before firm conclusions can be made.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 05/2012; 93(5):871-81. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective cohort study.
To study the longitudinal relationship between objectively measured everyday physical activity level, and physical fitness and lipid profile in persons with a recent spinal cord injury (SCI).
A rehabilitation centre in the Netherlands and the participant's home environment.
Data of 30 persons with a recent SCI were collected at the start of active rehabilitation, 3 months later, at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and 1 year after discharge. Physical activity level (duration of dynamic activities as % of 24 h) was measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor. Regarding physical fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak) and peak power output (POpeak) were determined with a maximal wheelchair exercise test, and upper extremity muscle strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer. Fasting blood samples were taken to determine the lipid profile.
An increase in physical activity level was significantly related to an increase in VO(2)peak and POpeak, and an increase in physical activity level favourably affected the lipid profile. A nonsignificant relation was found with muscle strength.
Everyday physical activity seems to have an important role in the fitness and health of persons with a recent SCI. An increase in physical activity level was associated with an increase in physical fitness and with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to compare the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered by 3 devices with different mechanical behavior on jump force (JF) and jump rate of force development (JRFD). Twelve healthy persons (4 women and 8 men; age 30.5 ± 8.8 years; height 178.6 ± 7.3 cm; body mass 74.8 ± 9.7 kg) were exposed to WBV for 15 and 40 seconds using 2 professional devices (power plate [PP; vertical vibration] and Galileo 2000 [GA; oscillatory motion around the horizontal axis in addition to vertical vibration]) and a home-use device [Power Maxx, PM; horizontal vibration]). The JF and JRFD were evaluated before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after WBV. The JF measured immediately after 40 seconds of vibration by the GA device was reduced (3%, p = 0.05), and JRFD measured after 5 minutes of rest after 40 seconds of vibration by the PM device was reduced (12%, p < 0.05) compared with the baseline value. The acute effects of WBV (15 or 40 seconds) on JF and JRFD were not significantly different among the 3 devices. In conclusion, our hypothesis that WBV devices with different mechanical behaviors would result in different acute effects on muscle performance was not confirmed.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 11/2011; 26(3):691-6. · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability.
Participants' home environment.
Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124).
Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor.
Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean ± SD, 3.9±2.9 vs 1.5±0.9h/d; P<.01). Significant correlation (ρ=-.74; P<.01) was found between average number of hours of physical activity per day measured by using the 2 methods and difference in hours between methods. This indicates larger overestimation for persons with higher activity levels.
The PASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 06/2011; 92(6):923-8. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence-based recommendations regarding which exercise tests to use in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are lacking. This makes it very difficult for therapists and researchers to choose the appropriate exercise-related outcome measures for this group. This study aimed to identify a core set of exercise tests for children and adolescents with CP.
Fifteen experts (10 physical therapists/researchers and five exercise physiologists; three from the Netherlands, two from the USA, one from the UK, five from Canada, and four from Australia) participated in a Delphi survey which took four stages to achieve a consensus. Based on the information that was collected during the survey, a core set of measures was identified for levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS).
For children with CP classified at GMFCS levels I and II, tests were identified for two motor skills (walking and cycling). For the subgroup of children with CP classified at GMFCS level III, the tests that were identified related to walking, cycling, and arm cranking. For children with CP classified at GMFCS level IV, the tests included in the core set were related to cycling and arm cranking.
The core set will help physical therapists, exercise physiologists, and other health professionals who work with children and adolescents with CP to decide which test(s) to use in clinical practice or research. This will facilitate comparability of results across studies and clinical programmes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability in modern western countries. Stroke survivors often have functional limitations which might lead to a vicious circle of reduced physical activity, deconditioning and further physical deterioration. Current evidence suggests that routine moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity is essential for maintenance and improvement of health among stroke survivors. Nevertheless, long-term participation in physical activities is low among people with disabilities. Active video games, such as Nintendo Wii Sports, might maintain interest and improve long-term participation in physical activities; however, the intensity of physical activity among chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports is unknown. We investigated the energy expenditure of chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports tennis and boxing.
