[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elevated platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), determined using an easy blood test based on platelet and lymphocyte counts, is reported to be a predictor of poor survival in patients with several cancers. The prognostic role of preoperative PLR in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has, until now, been rarely investigated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of PLR in a large cohort of ICC patients after hepatic resection.We obtained data from 322 consecutive nonmetastatic ICC patients who underwent hepatectomy without preoperative therapy between 2005 and 2011. Clinicopathological parameters, including PLR, were evaluated. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Using multivariate Cox regression models, the independent prognostic value of preoperative PLR was determined.Our results showed that PLR represents an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS and RFS in ICC patients using univariate and multivariate analyses. The optimal PLR cutoff value was 123 using receiver operating curve analyses. The 5-year OS and RFS rates after hepatectomy were 30.3% and 28.9% for the group with PLR 123 greater, compared with 46.2% and 39.4% for the group with PLR less than 123 (P = 0.0058 and 0.0153, respectively). In addition, high PLR values were associated with tumor size (P = 0.020).Our results suggest that preoperative PLR might represent a novel independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS in ICC patients with hepatic resection.
Medicine 04/2015; 94(13):e574. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000574 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are a major component of the leukocyte infiltrate of tumors and play a pivotal role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which macrophages promote HCC invasion are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC. Double-staining immunohistochemistry was used to observe the association between macrophages and EMT markers in clinical HCC samples and it showed that EMT primarily occurred at the edge of the tumor nest, in which infiltrating macrophages were always observed. This indicated that CD68 which is a marker of macrophages, was correlated with EMT marker levels. In addition, after being cultured with macrophages for 24 h, the ability of HCC cells to migrate and invade increased, Snail and N-Cadherin expression was upregulated, and E-Cadherin was downregulated. An antibody array assay was applied to analyze the supernatant of these cultures and it demonstrated IL-8 increased significantly in the macrophage co-culture system. Finally, the role of macrophage-derived IL-8 in the invasion of HCC cells was assayed, and downstream signaling pathways were also investigated. We found that IL-8: i) may induce EMT and promote HCC cell migration and invasion and ii) is associated with the JAK2/STAT3/Snail signaling pathway. Taking together, these findings revealed that macrophages that have infiltrated tumors may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells via the IL-8 activated JAK2/STAT3/Snail pathway. Thus, this may offer a potential target for developing new HCC therapies.
International Journal of Oncology 11/2014; 46(2). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2761 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GATA family of transcription factors are critical for organ development and associated with progression of various cancer types. However, their expression patterns and prognostic values for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still largely unknown.
Expression of GATA transcription factors in HCC cell lines and tissues (n = 240) were evaluated by RT-qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cellular proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 was evaluated by CCK-8 kit, scratch wound assay and transwell matrigel invasion assay, respectively.
GATA2 expression was decreased in HCC cell lines (p = 0.056 for mRNA, p = 0.040 for protein) and tissues (p = 1.27E-25) compared with normal hepatocytes. Decreased expression of intratumoral GATA2 protein significantly correlated with elevated alpha feto-protein (p = 2.7E-05), tumor size >5 cm (p = 0.049), absence of tumor capsule (p = 0.002), poor differentiation (p = 0.005), presence of tumor thrombi (p = 0.005) and advanced TNM stage (p = 0.001) and was associated with increased recurrence rate and decreased overall survival rate by univariate (p = 1.6E-04 for TTR, p = 1.7E-04 for OS) and multivariate analyses (HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.90, p = 0.012 for TTR; HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.47-0.95, p = 0.026 for OS). RNAi-mediated knockdown of GATA2 expression significantly enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cell in vitro.
Decreased expression of hematopoietic factor GATA2 was associated with poor prognosis of HCC following resection.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87505. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087505 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CXCL5 is a member of the CXC-type chemokine family that may play a role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. This study investigates the biological function and clinical significance of CXCL5 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). We demonstrated that CXCL5 was overexpressed in ICC cell lines and tumour samples compared with paired normal tissues. CXCL5 had a direct chemoattractant effect on neutrophils in vitro through PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways. In animal studies, CXCL5 promoted tumour growth and metastasis without altering in vitro proliferative and invasive ability of ICC cells, and this effect was mediated by the recruitment of intratumoural infiltrative neutrophils by tumour-derived CXCL5. Immunohistochemical analysis of ICC samples showed that overexpression of CXCL5 correlated strongly with intratumoural neutrophil infiltration, shorter overall survival, and high tumour recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that CXCL5 overexpression alone, or combined with the presence of intratumoural neutrophils, was an independent prognostic indicator for ICC. In conclusion, our data showed that CXCL5 promotes ICC growth and metastasis by recruiting intratumoural neutrophils. CXCL5 alone or combined with intratumoural neutrophils is a novel prognostic predictor for ICC patients and a potential therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic value of intratumoral invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection.
