[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin is the first barrier preventing microorganism invasion in host. Wounds destroy this defense barrier and, without an appropriate care, may lead to sepsis. Neutrophil activation and immigration plays an important role at the inflammatory stage of wound healing. Neutrophils are known to express proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), which can be activated by serine proteases, also by enzymes involved in wound healing. We previously reported that PAR(2) agonists up-regulate cell adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production by human neutrophils. Here, we demonstrate that PAR(2) agonists (serine proteases as well as synthetic peptides) reduce transendothelial migration of neutrophils and prolong their life in vitro. Synthetic PAR(2) agonist also enhanced protective interferon (IFN)gamma-induced FcgammaRI expression at neutrophil cell surface. Of note, IFNgamma is a cytokine, which was used in clinical trials to reactivate human neutrophil functions during sepsis. Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAR(2) expression on cell surface of neutrophils from septic patients as compared with healthy volunteers. Together, our results indicate that PAR(2) may be involved in the pathophysiology of neutrophil-endothelial interactions during wound healing or later during sepsis in humans, potentially by affecting neutrophil apoptosis, transendothelial migration and Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wnt-signaling pathway plays a critical role in directing cell fate during embryogenesis. Several lines of evidence also suggest a role in inflammatory processes. Here, we analyzed whether Wnt signaling plays a role in leukocyte inflammatory responses. Monocytes from healthy donors expressed different Frizzled receptors, which are ligands for the Wnt molecules. Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway by LiCl or Wnt3a increased beta-catenin protein levels in monocytes but not in granulocytes. It is interesting that the activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling via Wnt3a in monocytes resulted in a decrease in migration through an endothelial layer (human dermal microvascular endothelial cell-1). Further experiments revealed that the decrease in transendothelial migration was associated with specific monocyte adherence to endothelial cells after Wnt exposure. The specificity was verified by a lack of Wnt3a-induced adhesion to fibronectin, laminin, or collagen compared with endothelial interaction. Analysis of the distribution of beta-catenin revealed a Wnt3a-induced increase of beta-catenin in the cytoplasm. Wnt3a exposure did not result in any activation of the classical Wnt-target gene c-myc or a Wnt-target gene involved in cell adhesion (Connexin43). Our study implicates for the first time a role of canonical Wnt signaling in inflammatory processes in monocytes.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 07/2006; 79(6):1306-13. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8) and MRP14, S100 proteins secreted by activated phagocytes, bind specifically to endothelial cells. The endothelial response to MRP8/MRP14, however, is unknown. Using oligonucleotide microarray analysis, we show for the first time that MRP8/MRP14 induce a thrombogenic, inflammatory response in human microvascular endothelial cells by increasing the transcription of proinflammatory chemokines and adhesion molecules and by decreasing the expression of cell junction proteins and molecules involved in monolayer integrity. All changes on the gene expression level could be confirmed using biochemical and functional assays. We demonstrated that the expression of MRP8/MRP14 closely correlated with the inflammatory activity in systemic vasculitis, confirming the important role of these proteins for distinct inflammatory reactions in endothelia. MRP8/MRP14 may represent novel targets for anti-inflammatory strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRP14 (S100A9) is the major calcium-binding protein of neutrophils and monocytes. Targeted gene disruption reveals an essential role of this S100 protein for transendothelial migration of phagocytes. The underlying molecular mechanism comprises major alterations of cytoskeletal metabolism. MRP14, in complex with its binding partner MRP8 (S100A8), promotes polymerization of microtubules. MRP14 is specifically phosphorylated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This phosphorylation inhibits MRP8/MRP14-induced tubulin polymerization. Phosphorylation of MRP14 is antagonistically regulated by binding of MRP8 and calcium. The biologic relevance of these findings is confirmed by the fact that MAPK p38 fails to stimulate migration of MRP14(-/-) granulocytes in vitro and MRP14(-/-) mice show a diminished recruitment of granulocytes into the granulation tissue during wound healing in vivo. MRP14(-/-) granulocytes contain significantly less polymerized tubulin, which subsequently results in minor activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 after stimulation of p38 MAPK. Thus, the complex of MRP8/MRP14 is the first characterized molecular target integrating MAPK- and calcium-dependent signals during migration of phagocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) belongs to a novel subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven-transmembrane domains. PAR2 can be activated by serine proteases such as trypsin, mast cell tryptase, and allergic or bacterial proteases. This receptor is expressed by various cells and seems to be crucially involved during inflammation and the immune response. As previously reported, human neutrophils express functional PAR2. However, the precise physiological role of PAR2 on human neutrophils and its implication in human diseases remain unclear. We demonstrate that PAR2 agonist-stimulated human neutrophils show significantly enhanced migration in 3-D collagen lattices. PAR2 agonist stimulation also induced down-regulation of L-selectin display and up-regulation of membrane-activated complex-1 very late antigen-4 integrin expression on the neutrophil cell surface. Moreover, PAR2 stimulation results in an increased secretion of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8, and IL-6 by human neutrophils. These data indicate that PAR2 plays an important role in human neutrophil activation and may affect key neutrophil functions by regulating cell motility in the extracellular matrix, selectin shedding, and up-regulation of integrin expression and by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Thus, PAR2 may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases involving activated neutrophils.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 09/2004; 76(2):388-98. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell-cell contacts control the vascular permeability, thereby regulating the flow of solutes, macromolecules, and leukocytes between blood vessels and interstitial space. Because of specific needs, the endothelial permeability differs significantly between the tight blood-brain barrier endothelium and the more permeable endothelial lining of the non-brain microvasculature. Most likely, such differences are due to a differing architecture of the respective interendothelial cell contacts. However, while the molecules and junctional complexes of macrovascular endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier endothelium are fairly well characterized, much less is known about the organization of intercellular contacts of microvascular endothelium. Toward this end, we developed a combined cross-linking and immunoprecipitation protocol which enabled us to map nearest neighbor interactions of junctional proteins in the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1. We show that proteins typically located in tight or adherens junctions of epithelial cells are in the proximity in HMEC-1 cells. This contrasts with the separation of the different types of junctions observed in polarized epithelial cells and "tight" endothelial layers of the blood-brain barrier and argues for a need of the specific junctional contacts in microvascular endothelium possibly required to support an efficient transendothelial migration of leukocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The S100A9 (MRP14) protein is abundantly expressed in myeloid cells and has been associated with various inflammatory diseases. The S100A9-deficient mice described here were viable, fertile, and generally of healthy appearance. The myelopoietic potential of the S100A9-null bone marrow was normal. S100A8, the heterodimerization partner of S100A9 was not detectable in peripheral blood cells, suggesting that even a deficiency in both S100A8 and S100A9 proteins was compatible with viable and mature neutrophils. Surprisingly, the invasion of S100A9-deficient leukocytes into the peritoneum and into the skin in vivo was indistinguishable from that in wild-type mice. However, stimulation of S100A9-deficient neutrophils with interleukin-8 in vitro failed to provoke an up-regulation of CD11b. Migration upon a chemotactic stimulus through an endothelial monolayer was markedly diminished in S100A9-deficient neutrophils. Attenuated chemokinesis of the S100A9-deficient neutrophils was observed by using a three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay. The altered migratory behavior was associated with a microfilament system that was highly polarized in unstimulated S100A9-deficient neutrophils. Our data suggest that loss of the calcium-binding S100A9 protein reduces the responsiveness of the neutrophils upon chemoattractant stimuli at least in vitro. Alternative pathways for neutrophil emigration may be responsible for the lack of any effect in the two in vivo models we have investigated so far.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2003; 23(3):1034-43. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial toxins affecting Rho activity in microvascular endothelial cells were employed to elucidate whether endothelial Rho participates in regulating the migration of monocytes across monolayers of cultured endothelial cells. Inactivation of Rho by the Clostridium C3 exoenzyme resulted in an increased adhesion of peripheral blood monocytes to the endothelium and a decreased rate of transendothelial monocyte migration. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1-mediated activation of endothelial Rho also reduced the rate of monocyte transmigration, but did not affect monocyte-endothelium adhesion. Thus, efficient leukocyte extravasation requires Rho signaling not only within the migrating leukocytes but also within the endothelial lining of the vessel wall.