Ten chronic (≥6 months) stroke patients comprising a convenience sample, who were able to walk independently on level ground, were recruited from a rehabilitation centre. They were instructed to play Wii Sports tennis and boxing in random order for 15 minutes each, with a 10-minute break between games. A portable gas analyzer was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during sitting and during Wii Sports game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs), calculated as VO2 during Wii Sports divided by VO2 during sitting. We classified physical activity as moderate (3-6 METs) or vigorous (>6 METs) according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association Guidelines.
Among the 10 chronic stroke patients, 3 were unable to play tennis because they had problems with timing of hitting the ball, and 2 were excluded from the boxing group because of a technical problem with the portable gas analyzer. The mean (±SD) energy expenditure during Wii Sports game play was 3.7 (±0.6) METs for tennis and 4.1 (±0.7) METs for boxing. All 8 participants who played boxing and 6 of the 7 who played tennis attained energy expenditures>3 METs.
With the exception of one patient in the tennis group, chronic stroke patients played Wii Sports tennis and boxing at moderate-intensity, sufficient for maintaining and improving health in this population.
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 01/2011; 8:38. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (1) To give an overview of the impact of a variety of chronic physical conditions on accelerometry-based levels of everyday physical activity and to identify high-risk conditions; and (2) to compare these objectively assessed activity levels with the levels estimated by rehabilitation physicians.
Participant's home environment.
Patients (n=461) with 18 chronic physical (sub)conditions and able-bodied subjects (n=96).
We summarized data on the level of everyday physical activity as objectively measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor. Thirty-one rehabilitation physicians filled in a questionnaire designed to obtain their estimates of the level of physical activity in patients with the various conditions.
Only 4 of the studied conditions had normal activity levels (≥90% of the able-bodied level). Persons with transtibial amputation (vascular), spinal cord injury, and myelomeningocele (wheelchair dependent) had the lowest levels of activity, less than 40% of the able-bodied level. In general, rehabilitation physicians were aware of the inactive lifestyles, but considerably underestimated the magnitude of inactivity in the high-risk conditions.
This is the first study to provide an objectively assessed activity spectrum in a variety of chronic physical conditions. We hope this study will increase the awareness of health professionals as to which chronic physical conditions are at increased risk for an inactive lifestyle, and will contribute to adaptation of patient management accordingly.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 12/2010; 91(12):1856-61. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established.
We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy). The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1) counselling on daily physical activity; 2) physical fitness training; and 3) sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1) physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2) aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3) neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile.
This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24) aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle.
Dutch Trial Register; NTR1785.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine energy expenditure of adults with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy while playing Wii Sports tennis and boxing.
University medical center.
Five men and 3 women with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and ambulatory ability (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. The mean participant age ± SD was 36±7 years. Exclusion criteria were comorbidities that affected daily physical activity and fitness, contraindications to exercise, or inability to understand study instructions owing to cognitive disorders or language barriers.
Participants played Wii Sports tennis and boxing, each for 15 minutes in random order.
By using a portable gas analyzer, we assessed energy expenditure by oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) while sitting and during Wii Sports game play. Energy expenditure is expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs), which were calculated as Vo(2) during Wii Sports play divided by Vo(2) during sitting.
Mean ± SD energy expenditure during Wii Sports game play was 4.5±1.1METs for tennis and 5.0±1.1METs for boxing (P=.024). All participants attained energy expenditures greater than 3METs, and 2 participants attained energy expenditures greater than 6METs while playing Wii Sports tennis or boxing.
Both Wii Sports tennis and boxing seem to provide at least moderate-intensity exercise in adults with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (GMFCS level I or II). These games, therefore, may be useful as treatment to promote more active and healthful lifestyles in these patients. Further research is needed to determine the energy expenditures of other physically disabled patient groups while playing active video games, and to determine the effectiveness of these games in improving health and daily activity levels.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 10/2010; 91(10):1577-81. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the main barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities.
Qualitative study using focus groups.
Sixteen persons (12 men and 4 women) aged 22.4 (standard deviation 3.4) years, of whom 50% were wheelchair-dependent, participated in the study. Eight were diagnosed with myelomeningocele, 4 with cerebral palsy, 2 with acquired brain injury and 2 with rheumatoid arthritis.