Expression of TRAV10, encoding the Vα24 domain of iNKT cells, and IFN-γ mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumor from 224 HCC patients undergoing curative resection. The prognostic value of these two and other clinicopathologic factors was evaluated.
Either intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ alone or their combination was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P = 0.001) by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.784 for OS and 2.673 for RFS. The areas under the curve of iNKT cells, IFN-γand their combination were 0.618 vs 0.608 vs 0.654 for death and 0.591 vs 0.604 vs 0.633 for recurrence respectively by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The prognosis was the worst for HCC patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ, which might be related with more advanced pTNM stage and more vascular invasion.
Combination of intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival in HCC, which has a better power to predict HCC patients' outcome compared with intratumoral iNKT cells or IFN-γ alone.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70345. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070345 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The overall survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, and the molecular pathogenesis remains incompletely defined in HCC. Here we report that increased expression of αB-Crystallin in human HCC predicts poor survival and disease recurrence after surgery. Multivariate analysis identifies αB-Crystallin expression as an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence and overall survival. We show that elevated expression of αB-Crystallin promotes HCC progression in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate that αB-Crystallin overexpression fosters HCC progression by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells through activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, which can counteract the effect of sorafenib. αB-Crystallin complexes with and elevates 14-3-3ζ protein, leading to up-regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, overexpression of αB-Crystallin in HCC cells induces EMT progression through an ERK1/2/Fra-1/slug signaling pathway. Clinically, our data reveal that overexpression of both αB-Crystallin and 14-3-3ζ correlates with the HCC poorest survival outcomes, and sorafenib response is impaired in patients with αB-Crystallin overexpression.
These data suggest that the αB-Crystallin-14-3-3ζ complex acts synergistically to promote HCC progression by constitutively activating ERK signaling. This study reveals αB-Crystallin as a potential therapeutic target for HCC and a biomarker for predicting sorafenib treatment response. (HEPATOLOGY 2013).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CXC chemokines and their cognate receptors have been implicated widely in cancer pathogenesis. In this study, we report a critical causal relationship between CXCR6 expression and tumorigenesis in the setting of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the CXC chemokine receptors, only CXCR6 was detected in all the hepatoma cell lines studied. Moreover, in HCC tissue, CXCR6 expression was significantly higher than in noncancerous liver tissues. Reduction of CXCR6 or its ligand CXCL16 in cancer cells reduced cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastases in vivo. Importantly, loss of CXCR6 led to reduced Gr-1+ neutrophil infiltration and decreased neoangiogenesis in hepatoma xenografts via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. Clinically, high expression of CXCR6 was an independent predictor of increased recurrence and poor survival in HCCs. Human HCC samples expressing high levels of CXCR6 also contained an increased number of CD66b+ neutrophils and microvessels, and the combination of CXCR6 and neutrophils was a superior predictor of recurrence and survival than either marker used alone. Together, our findings suggest that elevated expression of CXCR6 promotes HCC invasiveness and a protumor inflammatory environment and is associated with poor patient outcome. These results support the concept that inhibition of the CXCR6-CXCL16 pathway may improve prognosis after HCC treatment.
Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(14):3546-56. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-4032 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B7-H3, a novel B7 family member, positively or negatively regulates T-cell responses. We investigated the clinical relevance and prognostic significance of B7-H3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Western blotting showed B7-H3 upregulation in 17 of 24 (70.8 %) HCC tissues compared with nontumor liver tissues (p = 0.028). B7-H3 immunostaining on tissue microarrays containing 240 HCC patient samples indicated that 225 (93.8 %) tumors had aberrant B7-H3 expression, with strong intensity in 79 (32.9 %) cases, whereas B7-H3 expression in peritumor liver cells was weak in most cases (226; 94.2 %). Notably, patients with high/moderate tumor cell B7-H3 expression showed significantly poorer survival (p = 0.009) and increased recurrence (p = 0.002). After multivariable adjustment, high/moderate B7-H3 expression remained significant for an increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 1.79; 95 % confidence interval = 1.19-2.70; p = 0.005). B7-H3 expression correlated with invasive phenotypes like vascular invasion and advanced tumor stage, and the metastatic potential of HCC cell lines. Flow cytometry showed that B7-H3 expression is inversely correlated with proliferation and interferon-γ production by infiltrating T cells. Interferon-γ stimulation significantly upregulated B7-H3 expression in HCC cells in vitro, implicating B7-H3 expression as a feedback mechanism to evade anti-tumor immunity. Importantly, the prognostic value of B7-H3 expression was validated in an independent cohort of 206 HCC patients. Collectively, our data suggest that B7-H3 was abundantly expressed in HCC and was associated with adverse clinicopathologic features and poor outcome. Thus, B7-H3 represents an attractive target for diagnostic and therapeutic manipulation in human HCC.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 05/2012; 61(11). DOI:10.1007/s00262-012-1278-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional receptor involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell signaling. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and mechanism of LRP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
LRP1 expression in 4 HCC cell lines and 40 HCC samples was detected. After interruption of LRP1 expression in a HCC cell line either with specific lentiviral-mediated shRNA LRP1 or in the presence of the LRP1-specific chaperone, receptor-associated protein (RAP), the role of LRP1 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells was assessed in vivo and in vitro, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 in cells and the bioactivity of MMP9 in the supernatant were assayed. The expression and prognostic value of LRP1 were investigated in 327 HCC specimens.
Low LRP1 expression was associated with poor HCC prognosis, with low expression independently related to shortened overall survival and increased tumor recurrence rate. Expression of LRP1 in non-recurrent HCC samples was significantly higher than that in early recurrent samples. LRP1 expression in HCC cell lines was inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. After inhibition of LRP1, low-metastatic SMCC-7721 cells showed enhanced migration and invasion and increased expression and bioactivity of MMP9. Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between LRP1 and MMP9 expression in HCC patients. The prognostic value of LRP1 expression was validated in the independent data set.
LRP1 modulated the level of MMP9 and low level of LRP1 expression was associated with aggressiveness and invasiveness in HCCs. LRP1 offered a possible strategy for tumor molecular therapy.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e32775. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032775 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence prediction of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) present a great challenge because of a lack of biomarkers. Genetic variations play an important role in tumor development and metastasis.
Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to evaluate the genetic characteristics of tumor DNA in 30 HBV-related HCC patients who were underwent LT. Recurrence-related single-nucleotide polymorphism were selected, and their prognostic value was assessed and validated in two independent cohorts of HCC patients (N = 102 and N = 77), using pretransplant plasma circulating DNA. Prognostic significance was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate prognosis-related factors.
rs894151 and rs12438080 were significantly associated with recurrence (P = .003 and P = .004, respectively). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the co-index of the 2 SNPs was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence (P = .040). Similar results were obtained in the third cohort (N = 77). Furthermore, for HCC patients (all the 3 cohorts) exceeding Milan criteria, the co-index was a prognostic factor for recurrence and survival (P<.001 and P = .002, respectively).
Our study demonstrated first that genetic variations of rs894151 and rs12438080 in pretransplant plasma circulating DNA are promising prognostic markers for tumor recurrence in HCC patients undergoing LT and identify a subgroup of patients who, despite having HCC exceeding Milan criteria, have a low risk of post-transplant recurrence.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e26003. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026003 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An immune function assay has been proposed as a new strategy to monitor immunosuppression after organ transplantation. However, there are limited data regarding its role in liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we sought to determine the utility of this functional assay in assessing the risk of infection, rejection, and tumor recurrence in liver transplant recipients.
Immune function was determined by ImmuKnow assay that measures the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced by CD4 (+) T cells to monitor the global immune status in 342 whole blood samples from 105 liver transplant recipients. The association between ATP value and post-transplant tumor recurrence was evaluated in 60 HCC patients. The ATP value in predicting tumor recurrence in other independent cohort of 92 recipients with HCC was analyzed prospectively.
The mean ATP values of liver transplant recipients with infection (145.2 ± 87.0 ng/ml) or acute rejection (418.9 ± 169.5 ng/ml) were different from those with stable state (286.6 ± 143.9 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In recipients with HCC who developed recurrent tumors, the values were significantly lower than those without recurrence (137.8 ± 66.4 vs. 289 ± 133.9 ng/ml, P < 0.01); the optimal threshold value to predict post-transplant tumor recurrence was 175 ng/ml. Comparing with the patients in lower immune group (ATP ≤ 175 ng/ml), patients in the higher immune group (ATP > 175 ng/ml) experienced significantly better disease-free survival (P < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed the ATP value was an independent predictor of HCC recurrence.
The immune function assay has the potential to assess the risk of infection and rejection in liver transplantation and to predict post-transplant tumor recurrence in recipients with HCC.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 08/2011; 137(10):1445-53. DOI:10.1007/s00432-011-1014-0 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The density of tumor-infiltrating immunocytes (TICs) has been proposed as an independent predictor of intrahepatic recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relative roles of TIC density in predicting tumor extrahepatic metastasis remain to be elucidated.
The densities of CD3(+), CD8(+), granzyme B(+), FoxP3(+), CD45RO(+), CD20(+), CD1a(+), CD83(+), CD57(+), and CD68(+) TICs were assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing paired intratumoral (IT) and peritumoral (PT) tissues from 206 consecutive HCC patients who underwent liver transplantation. Occurrence of extrahepatic metastasis, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were assessed retrospectively in relation to TIC densities.
CD45RO(+) memory T cell density was lower in tumor tissue compared with peritumor, whereas CD57(+) senescent T cell density was higher. Univariate analysis revealed that increased CD45RO (IT) (+) and decreased CD57 (PT) (+) densities were statistically significantly associated with favorable RFS and CSS, while other types of TICs, intratumorally or peritumorally, showed no prognostic values. Further, the CD45RO (IT) (+) /CD57 (PT) (+) ratio could stratify patients more accurately in terms of RFS and CSS than either marker used alone. Finally, multivariate analysis indicated that a high CD45RO (IT) (+) /CD57 (PT) (+) ratio was independently associated with better RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.98; P = 0.040) and CSS (HR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83; P = 0.007), but not CD45RO (IT) (+) or CD57 (PT) (+) individually.
These results suggest that the CD45RO (IT) (+) /CD57 (PT) (+) (memory/senescent T cell) ratio is of vital importance in preventing HCC extrahepatic metastasis and in particular demonstrates its independent prognostic value in liver transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophil infiltration has been linked to clinical outcome of various cancer types. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. In this study, we investigated prognostic values for intratumoral and peritumoral neutrophils in HCC patients undergoing curative resection.
The expression of CD66b, CD8, TGF-beta, and CD34 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing paired intratumoral and peritumoral tissues from 197 patients receiving curative resection for HCC. Prognostic values for these and other clinicopathologic factors were evaluated.
Intratumoral CD66b(+) neutrophils significantly correlated with CD8(+) T cells (r=0.240, p=0.004), TGF-beta expression (p=0.012), BCLC stage (p=0.016), and early recurrence (p=0.041). Increased intratumoral neutrophils were significantly associated with decreased RFS/OS (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) in univariate analysis and were identified as an independent prognostic factor (HR=1.845, 95% CI=1.169-2.911, p=0.008 for RFS; HR=2.578, 95% CI=1.618-4.106, p<0.001 for OS) in multivariate analysis. Intratumoral neutrophil-to-CD8(+) T cell ratio (iNTR) better predicted the outcome in terms of minimum p values. Intratumoral neutrophils were also demonstrated to be statistically predictive for RFS/OS in the normal AFP subgroup, small HCC subgroup, and validation cohort. However, peritumoral neutrophils were not associated with the outcome of HCC.
The presence of intratumoral neutrophils was a poor prognostic factor for HCC after resection. Intratumoral neutrophil-to-CD8(+) T cell ratio was a better predictor of outcome.
Journal of Hepatology 03/2011; 54(3):497-505. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.07.044 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inflammatory components of the liver remnant after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection are of prognostic importance. We evaluated prognostic potential of peritumoral activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in 130 HCC cases. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the functional genes in HSCs (ie, seprase, osteonectin, and tenascin-C), quantitated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the density of peritumoral Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and CD68+ macrophages (MPhi), assessed immunohistochemically in tissue microarray sections, were positively correlated with the density of peritumoral activated HSCs. The density (P= .007 for recurrence-free survival [RFS] and P=.021 for overall survival [OS]) and functional genes (seprase, P= .001 for RFS; osteonectin, P= .007 for RFS and P=.021 for OS) of peritumoral activated HSCs independently contributed to high recurrence or death rates, as did peritumoral Tregs or MPhi. Moreover, peritumoral HSCs were related to more early recurrences. It is important to note that the density of peritumoral activated HSCs, in combination with seprase and osteonectin mRNA or density of Tregs and MPhi, might predict prognoses more effectively.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 05/2009; 131(4):498-510. DOI:10.1309/AJCP86PPBNGOHNNL · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aberrant expression of programmed cell death 1 ligands 1 and 2 (PD-Ls) on tumor cells dampens antitumor immunity, resulting in tumor immune evasion. In this study, we investigated the expression of PD-Ls in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to define their prognostic significance after curative surgery.
Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate PD-Ls expression as well as granzyme B+ cytotoxic and FoxP3+ regulatory T cell infiltration on tissue microarrays containing 240 randomly selected HCC patients who underwent surgery. The results were further verified in an independent cohort of 125 HCC patients. PD-Ls expression on HCC cell lines was detected by Western blot assay.