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although molecular changes accompanying leukocyte extravasation have been investigated intensively, the particular events following leukocyte adhesion and leading to the actual transendothelial migration process remain largely unknown. To characterize intraendothelial signals elicited by leukocyte adhesion and functionally required for their transmigration, we recorded endothelial free cytosolic intracellular Ca(2+)levels ([Ca(2+)]i) during the course of leukocyte adhesion. We show that monocyte and granulocyte adhesion induced Ca(2+)transients in either untreated or TNF-alpha-stimulated microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). The functional significance of these [Ca(2+)]i rises was demonstrated by treating filter-grown endothelial monolayers with BAPTA/AM. This in traendothelial Ca(2+)chelation left monocyte adhesion basically unaffected, but caused a significant and dose-dependent reduction of the transendothelial migration of monocytes. Granulocyte diapedesis, on the other hand, was hardly modified. Thapsigargin-treatment of endothelial cells almost completely inhibited the transmigration of monocytes suggesting that the necessary Ca(2+)transients depended on a release from intracellular Ca(2+)stores. Our results thus show that the transmigration of monocytes through endothelial monolayers of microvascular origin is favoured by an increase of the intraendothelial [Ca(2+)]i induced by leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze which physiologic stimuli induce secretion of myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8) and MRP14, two S100 proteins expressed in neutrophils and monocytes, and to determine whether serum concentrations of these proteins are reliable parameters for monitoring inflammatory activity in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).
Secretion of MRP8 and MRP14 was analyzed using a coculture system of endothelial cells and monocytes. Concentrations of MRP8/MRP14 in the serum and synovial fluid of JRA patients or culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of MRP8 and MRP14 by leukocytes in synovial tissue or fluid was investigated using immunohistochemistry.
MRP8 and MRP14 were specifically released during interaction of activated monocytes with tumor necrosis factor-stimulated endothelial cells. Secretion was mediated via an increase in intracellular calcium levels in monocytes. In contrast, contact with resting endothelium inhibited protein kinase C-induced secretion of the proteins by monocytes. In JRA patients, MRP8 and MRP14 were strongly expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and monocytes within the inflamed joints and could be found in significantly higher concentrations in synovial fluid (mean 42,800 ng/ml) compared with serum (2,060 ng/ml). Concentrations of MRP8/MRP14 in serum correlated well with those in synovial fluid (r = 0.78) and showed a strong correlation with disease activity (r = 0.62). After intraarticular triamcinolone therapy, the serum concentrations of MRP8/MRP14 decreased significantly in therapy responders, whereas no differences were found in patients who showed no clinical benefit.
MRP8 and MRP14 are specifically released during the interaction of monocytes with inflammatory activated endothelium, probably at sites of local inflammation. Their serum concentrations represent a useful marker for monitoring local inflammation in JRA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in cytosolic calcium concentrations regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, and calcium-binding proteins are the key molecules in signal transduction, differentiation, and cell cycle control. S100A12, a recently described member of the S100 protein family, has been shown to be coexpressed in granulocytes and monocytes together with two other S100 proteins, MRP8 (S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9), and a functional relationship between these three S100 proteins has been suggested. Using Western blotting, calcium overlays, intracellular flow cytometry, and cytospin preparations, we demonstrate that S100A12 expression in leukocytes is specifically restricted to granulocytes and that S100A12 represents one of the major calcium-binding proteins in these cells. S100A12, MRP8, and MRP14 translocate simultaneously from the cytosol to cytoskeletal and membrane structures in a calcium-dependent manner. However, no evidence for direct protein-protein interactions of S100A12 with either MRP8 or MRP14 or the heterodimer was found by chemical cross-linking, density gradient centrifugation, mass spectrometric measurements, or yeast two hybrid detection. Thus, S100A12 acts individually during calcium-dependent signaling, independent of MRP8, MRP14, and the heterodimer MRP8/MRP14. This granulocyte-specific signal transduction pathway may offer attractive targets for therapeutic intervention with exaggerated granulocyte activity in pathological states.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1999; 274(36):25291-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor