Joshua E Stern

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States

Are you Joshua E Stern?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)104.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the strong evidence of HPV infection as the etiological agent in a subset of oral cancer, oral α-HPV detection is rare in healthy individuals, and little is known of the existing of novel HPV types in oral cavity. We determined whether novel HPV types can be isolated from oral rinse samples collected from healthy individuals. We performed rolling circle amplification (RCA) coupled with degenerated PCR assay on 48 oral rinse samples to amplify novel HPV types. Full length HPV DNA was cloned using long range PCR. Quantitative type specific Taqman assays were used to determine the prevalence of novel HPV types in 158 archived oral tissue samples. We were able to isolate four novel human papillomavirus types. Full length HPV DNA was cloned for three of the four novel HPV types. All four HPV types belong to the genus Gammapapillomavirus (γ-PV), where HPV 171 is most closely related to HPV 169, showing 88% similarity; HPV 172 is most closely related to HPV 156, showing 70% similarity; HPV 173 is most closely related to HPV 4, showing 73% similarity; oral sample lavage (OSL) 37 is most closely related to HPV 144, showing 69% similarity. Finally, we showed that HPV 173 was rarely present in oral tissues (2/158), HPV 172 was only detected in normal oral tissues (25/76), and HPV 171 was more prevalent in malignant oral tissues (17/82 vs. 10/76, p=0.21). Novel γ-HPV types are present in oral cavity of healthy individuals.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 11/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load may inform the origin of newly detected infections and characterize oncogenic HPV natural history in midadult women. From 2007 to 2011, we enrolled 521 25-65-year-old-female online daters and followed them triannually with mailed health and sexual behavior questionnaires and kits for self-sampling for PCR-based HPV DNA testing. Samples from oncogenic HPV positive women were selected for type-specific DNA load testing by real-time PCR with adjustment for cellularity. Linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between viral levels, health and sexual behavior, and longitudinal oncogenic HPV detection. Type-specific viral levels were borderline significantly higher in oncogenic HPV infections that were prevalent versus newly detected (p = 0.092), but levels in newly detected infections were higher than in infections redetected after intercurrent negativity (p < 0.001). Recent sex partners were not significantly associated with viral levels. Compared with prevalent infections detected intermittently, the likelihood of persistent (OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 2.20-8.45) or single-time (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71) detection increased per 1-unit increase in baseline log10 viral load. Viral load differences between redetected and newly detected infections suggest a portion of new detections were due to new acquisition, although report of recent new sex partners (a potential marker of new infection) was not predictive of viral load; oncogenic HPV infections in midadult women with new partners likely represent a mix of new acquisition and reactivation or intermittent detection of previous infection. Intermittent detection was characterized by low viral levels, suggesting that intermittent detection of persisting oncogenic HPV infection may be of limited clinical significance.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is known to be deregulated in ovarian carcinomas. However, limited data is available about the miRNA expression pattern for the benign or borderline ovarian tumors as well as differential miRNA expression pattern associated with histological types, grades or clinical stages in ovarian carcinomas. We defined patterns of microRNA expression in tissues from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors and explored the relationship between frequently deregulated miRNAs and clinicopathologic findings, response to therapy, survival, and association with Her-2/neu status in ovarian carcinomas. We measured the expression of nine miRNAs (miR-181d, miR-30a-3p, miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p, miR-368, miR-370, miR-493-5p, miR-532-5p) in 171 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue blocks as well as six normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines using Taqman-based real-time PCR assays. Her-2/neu overexpression was assessed in ovarian carcinomas (n = 109 cases) by immunohistochemistry analysis. Expression of four miRNAs (miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p, miR-370) was significantly different between carcinomas and benign ovarian tissues as well as between carcinoma and borderline tissues. An additional three miRNAs (miR-181d, miR-30a-3p, miR-532-5p) were significantly different between borderline and carcinoma tissues. Expression of miR-532-5p was significantly lower in borderline than in benign tissues. Among ovarian carcinomas, expression of four miRNAs (miR-30a-3p, miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p) was lowest in mucinous and highest in clear cell samples. Expression of miR-30a-3p was higher in well-differentiated compared to poorly differentiated tumors (P = 0.02), and expression of miR-370 was higher in stage I/II compared to stage III/IV samples (P = 0.03). In multivariate analyses, higher expression of miR-181d, miR-30c, miR-30d, and miR-30e-3p was associated with significantly better disease-free or overall survival. Finally, lower expression of miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p and miR-532-5p was significantly associated with overexpression of Her-2/neu. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is common in ovarian tumor suggesting involvement of miRNA in ovarian tumorigenesis. They are associated with histology, clinical stage, survival and oncogene expression in ovarian carcinoma.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2012; 10:174. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of immunological parameters in tumorigenesis of cervical cancer in women infected with high risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), and determine whether key findings with human material can be recapitulated in the mouse TC1 carcinoma model which expresses hr-HPV epitopes. Epithelial and lymphoid cells in cervical tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and serum IL10 levels were determined by ELISA. Tumor draining lymph nodes were analyzed in the mouse TC1 model by flow cytometry. The mucosa was infiltrated by CD20+ and CD138+ cells already at cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1) and infiltration increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC), where it strongly correlated with infiltration by CD32B+ and FoxP3+ lymphocytes. GATA3+ and T-bet+ lymphoid cells were increased in ICC compared to normal, and expression in epithelial cells of the Th2 inflammation-promoting cytokine TSLP and of IDO1 was higher in CIN3/CIS and ICC. As a corollary, serum levels of IL10 were higher in women with CIN3/CIS or ICC than in normals. Finally we demonstrated in the mouse TC1 carcinoma, which expresses hr-HPV epitopes, an increase of cells expressing B cell or plasma cell markers or Fc receptors in tumor-draining than distal lymph nodes or spleen. hr-HPV initiates a local Th2 inflammation at an early stage, involving antibody forming cells, and fosters an immunosuppressive microenvironment that aids tumor progression.
    Gynecologic Oncology 07/2012; 127(2):412-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-melanoma skin cancers are one of the most common human malignancies accounting for 2-3% of tumors in the US and represent a significant health burden. Epidemiology studies have implicated Tp53 mutations triggered by UV exposure, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection to be significant causes of non-melanoma skin cancer. However, the relationship between Tp53 and cutaneous HPV infection is not well understood in skin cancers. In this study we assessed the association of HPV infection and Tp53 polymorphisms and mutations in lesional specimens with squamous cell carcinomas. We studied 55 cases of histologically confirmed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and 41 controls for the presence of HPV infection and Tp53 genotype (mutations and polymorphism). We found an increased number of Tp53 mutations in the squamous cell carcinoma samples compared with perilesional or control samples. There was increased frequency of homozygous Tp53-72R polymorphism in cases with squamous cell carcinomas, while the Tp53-72P allele (Tp53-72R/P and Tp53-72P/P) was more frequent in normal control samples. Carcinoma samples positive for HPV showed a decreased frequency of Tp53 mutations compared to those without HPV infection. In addition, carcinoma samples with a Tp53-72P allele showed an increased incidence of Tp53 mutations in comparison carcinomas samples homozygous for Tp53-72R. These studies suggest there are two separate pathways (HPV infection and Tp53 mutation) leading to cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas stratified by the Tp53 codon-72 polymorphism. The presence of a Tp53-72P allele is protective against cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma specimens with Tp53-72P are more likely to have Tp53 mutations. In contrast Tp53-72R is a significant risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and is frequently associated with HPV infection instead of Tp53 mutations. Heterozygosity for Tp53-72R/P is protective against squamous cell carcinomas, possibly reflecting a requirement for both HPV infection and Tp53 mutations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34422. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the first, to our knowledge, findings describing the relationships between both static and dynamic analysis parameters of 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET and the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67, and the protein expression and enzymatic activity of thymidine kinase-1 (TK1) in surgically resected lung lesions. Static and dynamic analyses (4 rate constants and 2 compartments) of (18)F-FLT PET images were performed in a cohort of 25 prospectively accrued, clinically suspected lung cancer patients before surgical resection (1 lesion was found to be benign after surgery). The maximal and overall averaged expression of Ki-67 and TK1 were determined by semiquantitative analysis of immunohistochemical staining. TK1 enzymatic activity was determined by in vitro assay of extracts prepared from flash-frozen samples of the same tumors. Static (18)F-FLT uptake (partial-volume-corrected maximum-pixel standardized uptake value from 60- to 90-min summed dynamic data) was significantly correlated with the overall (ρ = 0.57, P = 0.006) and maximal (ρ = 0.69, P < 0.001) immunohistochemical expressions of Ki-67 and TK1 (overall expression: ρ = 0.65, P = 0.001; maximal expression: ρ = 0.68, P < 0.001) but not with TK1 enzymatic activity (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.146). TK1 activity was significantly correlated with TK1 protein expression only when immunohistochemistry was scored for maximal expression (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.029). Dynamic analysis of (18)F-FLT PET revealed correlations between the flux constant (K(FLT)) and both overall (ρ = 0.53, P = 0.014) and maximal (ρ = 0.50, P = 0.020) TK1 protein expression. K(FLT) was also associated with both overall (ρ = 0.59, P = 0.005) and maximal (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.002) Ki-67 expression. We observed no significant correlations between TK1 enzyme activity and K(FLT). In addition, no significant relationships were found between TK1 expression, TK1 activity, or Ki-67 expression and any of the compartmental rate constants. The absence of observable correlations of the imaging parameters with TK1 activity suggests that (18)F-FLT uptake and retention within cells may be complicated by a variety of still undetermined factors in addition to TK1 enzymatic activity.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2011; 52(8):1181-8. · 5.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human gammadelta (γδ) T cells play an important role in protective immunity in HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus infection; their role in HIV-2 infection is unknown. To determine the role of γδ T cells in control of plasma viral load and CD4 T-cell count in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in West Africa. Thirty HIV-1 and 25 HIV-2 treatment-naive chronically infected individuals, and 20 HIV-seronegative individuals from Senegal were studied using multiparametric flow cytometry to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of peripheral γδ T cells. γδ T-cell parameters and correlates of HIV disease progression were assessed. : We observed an expansion of Vδ1 T-cell populations in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. However, unlike HIV-1 infection, no significant contraction of the frequency of total Vδ2 T cells was observed in HIV-2 infection. Significantly lower frequencies of CD4Vδ2 T cells were observed in HIV-2-infected individuals. Furthermore, frequencies of CD28CD45RO and CD27CD28CD45RO Vδ2 T cell were low in HIV-1-infected individuals. Vδ2 T-cell activation levels were elevated in both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals. The frequency of HLA-DRCD38-activated Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells was associated with a decline in CD4 T-cell counts and increased viral load in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. Although maintaining the normal frequency of total Vδ2 T cells, HIV-2 infection reduces the frequency of CD4Vδ2 T cells and alters the frequencies of subsets of Vδ1 T cells. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection induce γδ T-cell activation, and this activation is associated with the disease progression.