Patrick Cole

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (74)78.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic enophthalmos resulting from medial orbital wall fractures presents a complex challenge. Access to this area through traditional incisions is limited, making visualization of the fracture site difficult. This can be ameliorated by the transcaruncular approach, but with the potential for complications both with access and with reconstructive materials. The authors sought a new technique where enophthalmos correction would be based on augmenting soft tissue volume, rather than reducing the volume of the bony orbital cone. This was successfully accomplished using porous high-density polyethylene wedges. In an effort to increase overall knowledge of this technique, a retrospective review was undertaken. A retrospective chart review was undertaken to examine the senior authors' (J.F.T. and L.H.H.) experience using a lateral approach to address medial orbital fracture-related enophthalmos, aided by porous high-density polyethylene wedges to increase orbital volume. The relevant literature was reviewed and reported here. Three patients with post-medial orbital wall fracture enophthalmos were treated using a lateral approach to place porous high-density polyethylene wedges; this technique adequately corrected enophthalmos in these patients. Porous high-density polyethylene wedges can be placed into the orbit through a small lateral incision to reverse enophthalmos secondary to loss of volume after medial orbital wall fractures. Current techniques for orbital reconstruction typically focus on reduction of bony volume; this technique focuses on augmentation of soft tissue volume.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2012; 23(3):762-6. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temporal hollowing is a depression within the soft tissues overlying the temporal fossa, sometimes seen after surgical dissection for access to the facial skeleton. Surgeons have successfully used bone grafts, hydroxyapatite, methyl methacrylate, and autogenous tissue to correct the deformity. A systematic review of the literature demonstrated that the most popular technique for the correction of temporal hollowing seems to be the use of nonbiologic materials. These materials have been used successfully but are associated with some complications. There has been a growing experience with augmentation of the soft tissues of the temporal fossa using dermal fat grafts at our institutions, and this article describes this experience. Two senior surgeons' recent experience with the correction of temporal hollowing was reviewed and analyzed. The retrospective review revealed 5 cases of temporal hollowing treated with dermal fat graft placement. Follow-up at 1 year revealed aesthetically pleasing results. A thorough understanding of temporal anatomy and conscious effort to respect structural integrity during dissection are essential in avoiding temporal hollowing. Sometimes, however, this deformity is impossible to avoid. In these patients, there are a number of options for correction. Open placement of the classic dermal fat graft is a technique that seems to offer good long-term aesthetic results.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2012; 23(3):e234-8. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Condylar fractures are the most common injury seen in pediatric mandibular trauma. These injuries often cannot be adequately stabilized by conservative techniques such as splinting. The pediatric condyle fracture often requires a period of intermaxillary fixation. Because of the characteristics of the developing dentition, circumdental wiring is often not possible. Surgeons commonly achieve interdental stabilization by the connection of a circum-mandibular wire and a second wire placed through a drill hole in the piriform aperture. This method can be problematic in the young patient whose palatal suture is still patent. In this brief technical note, the use of a paramedian drill hole through the palate posterior to the maxillary incisors is described. It is believed that this method is superior to other techniques because it avoids injury to the deciduous tooth buds and allows for the maxillary wire to be seated in more structurally sound tissues.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 03/2012; 23(2):605-7. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ideal product for soft tissue replacement is durable, nonimmunogenic, and noninfectious. AlloDerm (LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, New Jersey), Enduragen (Stryker Corp., Kalamazoo, Michigan), and DermaMatrix (Synthes, Inc., West Chester, Pennsylvania) are frequently used for soft tissue replacement, but comparative analysis of these materials over an extended time period has not been reported. DuraMatrix (bovine tendon matrix; Stryker Corp.) is also promising, demonstrating desirable properties not only as a dural substitute but also for soft tissue replacement. The authors analyze in vivo gross and microscopic changes over time with four commercially available dermal matrices, utilizing the murine model for a controlled environment. AlloDerm, Enduragen, DermaMatrix, and DuraMatrix implants measuring 1 × 1 cm were each implanted in 40 adult mice, in individual dorsal submuscular pockets. The mice were then sacrificed in groups of 10 at three, six, nine, and 12 months. The implants and surrounding tissues were excised and evaluated for gross and microscopic appearance. Histological analysis of the specimens demonstrated similar encapsulation, implant infiltration, and surrounding inflammation over time. Enduragen implants demonstrated the least amount of host cell infiltration, whereas AlloDerm demonstrated the most. Grossly, Enduragen maintained its original shape and became firmer over time, whereas AlloDerm became spherical and softer. DermaMatrix and DuraMatrix both maintained their original shape and consistency. Implant migration, explantation, infection, or allergic reactions were not noted. All of the materials studied demonstrated high levels of host tolerance and tissue integration. AlloDerm demonstrated signs of resorption, whereas Enduragen maintained its size and became firmer in consistency. Together with the histological results, this suggests a proportional relationship between the amount of host cell integration and implant resorption.
    Aesthetic surgery journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery 08/2011; 31(6):674-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Although primary thinning of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been successful in Asia, clinical and anatomic studies have demonstrated that this may be inadvisable in Western patients. Recent reports have demonstrated successful thinning of the ALT using smaller flaps. A systematic review was attempted, to assess whether ALT size affects the incidence of vascular compromise after primary thinning. A systematic review was undertaken to examine the relevant literature. Student t-test was used to compare flaps that did and did not have complications. Fisher exact test was used to compare outcomes of flaps measuring less than and greater than 150 cm2. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-eight ALT flaps were reported, and vascular compromise was seen in 11 (12.5%). The average size of flaps that demonstrated necrosis was 180.73 cm2; those without necrosis averaged 123.19 cm2 (P = 0.06). Flaps >150 cm2 had a significantly increased rate of compromise (25.93% vs. 6.56%; P < 0.05). A systematic literature review confirms that it is inadvisable to primarily thin large ALT flaps in the Western population. When large ALT flaps are required, primary thinning must be avoided to keep linking vessels intact.
    Annals of plastic surgery 10/2010; 65(6):555-9. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) Syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, along with other malformations such as cleft lip and palate, and various secondary issues such as chronic sinusitis, otitis media, and conductive hearing loss (CHL). The International Research Symposium for AEC Syndrome convened at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. Patients with a suspected diagnosis of AEC syndrome attended, and members of the dental, dermatology, plastic surgery, otolaryngology, and audiology services examined each patient. Eighteen patients with a diagnosis of AEC were evaluated. Mean age was 7.5 years (range: 4 months-30 years). Fourteen of the 15 subjects tested (93.33%) demonstrated CHL, with seven showing moderate to severe hearing deficits (41-90 dB). Nine of 13 respondents reported hoarseness or voice problems; 8 were noted to display this on examination. Fourteen of 16 subjects reported speech was below average for age; 8 were in speech therapy. All 18 subjects reported a history of otitis externa or otitis media. Eleven of the subjects (61.11%) required myringotomy and pressure equalizing (PE) tubes. All patients demonstrated cleft palate defects. Of these, 16 (94.11%) presented with clefting of the soft palate, and 10 (58.82%) showed hard palate defects. Three subjects (16.67%) were noted to have submucous clefts. Our experience leads us to propose that while the oroauditory problems in those with AEC syndrome is likely multifactorial, many issues may stem from palatal clefting. Despite this, some abnormalities persist following surgical cleft closure, which indicates other complicating factors are also involved.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 10/2009; 149A(9):1910-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 09/2009; 124(2):612-4. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex response to skin injury. Deregulation of this process can lead to excessive scar formation, as seen in keloids. Keloids are common skin lesions that are difficult to treat and are associated with high recurrence rates despite the large number of available treatment options. With increased knowledge of the disease process and further scientific advancements, future approaches will hopefully improve keloid treatment. In this article, we review the epidemiology, genetic basis, etiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of keloids.
    Seminars in Plastic Surgery 08/2009; 23(3):178-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in Caucasian skin but are much more common in the ethnic patient. Here, we discuss various aspects of skin hydration, dyschromia, sunscreen use, and chemical depilatories in the ethnic population.
    Seminars in Plastic Surgery 08/2009; 23(3):168-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Today, laser therapy is standard treatment for a wide variety of dermatologic complaints. From skin rejuvenation to the management of complex vascular malformations, laser treatment has proved to be an effective, innovative solution to once-challenging dilemmas. However, laser application in those with darker complexions remains a topic of great concern. Although contemporary devices may use longer-wavelength lasers and cooling devices to isolate target tissues within patients with high levels of epidermal melanin, significant risk remains. Today's laser surgeon must have a thorough understanding of patient concerns, lesion character and response to treatment, as well as the unique needs of those with darker skin. In this article, we discuss critical issues in patient assessment, proper evaluation of common skin complaints, and laser therapy use for a variety of lesions in the ethnic population.
    Seminars in Plastic Surgery 08/2009; 23(3):173-7.
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    ABSTRACT: As a universal means of communication and a critical tool for survival, the human hand is of extraordinary importance to our evolutionary survival. As the product of countless overlapping chemical signals, the upper extremity is highly dependent on a multifactoral web of genetic and environmental factors. At the molecular level, specialized signaling centers guide limb development along 3 spatial limb axes: (1) proximodistal, (2) anteroposterior, and (3) dorsoventral. Within the growing limb bud, the 3 main signaling centers are (1) the apical ectodermal ridge, (2) the zone of polarizing activity, and (3) the nonridge ectoderm. Cells within these signaling centers govern the process of limb differentiation via secretion of various chemical messengers. Although each aspect of extremity growth seems directly dependent on a process-specific mechanism, overall limb development relies on the proper interaction of these countless protein factors. Here, we review the macroscopic development of the upper limb and discuss the complex mechanisms underlying differentiation of the human hand.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2009; 20(4):992-5. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Yoav Kaufman, Patrick Cole, Larry Hollier
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve injuries resulting in significant neural disruption frequently present complex management challenges. Typically the product of fracture, dislocation, or crush injuries, pediatric peripheral nerve injuries may be difficult to accurately characterize. Thorough clinical examination coupled with electromyogram and neurophysiologic studies are extremely useful. When possible, primary repair should be attempted. If, however, defect size precludes primary reanastomosis, use of a nerve graft may be advantageous. Alternatively, nerve conduits, such as veins, pseudosheaths, and bioabsorbable tubes, are also effective facilitators of nerve regeneration. Although nerve injuries of the pediatric hand often present complex challenges, a thorough knowledge of diagnostic methods and advances in surgical interventions offers better outcomes.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2009; 20(4):1011-5. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the physiologic effects of ear deformity are negligible, the aesthetic and psychological impact on the patient can be profound. Significant ear malformations are prevalent in today's society and affect more than 5 percent of the population. Although the prominent ear results from either underdevelopment of the antihelix or an enlarged conchal bowl, the constricted ear is a product of helical down-folding and height deficiency. After a thorough evaluation, surgical management of the prominent ear must be approached in a careful, rational fashion. Although the surgeon may enjoy the wide latitude that hundreds of corrective techniques offer, he or she must always proceed with an algorithmic application of technique best suited to the specific auricular deformity. By using this approach, correction of the prominent ear can go beyond patient satisfaction to predictably maximize outcome in both form and symmetry. From the clinical evaluation and anatomical basis to surgical management of the deformed ear, the true art of otoplasty is in the surgeon's ability to thoroughly understand auricular structure and appropriately apply technique for maximal aesthetic outcome.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 07/2009; 124(1 Suppl):27e-37e. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Daniel A Hatef, Patrick D Cole, Larry H Hollier
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    ABSTRACT: Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Children are not 'small adults', and the management of facial fractures in this population is unique. Injuries tend to be less severe, and can often be managed with soft diet and restriction of activity. Maxillomandibular fixation should be used only when indicated, as it can result in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disturbances; to minimize this risk, it should be in place no longer than 7 days. Open reduction and internal fixation is indicated in severe injuries, and the surgeon must be cognizant of developing teeth. Small plates and screws are useful in this patient population. In this review of modern management of the pediatric facial trauma patient, several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures are discussed. Thorough ophthalmologic and dental/occlusive examinations must be undertaken. Conservative management is optimal for many injuries, as the pediatric fracture is typically not as severe as those seen in the adult facial skeleton. When wiring the jaw to allow for noninvasive fixation, treatment time must be short in order to avoid TMJ ankylosis. Rigid fixation is indicated in the rare comminuted, displaced fracture; when employed, the surgeon must use small plates and screws, and avoid injury to developing teeth. These are challenging cases, but with appropriate knowledge and understanding, they can be appropriately managed.
    Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 07/2009; 17(4):308-14.
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of a vertical fibrous cord along the posterior lower extremity is highly unusual. Because of its inflexible nature, cord structure may greatly limit leg extension, dorsiflexion, and general ambulation. Because of the paucity of such events, management strategies remain poorly defined. Although preoperative magnetic resonance imaging is useful in defining cord anatomy, a great deal of caution is critical during cord dissection. Not only have popliteal vessels been incorporated into such defects, but reports describe tibial nerve involvement as well. Although vertical fibrous cord presence is exceedingly rare in the lower extremity, fibrous cording is a frequent component of popliteal pterygia. However, the present malformation did not include soft tissue webbing, a critical portion of pterygial structure, and therefore cannot be considered a true pterygium. Although we suspect that the present cord defect may represent a relatively minor pterygial presentation, development of these unusual malformations remains enigmatic and confirmation is not currently possible. Here, we present an unusual case of vertical fibrous cord development in the lower extremity, and discuss relevant aspects of management.
    Annals of plastic surgery 07/2009; 62(6):676-8. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Constituting only 5 percent of facial fractures, frontal sinus fractures are relatively uncommon. However, given the great amount of force required to produce them, substantial morbidity is often seen. A thorough understanding of corrective techniques is essential when approaching these challenging injuries. In cases requiring sinus obliteration, it is critical that all mucosa be fully destroyed, the nasofrontal meatus completely sealed, and any posterior wall disruptions appropriately addressed. In this article, as a supplement to their video presentation, the authors discuss the surgical approach to frontal sinus fracture.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 06/2009; 123(5):1578-9. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    Patrick Cole, Yoav Kaufman, Larry H Hollier
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    ABSTRACT: Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their incidence in adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Here, we discuss several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures and review significant factors in their evaluation, diagnosis, and management.
    Craniomaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction 05/2009; 2(2):77-83.
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    Yoav Kaufman, Patrick Cole, Larry H Hollier
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    ABSTRACT: Facial gunshot wounds, often comprising significant soft and bone tissue defects, pose a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Whether resulting from assault, accident, or suicide attempt, a thorough assessment of the defects is essential for devising an appropriate tissue repair and replacement with a likely secondary revision. Immediately after injury, management is centered on advanced trauma life support with patient stabilization as the primary goal. Thorough examination along with appropriate imaging is critical for identifying any existing defects. Whereas past surgical management advocated delayed definitive treatment using serial debridement, today's management favors use of more immediate reconstruction. Recent advances in microsurgical technique have shifted favor from local tissue advancement to distant free flap transfers, which improve cosmesis and function. This has resulted in a lower number of surgeries required to achieve reconstruction. Because of the diversity of injury and the complexity of facial gunshot injuries, a systematic algorithm is essential to help manage the different stages of healing and to ensure that the best outcome is achieved.
    Craniomaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction 05/2009; 2(2):85-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Mandible fractures are commonplace in today's craniofacial practice; however, managing the infrequent, operative pediatric mandible injury requires a thorough knowledge base and thoughtful approach. Not only do these patients demonstrate variable anatomy due to differing stages of dental eruption, but condylar disruption may translate into long-term growth disturbance. In addition, patient immaturity often complicates cooperation, and both fixation strategies and postoperative planning must take this into account. As a supplement to the authors' video presentation, the present article focuses on repair of the symphyseal fracture and bilateral condylar injuries in the pediatric patient.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 04/2009; 123(3):1022-4. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 03/2009; 62(6):849-50. · 1.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

283 Citations
78.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Division of Plastic Surgery
      Houston, TX, United States
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Clinical Research Center
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Houston Zoo
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Texas Children's Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States