[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local genomic architecture, such as segmental duplications (SDs), can induce copy number variations (CNVs) hotspots in the human genome, many of which manifest as genomic disorders. Significant technological advances have been achieved for genome-wide CNV investigations, but these costly methods are not suitable for genotyping certain disease-associated CNVs or other loci of interest in populations. Recently, two independent studies showed that the murine meiosis expressed gene 1 (Meig1) was critical to spermatogenesis. We found that the human orthologue MEIG1 is flanked by an SD pair, between which non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) can cause recurrent CNVs. To study this potential CNV hotspot and its role in spermatogenesis, we developed a new CNV genotyping method, AccuCopy, based on multiplex competitive amplification to investigate 320 patients with spermatogenic impairment and 93 healthy controls. Three MEIG1 duplications (two in patients and one in controls) were identified, whereas no deletion was found. As NAHR results in more recurrent deletions than duplications at a locus, the over representation of recurrent MEIG1 duplications suggests a potential purifying selection operating on this hotspot, possibly via fecundity. We also showed that AccuCopy is an efficient and reliable method for multiplex CNV genotyping.
Journal of Human Genetics 06/2012; 57(8):545-51. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variations in the activities of Cytochrome P450s are one of the major factors responsible for inter-individual differences in drug clearance rates, which may cause serious toxicity or inefficacy of therapeutic drugs. Various mRNA level is one of the key factors for different activity of the major P450 genes. Although both genetic and environmental regulators of P450 gene expression have been widely investigated, few studies have evaluated the functional importance of cis- and trans-regulatory factors and environmental factors in the modulation of inter-individual expression variations of the P450 genes. In this study, we measured the mRNA levels of seven major P450 genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) in 96 liver biopsy samples from Chinese population. Both trans-acting (mRNA levels and non-synonymous SNPs of putative regulator genes) and cis-acting (gene copy number and functional SNPs) factors were investigated to identify the determinants of the expression variations of these seven P450 genes. We found that expression variations of most P450 genes, regulator genes and housekeeping genes were positively correlated at the mRNA level. After partial correlation analysis using ACTB and GAPDH expression to eliminate the effect of global regulators, a UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree was constructed to reveal the effects of specific regulation networks potentially masked by global regulators. Combined with the functional analysis of regulators, our results suggested that expression variation at the mRNA level was mediated by several factors in a gene-specific manner. Cis-acting genetic variants might play key roles in the expression variation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A5, environmental inducers might play key roles in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 variation and global regulators might play key roles in CYP2C9 variation. In addition, the functions of regulators that play less important roles in controlling expression variation for each P450 gene were determined.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e24900. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus comprises the CYP1A1 (5,988 bp) and CYP1A2 (7,759 bp) transcribed regions, oriented head-to-head, sharing a bidirectional promoter of 23,306 bp. The older CYP1A1 gene appears more conserved and responsible for critical life function(s), whereas the younger CYP1A2 gene might have evolved more rapidly due to environmental (dietary) pressures. A population genetics study might confirm this premise. We combined 60 CYP1A1_CYP1A2 SNPs found in the present study (eight New Guinea Highlanders, eight Samoans, four Dogrib, four Teribe, four Pehuenche, and one Caucasian) with those found in a previous study (six West Africans, four Han Chinese, six Germans, four Samoans, and four Dogrib), yielding a total of 106 SNPs in 106 chromosomes. Resequencing of Oceanians plus Amerindians in the present study yielded 21 New World SNPs ( approximately 20%), of which 17 are not previously reported in any SNP database. Various tests revealed selective pressures for both genes and both haploblocks; unfortunately, differences in rates of evolution between the two genes were undetectable. Fay & Wu's H test revealed a "hitchhiking event" centered around four SNPs in the CYP1A1 3'-UTR; a study in silico identified different microRNA-binding patterns in the hitchhiked region, when the mutations were present compared with the mutations absent.
Human Mutation 10/2009; 31(1):27-40. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genotype responsible for more than 60-fold interindividual differences in human hepatic CYP1A2 constitutive expression is not understood. Resequencing the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus (39.6 kb) in five major geographically isolated subgroups recently led to the identification of 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 57 of which were double-hit SNPs. Here, we attempted to correlate the CYP1A2 genotype with a metabolic phenotype. We chose 16 SNPs (all having a minor allele frequency > or =0.05 in Caucasians) to genotype 32 DNA samples (26 Caucasians, six Ethiopians) in which CYP1A2 metabolism had previously been determined. From 280 subjects (five locations worldwide) that had been CYP1A2-phenotyped, we genotyped the 10 highest, 14 lowest and eight intermediate DNA samples. Although no SNP was significant (P<0.05), possibly due to the small sample size, we found a trend for several of the six SNPs across the CYP1A2 linkage disequilibrium block associated with the trait. Five CYP1A2 haplotypes were inferred, two of which had not previously been reported; haplotype 1A2H10 showed the greatest association with CYP1A2 activity. Regulatory sequences responsible for the large interindividual differences in hepatic CYP1A2 gene basal expression might reside, in part, with some of these CYP1A2 SNPS but, in large part, might be located either cis (in nearby sequences not yet haplotyped) or trans in that they are not linked to the gene. We conclude that no SNP or haplotype in the CYP1A2 gene has yet been identified that can unequivocally be used to predict the metabolic phenotype in any individual patient.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 05/2006; 16(5):359-67. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interindividual differences in human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression appear to be associated with variability in risk toward various types of environmental toxicity and cancer. These two genes are oriented head-to-head on human chromosome 15; the 23.3-kb spacer region might contain distinct regulatory regions for CYP1A1 and distinct regulatory regions for CYP1A2, or the regulatory regions for the two genes might overlap one another. From 24 unrelated subjects of five major, geographically-isolated subgroups, we resequenced both genes (all exons and all introns) plus some 3' flanking sequences and the entire spacer region (39.6 kb total); 85 SNPs were found, 49 of which were not currently in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Of the 57 double-hit SNPs, we carried out SNP-typing in 94 Africans, 96 Asians, and 83 Caucasians and found striking ethnic differences in SNP frequencies and haplotype evolution; the two CYP1A1 SNPs and the one CYP1A2 SNP that are most commonly used in epidemiological studies were shown not to be representative haplotype tag SNPs across these three human subgroups. Four BAC-transgenic mouse lines, carrying the human CYP1A2 and 15,190 bp of 5' flank, expressed only negligible basal or inducible CYP1A2 mRNA. A fifth BAC-transgenic mouse line, carrying both the human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes and ample amounts of 3' flanking sequences, plus all of the spacer region--in the absence of the mouse Cyp1a1 or Cyp1a2 genes--expressed the human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA, protein and enzyme activities in liver and nonhepatic tissues very similar to that of the mouse. Comparison of this hCYP1A1_1A2 transgenic line with hCYP1A1_1A2 lines carrying other common human haplotypes will enable us to evaluate function in human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus variability, with regard to toxicity and cancer caused by combustion products.