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2011; 57(2):92-100. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infection is hampered by intrinsic resistance to many of the drugs used to treat HIV-1. Limited studies suggest that the integrase inhibitors (INIs) raltegravir and elvitegravir have potent activity against HIV-2 in culture and in infected patients. There is a paucity of data on genotypic variation in HIV-2 integrase that might confer intrinsic or transmitted INI resistance. We PCR amplified and analyzed 122 HIV-2 integrase consensus sequences from 39 HIV-2-infected, INI-naive adults in Senegal, West Africa. We assessed genetic variation and canonical mutations known to confer INI-resistance in HIV-1. No amino acid-altering mutations were detected at sites known to be pivotal for INI resistance in HIV-1 (integrase positions 143, 148 and 155). Polymorphisms at several other HIV-1 INI resistance-associated sites were detected at positions 72, 95, 125, 154, 165, 201, 203, and 263 of the HIV-2 integrase protein. Emerging genotypic and phenotypic data suggest that HIV-2 is susceptible to the new class of HIV integrase inhibitors. We hypothesize that intrinsic HIV-2 integrase variation at "secondary" HIV-1 INI-resistance sites may affect the genetic barrier to HIV-2 INI resistance. Further studies will be needed to assess INI efficacy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2-infected patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22204. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNA expression is severely disrupted in carcinogenesis, however limited evidence is available validating results from cell-line models in human clinical cancer specimens. MicroRNA-21 (mir-21) and microRNA-143 (mir-143) have previously been identified as significantly deregulated in a range of cancers including cervical cancer. Our goal was to investigate the expression patterns of several well-studied microRNA species in cervical samples and compare the results to cell line samples. We measured the expression of mir-21 and mir-143 in 142 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) cervical biopsy tissue blocks, collected from Dantec Oncology Clinic, Dakar, Senegal. MicroRNA expression analysis was performed using Taqman-based real-time PCR assays. Protein immunohistochemical staining was also performed to investigate target protein expression on 72 samples. We found that mir-21 expression increased with worsening clinical diagnosis but that mir-143 was not correlated with histology. These observations were in stark contrast to previous reports involving cervical cancer cell lines in which mir-143 was consistently down-regulated but mir-21 largely unaffected. We also identified, for the first time, that cytoplasmic expression of Programmed Cell Death Protein 4 PDCD4; a known target of mir-21) was significantly lower in women with invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in comparison to those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (2-3) or carcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/CIS), although there was no significant correlation between mir-21 and PDCD4 expression, despite previous studies identifying PDCD4 transcript as a known mir-21 target. Whilst microRNA biomarkers have a number of promising features, more studies on expression levels in histologically defined clinical specimens are required to investigate clinical relevance of discovery-based studies. Mir-21 may be of some utility in predictive screening, given that we observed a significant correlation between mir-21 expression level and worsening histological diagnosis of cervical cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28423. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It remains unknown whether tobacco smoke induces DNA hypermethylation as an early event in carcinogenesis or as a late event, specific to overt cancer tissue. Using MethyLight assays, we analyzed 316 lung tissue samples from 151 cancer-free subjects (121 ever-smokers and 30 never-smokers) for hypermethylation of 19 genes previously observed to be hypermethylated in nonsmall cell lung cancers. Only APC (39%), CCND2 (21%), CDH1 (7%), and RARB (4%) were hypermethylated in >2% of these cancer-free subjects. CCND2 was hypermethylated more frequently in ever-smokers (26%) than in never-smokers (3%). CCND2 hypermethylation was also associated with increased age and upper lobe sample location. APC was frequently hypermethylated in both ever-smokers (41%) and never-smokers (30%). BVES, CDH13, CDKN2A (p16), CDKN2B, DAPK1, IGFBP3, IGSF4, KCNH5, KCNH8, MGMT, OPCML, PCSK6, RASSF1, RUNX, and TMS1 were rarely hypermethylated (<2%) in all subjects. Hypermethylation of CCND2 may reflect a smoking-induced precancerous change in the lung.
    Journal of Oncology 01/2011; 2011:950140.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be associated with both HBV and HCV. While epigenetic changes have been previously reported to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whether the epigenetic profile of HBC associated HCC differs from that of HCV-associated HCC is unclear. We analyzed DNA methylation of ten genes (APC, CCND2, CDKN2A, GSTP1, HOXA9, RARB, RASSF1, RUNX, SFRP1, and TWIST1) using MethyLight assays on 65 archived liver tissue blocks. Three genes (APC, CCND2, and GSTP1) were frequently methylated in normal liver tissues. Five genes (APC, CDKN2A, HOXA9, RASSF1, and RUNX) were significantly more frequently methylated in malignant liver tissues than normal liver tissues. Among HCC cases, HOXA9, RASSF1 and SFRP1 were methylated more frequently in HBV-positive HCC cases, while CDKN2A were significantly more frequently methylated in HCV-positive HCC cases. Our data support the hypothesis that HCC resulting from different viral etiologies is associated with different epigenetic changes.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 04/2010; 88(2):287-92. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously identified a number of genes which were methylated significantly more frequently in the tumor compared to the non-cancerous lung tissues from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Detection of methylation profiles of genes in NSCLC could provide insight into differential pathways to malignancy and lead to strategies for better treatment of individuals with NSCLC. We determined the DNA methylation status of 27 genes using quantitative MethyLight assays in lung tumor samples from 117 clinically well-characterized NSCLC patients. Hypermethylation was detected in one of more of the genes in 106 (91%) of 117 cases and was detected at high levels (percentage methylation reference (PMR)> or =4%) in 79% of NSCLC cases. Methylation of APC, CCND2, KCNH5 and, RUNX was significantly more frequent in adenocarcinomas compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), while methylation of CDKN2A was more common in SCC. Hypermethylation of KCNH5, KCNH8, and RARB was more frequent in females compared to males. Hypermethylation of APC and CCND2 was inversely associated with proliferation score assessed by Ki-67 level. Our findings of differential gene hypermethylation frequencies in tumor tissues from patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell cancers and in females compared to males suggests that further investigation is warranted in order to more fully understand the potential disparate pathways and/or risk factors for NSCLC associated with histologic type and gender.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2009; 69(2):172-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The thymidine salvage pathway enzymes thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) compete for thymidine as a substrate and catalyze opposing synthetic and catabolic reactions that have been implicated in the control of proliferation and angiogenesis, respectively. We investigated the relationship between the expression of TK1 and TP as they relate to proliferation (Ki-67 labeling index) and angiogenesis (Chalkley count of CD31-stained blood vessels) in a series of 110 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors from patients prospectively enrolled in an imaging trial. TK1 and TP exhibited similar patterns of immunohistochemical distribution, in that each was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Each enzyme exhibited a significant positive correlation between its levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. A significant positive correlation between TK1 expression and the Ki-67 labeling index (r = 0.53, p<0.001) was observed. TP was significantly positively correlated with Chalkley scoring of CD31 staining in high vs low Chalkley scoring samples (mean TP staining of 115.8 vs 79.9 scoring units, p<0.001), respectively. We did not observe a substantial inverse correlation between the TP and TK1 expression levels in the nuclear compartment (r = -0.17, p=0.08). Tumor size was not found to be associated with TK1, TP, Ki-67, or Chalkley score. These findings provide additional evidence for the role of thymidine metabolism in the complex interaction of proliferation and angiogenesis in NSCLC.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 08/2009; 57(11):1087-97. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The differing magnitude of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 epidemics is likely a consequence of differing transmission rates between the two viruses. Similar to other sexually transmitted pathogens, risk of HIV-1 and HIV-2 transmission is likely associated with the presence and amount of HIV in the genital tract. Thus, understanding patterns of, and risk factors for HIV genital tract shedding is critical to effective control of HIV transmission. We evaluated HIV DNA and RNA detection in cervicovaginal specimens among 168 HIV-1 and 50 HIV-2-infected women in Senegal, West Africa. In a subset of 31 women (20 with HIV-1, 11 with HIV-2), we conducted a prospective study in which cervicovaginal specimens were taken at 3-day intervals over a 6-week period. We found significantly lower rates and levels of HIV-2 RNA (58% shedding; 13% with >1000 copies/ml) in the female genital tract than HIV-1 RNA (78% shedding; 40% with >1000 copies/ml) (P = 0.005 and 0.005, respectively), and shedding correlated with plasma viral load irrespective of virus type (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-2.8 for each log10 increase in HIV viral RNA). Plasma viral load, not HIV type, was the strongest predictor of genital viral load. Over 80% of closely monitored women, regardless of HIV type, had at least intermittent HIV RNA detection during every 3-day sampling over a 6-week time period. These data help in explaining the different transmission rates between HIV-1 and HIV-2 and may provide new insights regarding prevention.
    AIDS (London, England) 12/2008; 22(18):2517-25. · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To define patterns of aberrant DNA methylation, p53 mutation and Her-2/neu overexpression in tissues from benign (n=29), malignant (n=100), and border line malignant ovaries (n=10), as compared to normal (n=68) ovarian tissues. Further, to explore the relationship between the presence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in ovarian cancers, and assess the association between epigenetic changes and clinical stage of malignancy at presentation and response to therapy. The methylation status of 23 genes that were previously reported associated with various epithelial malignancies was assessed in normal and abnormal ovarian tissues by methylation-specific PCR. The presence of p53 mutation (n=82 cases) and Her-2/neu overexpression (n=51 cases) were assessed by DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Methylation of four genes (MINT31, HIC1, RASSF1, and CABIN1) was significantly associated with ovarian cancer but not other ovarian pathology. Her-2/neu overexpression was associated with aberrant methylation of three genes (MINT31, RASSF1, and CDH13), although aberrant methylation was not associated with p53 mutations. Methylation of RASSF1 and HIC1 was more frequent in early compared to late stage ovarian cancer, while methylation of CABIN1 and RASSF1 was associated with response to chemotherapy. DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes is a frequent event in ovarian cancer, and in some cases is associated with Her-2/neu overexpression. Methylation of CABIN1 and RASSF1 may have the utility to predict response to therapy.
    Gynecologic Oncology 09/2008; 111(2):320-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known risk factor for the development of anogenital squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). A similar association has been hypothesized for cutaneous SCCs, although, to our knowledge, no studies to date have combined sensitive HPV DNA detection techniques with epidemiologic data controlling for known risk factors to explore the association. We designed a case-control study examining HPV prevalence using highly sensitive PCR-detection assays in tissue samples from 85 immunocompetent patients with histologically confirmed SCCs and 95 age-matched individuals without a prior history of skin cancer. A standardized interview was administered to all study subjects to collect information pertaining to potential confounding variables. The overall detection rate of HPV DNA was high in case lesions (54%) and perilesions (50%) and in both sun-exposed normal tissue (59%) and non-sun-exposed normal tissue (49%) from controls. In comparing case tissue to control tissue, there was no differential detection of HPV DNA across various HPV species. However, HPV DNA from beta-papillomavirus species 2 was more likely to be identified in tumors than in adjacent healthy tissue among cases (paired analysis, odds ratio=4.0, confidence interval=1.3-12.0). The high prevalence of HPV DNA detected among controls suggests that HPV DNA is widely distributed among the general population. However, the differential detection of HPV beta-papillomavirus species in tumors among cases suggests that certain HPV types may be involved in the progression of cutaneous SCCs.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 07/2008; 128(6):1409-17. · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We used MethyLight assays to analyze DNA methylation status of 27 genes on 49 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent surgical resection. Seven genes (RARB, BVES, CDKN2A, KCNH5, RASSF1, CDH13, and RUNX) were found to be methylated significantly more frequently in tumor tissues than in noncancerous tissues. Only methylation of CCND2 and APC was frequently detected in both cancerous and noncancerous tissues, supporting the hypothesis that the methylation of these two genes is a preneoplastic change and may be associated with tobacco smoking exposure. Methylation of any one of eight genes (RASSF1, DAPK1, BVES, CDH13, MGMT, KCNH5, RARB, or CDH1) was present in 80% of NSCLC tissues but only in 14% of noncancerous tissues. Detection of methylation of these genes in blood might have utility in monitoring and detecting tumor recurrence in early-stage NSCLC after curative surgical resection.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 04/2008; 17(3):645-54. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progressive immune dysfunction and AIDS develop in most cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but in only 25 to 30% of persons with HIV-2 infection. However, the natural history and immunologic responses of individuals with dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection are largely undefined. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that among patients with dual infection the control of HIV-1 is associated with the ability to respond to HIV-2 Gag epitopes and to maintain HIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. To test this, we compared the HIV-specific ex vivo IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses of 19 dually infected individuals to those of persons infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 only. Further, we assessed the functional profile of HIV Gag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from nine HIV dually infected patients by using a multicolor intracellular cytokine staining assay. As determined by ELISPOT assay, the magnitude and frequency of IFN-gamma-secreting T-cell responses to gene products of HIV-1 were higher than those to gene products of HIV-2 (2.64 versus 1.53 log(10) IFN-gamma spot-forming cells/10(6) cells [90% versus 63%, respectively].) Further, HIV-1 Env-, Gag-, and Nef- and HIV-2 Gag-specific responses were common; HIV-2 Nef-specific responses were rare. HIV-specific CD4(+) T helper responses were detected in nine of nine dually infected subjects, with the majority of these T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and, to a lesser extent, interleukin-2. The HIV-1 plasma viral load was inversely correlated with HIV-2 Gag-specific IFN-gamma-/TNF-alpha-secreting CD4(+) and HIV-2 Gag-specific IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) T cells. In conclusion, the T-cell memory responses associated with containment of single HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection play a similar significant role in the immune control of dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection.