Three focus group sessions of 1.5 h were conducted using a semi-structured question route to assess perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and content analysed. According to the Physical Activity for People with a Physical Disability model, barriers and facilitators were subdivided into personal factors and environmental factors.
Participants reported several barriers related to attitude and motivation. In addition, lack of energy, existing injury or fear of developing injuries or complications, limited physical activity facilities, and lack of information and knowledge, appeared to be barriers to physical activity. Fun and social contacts were mentioned as facilitators of engaging in physical activity, as well as improved health and fitness.
Young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities perceived various personal and environmental factors as barriers to or facilitators of physical activity. These should be taken into account when developing interventions to promote physical activity in this population.
Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 11/2009; 41(11):881-5. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on the level of everyday physical activity and to explore whether the activity level is related to adiposity. Measurements were performed with an accelerometry-based Activity Monitor during two consecutive schooldays in 12 children with PWS (7-16 years of age) and in 12 age- and gender-matched, healthy children. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index standard deviation scores and by percentage body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Mean duration of dynamic activities (expressed as percentage of 24 h) was lower in children with PWS than in the comparison group (8.7 [2.5]% and 12.0 [3.1]%, respectively; p = 0.01). Six children with PWS had normal activity levels. Physical activity level was not related to adiposity. The results indicate that, as a group, children with PWS have an inactive lifestyle. However, children with PWS cannot be stereotyped as inactive since half of them had normal activity levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to explore relationships with physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body fat.
Adolescents and young adults (N=31) with MMC (58% men) age 16 through 30 years; 13 were ambulatory and 18 were nonambulatory.
We studied biologic and lifestyle-related CVD risk factors, including lipid and lipoprotein profiles, blood pressure, aerobic fitness (Vo(2)peak), body fat, daily physical activity, and smoking behavior. We considered subjects at increased CVD risk when 2 or more of the following risk factors clustered: systolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and cigarette smoking. Relationships were studied using regression analyses.
Levels of TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were elevated in 29%, 38%, and 3% of the participants, respectively. HDL-C was reduced in 19%. Hypertension was found in 20%, and 19% were current cigarette smokers. Based on the clustering of risk factors, 42% of the participants were at increased CVD risk: 15% of ambulatory participants and 61% of nonambulatory participants (P=.03). Adjusted for sex and ambulatory status, participants with higher aerobic fitness tended to be more likely to have no CVD risk (odds ratio=13.0; P=.07). CVD risk was not associated to physical activity and body fat.
A large proportion of the study sample was at CVD risk, indicated by clustering of risk factors. Improving aerobic fitness in young adults with MMC may contribute in reducing CVD risk; this needs to be confirmed in future studies.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 11/2008; 89(11):2167-73. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the change over time in the physical activity level after a spinal cord injury (SCI), to explore its determinants, and to compare the physical activity level 1 year after discharge from the rehabilitation center with the level in able-bodied persons.
Prospective cohort study. Measurements were obtained at the start of active rehabilitation, 3 months later, at discharge, 2 months after discharge, and 1 year after discharge.
Rehabilitation center in The Netherlands and the participant's home.
Persons (n=40) with SCI.
The physical activity level, as indicated by the duration of dynamic activities (ie, wheelchair driving, walking, cycling, noncyclic movement) per day, and the intensity of everyday activity; both were measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 2 consecutive weekdays.
Random coefficient analyses showed that the duration of dynamic activities and the intensity of everyday activity increased during inpatient rehabilitation at rates of 41% and 19%, respectively (P<.01). Shortly after discharge, there was a strong decline (33%; P<.001) in the duration of dynamic activities. One year after discharge, this decline was restored to the discharge level but was low in comparison with levels in able-bodied persons. The level of lesion and completeness of lesion were determinants of the change in the physical activity level after discharge.
The physical activity level increased during inpatient rehabilitation, but this increase did not continue after discharge, and the level 1 year after discharge was distinctly lower than the level in able-bodied persons. Subpopulations had a different change over time in the physical activity level after discharge.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 11/2008; 89(11):2094-101. · 2.18 Impact Factor