Human Mutation 03/2005; 25(2):196-206. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sperm typing is an effective way to study recombination rate on a fine scale in regions of interest. There are two strategies for the amplification of single meiotic recombinants: repulsion-phase allele-specific PCR and whole genome amplification (WGA). The former can selectively amplify single recombinant molecules from a batch of sperm but is not scalable for high-throughput operation. Currently, primer extension pre-amplification is the only method used in WGA of single sperm, whereas it has limited capacity to produce high-coverage products enough for the analysis of local recombination rate in multiple large regions. Here, we applied for the first time a recently developed WGA method, multiple displacement amplification (MDA), to amplify single sperm DNA, and demonstrated its great potential for producing high-yield and high-coverage products. In a 50 mul reaction, 76 or 93% of loci can be amplified at least 2500- or 250-fold, respectively, from single sperm DNA, and second-round MDA can further offer >200-fold amplification. The MDA products are usable for a variety of genetic applications, including sequencing and microsatellite marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The use of MDA in single sperm amplification may open a new era for studies on local recombination rates.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(10):e91. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study of genomic divergence between humans and primates may provide insight into the origins of human beings and the genetic basis of unique human traits and diseases. Chromosome 21 is the smallest chromosome in the human genome, and some of its regions have been implicated in mental retardation and other diseases. In this study, we sequenced the coding and regulatory regions of 127 known genes on human chromosome 21 in DNA samples from human and chimpanzees and a part of the corresponding genes from orangutan, gorilla, and macaque. Overall, 3,003 nucleotide differences between human and chimpanzee were identified over approximately 400 kb. The differences in coding, promoter, and exon-intron junction regions were 0.51 +/- 0.02%, 0.88 +/- 0.03%, and 0.85 +/- 0.02%, respectively, much lower than the previously reported 1.23% in genomic regions, which suggests the presence of purifying selection. Significant variation in substitution rate among genes was observed by comparing the divergence between human and chimpanzee. Furthermore, by implementing a bioinformatics-based approach, we showed that the identification of genetic variants specific to the human lineage might lead to an understanding of the mechanisms that are attributable to the phenotypes that unique to humans, by changing the structure and/or dosage of the proteins expressed. A phylogenetic analysis unambiguously confirms the conclusion that chimpanzees were our closest relatives to the exclusion of other primates and the relative divergence of the Homo-Pan and that of (Homo-Pan)-Gorilla are 4.93 million years and 7.26 million years, respectively.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2003; 100(14):8331-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To detect the mutation sites of exons 2, 20, 11A and 11B in Chinese patients with breast cancer.
A total of 86 patients with breast cancer without blood relationship were randomly selected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and double-strand DNA direct sequencing were applied.
No mutations, especially deletions were found in exons 2, 20 and 11 with carefully checking the sequencing results, although they were reported frequently in Europe populations with breast cancer. We found one polymorphism in exon 11, with high frequency, and in the test of chi-square, the frequencies of two alleles had no significant difference between the patients and controls.
The above results suggest this SNP may not be associated with the breast cancer in Chinese population, and indicates that the gene sequence of what we have studied doesn't account much for occurrence of the breast cancer in the population of China.
Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 11/2002; 19(5):383-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies H2O2 into oxygen and water and thus limits the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because chronic exposure to excess ROS may contribute to vascular damage, we investigated whether genetic variation in catalase was associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension (EHYT) in 324 individuals (at least 50 years old) who were randomly sampled from an isolated population living in Xiangchang, China. They were screened for genetic variation in the promoter of catalase by direct sequencing. In total, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The association between the SNPs and EHYT was investigated by a linear regression model under phenotypic selection; in our analyses, we used both SBP>150 mmHg and SBP>160 mmHg as thresholds. A SNP 844 bp upstream of the start codon (SNP-844) demonstrated strong evidence of association with EHYT (SBP>150 mmHg: F=5.09, P=0.008; SBP>160 mmHg: F=7.13, P=0.002). This is the first study to implicate genetic variation in catalase in susceptibility to EHYT and suggests that polymorphisms in promoter regions may be particularly relevant to the study of complex diseases.
Human Genetics 06/2001; 109(1):95-98. · 4.63 Impact Factor