    Journal of Virology 10/2007; 81(17):9061-71. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This prospective study evaluated the prognostic significance of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at positron emission tomography, in a carefully staged population, while correcting for partial volume effects. Two hundred eight potentially resectable NSCLC patients were referred for FDG positron emission tomography staging after thoracic computed tomography. Each tumor stage was confirmed surgically, or for some stage IV tumors by additional imaging. The tumor maximum pixel-standardized uptake value (maxSUV) and the maxSUV partial volume corrected for lesion size (PVCmaxSUV) were compared with overall survival and disease-free survival using Cox proportional hazards regression. Stage distribution: stage I, 36%; stage II, 15%; stage III, 30%; stage IV, 19%. Patients were followed for a median of 33.6 months, with 90 deaths from NSCLC (median survival for all stages, 43.3 months). With respect to overall survival, the most significant cutoff value for both maxSUV and PVCmaxSUV was 7. MaxSUV > or =7 was significantly associated with an increased risk of death from NSCLC in univariable analysis, whereas PVCmaxSUV > or =7 was only marginally associated. However, in multivariable analyses, neither maxSUV > or =7 nor PVCmaxSUV > or =7 provided significant additional prognostic information over stage, tumor size, and age. In the 103 patients who underwent surgical resection only, surgical stage, but not maxSUV or PVCmaxSUV, was univariably associated with survival or recurrence. SUV definitions based on lean body mass, body surface area, and plasma glucose correction yielded identical results. As expected, tumor stage is prognostic in NSCLC. However, tumor FDG uptake does not provide additional prognostic information. This prospective study contradicts prior reports.
    Clinical Cancer Research 07/2007; 13(11):3255-63. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the feasibility of using detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in combination with the presence of aberrantly methylated genes (DAPK1, RARB, TWIST1, and CDH13) for urine-based cervical cancer screening. Urine samples from 129 Senegalese women, aged 35 years or older, 110 with (same day) biopsy-proven cervical neoplasia [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN-1): n = 9; CIN-2-3/carcinoma in situ (CIS): n = 29; invasive cervical cancer (ICC): n = 72], and 19 without cervical neoplasia on biopsy were examined. Hypermethylation of at least one of the four genes identified 62% of ICC and 28% of CIN-2-3/CIS and was present in only 4% of CIN-1 or normal urines. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in urine in 70% of those with biopsy-proven ICC, 59% of those with CIN-2-3/CIS on biopsy, 44% of those with CIN-1 on biopsy, and only 11% of women negative for cervical neoplasia on biopsy. Urine-based detection of either high-risk HPV or hypermethylation of any of the four genes identified 84% of ICC, 64% of CIN-2-3/CIS, 44% of CIN-1, but only 19% of women negative for cervical neoplasia. The sensitivity for detection of CIN-2-3/CIS/ICC by high-risk HPV DNA or aberrant DNA methylation of four genes seems to be comparable to that of an exfoliated cervical cytology. This study shows the potential feasibility of using molecular markers detected in urine for cervical cancer screening.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 07/2007; 16(6):1178-84. · 4.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

430 Citations
104.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2008
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Irvine, California, United States