Patients with higher expression of PD-L1 had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with lower expression. Although patients with higher expression of PD-L2 also had a poorer survival, the difference in recurrence was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis identified tumor expression of PD-L1 as an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence. No correlation was found between PD-Ls expression and granzyme B+ lymphocyte infiltration, whereas a significant positive correlation was detected between PD-Ls expression and FoxP3+ lymphocyte infiltration. In addition, tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic and regulatory T cells were also independent prognosticators for both survival and recurrence. The prognostic value of PD-L1 expression was validated in the independent data set.
Our data suggest for the first time that PD-L1 status may be a new predictor of recurrence for HCC patients and provide the rationale for developing a novel therapy of targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway against this fatal malignancy.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2009; 15(3):971-9. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1608 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic value of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), individually or synergistically with CD45RO + memory T cells (T(M)), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients following resection.
The infiltration of TAM and T(M) was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray containing 302 HCC specimens. Correlations between TAM/T(M) infiltration and clinicopathologic features, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were statistically analyzed.
High TAM infiltration was associated with both improved DFS (P = 0.0021) and OS (P = 0.0481). Multivariate analysis identified TAM infiltration as independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.004) and OS (P = 0.049). A second analysis clarified the synergistic effect of TAM&T(M) infiltration for DFS (P = 0.004) and OS (P = 0.040).
Both TAM infiltration alone and concomitant infiltration of TAM&T(M) are associated with improved DFS/OS, suggesting that TAM could protect HCC patients from recurrence/metastasis and prolong survival by distinct mechanisms.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2008; 135(3):439-49. DOI:10.1007/s00432-008-0469-0 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine how the thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene expression is upregulated by interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.
TP mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. Whether the JAK-STAT cascade mediates IFN-alpha-induced TP mRNA expression was studied by pretreatment with Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor, AG-490. Effects of IFN-alpha on TP mRNA stability were detected with additional actinomycin D.
The expression of TP mRNA was induced by IFN-alpha in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SMMC-7721 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cells. TP mRNA levels rose at 8 h, reached the peak value at 12 h, and remained at a high level up to 72 h in SMMC-7721 cells treated with IFN-alpha 10000 U/ml. IFN-alpha at a dose of 5000 or 10000 U/ml up-regulated TP expression about 3 fold compared with that of non-treated cells (P < 0.05). Induction of TP mRNA expression by IFN-alpha was significantly inhibited in SMMC-7721 cells by pretreatment with AG-490, in comparison with that treated with IFN-alpha alone. Pretreatment of SMMC-7721 cells with IFN-alpha 10000 U/ml for 24 h caused a substantial stabilization of TP mRNA, with a half-live of 35.8 h, compared with 8.5 hr in the control SMMC-7721 cells.
IFN-alpha at certain doses upregulates TP mRNA expression via both JAK-STAT transcriptional activation and post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] 07/2008; 30(6):444-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the most suitable housekeeping genes for quantifying a change in mRNA expression levels due to hepatitis virus B related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Expression of mRNA encoding ACTB, GAPDH, B2M, HPRT and TBP was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in matched malignant and non-malignant tissues obtained from 65 non-treated HCCs. The software programs geNorm and NormFinder were used to ascertain the most suitable reference gene combination.
All candidate genes showed significantly different expression between malignant and non-malignant samples. GAPDH and ACTB, genes most frequently used for normalization, were heavily regulated during HCC carcinogenesis and progression. B2M expression levels varied with hepatitis infection status. The combination of HPRT and TBP expression levels were the most stable, regardless of differences in tumor stage and cirrhotic and malignancy status.
It is necessary to select reference genes based on tissue and disease specific expression profile and to further identify novel reference genes with greater expression stability for use in HBV related HCC gene expression studies.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 04/2008; 134(9):979-86. DOI:10.1007/s00432-008-0369-3 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe changes of sensitivity to 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), and its relationship with the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP).
TP mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Cytotoxicity of 5'-dFUrd, and 5-FU against SMMC-7721 cells was evaluated by MTT assay.
Expression levels of TP mRNA was elevated in SMMC-7721 cells after cultured with IFN-alpha, which was a concentration- and time-dependent increase. After SMMC-7721 cells was treated in the concentration of 5000 U/ml, and 10 000 U/ml IFN-alpha, the level of TP mRNA was significantly higher than that in untreated control (P < 0.05). When SMMC-7721 cells was cultured with the concentration 10 000 U/ml IFN-alpha, the level of TP mRNA rose at 8hr, reached the peak value at 12hr, and remained high level up to 72hr. IFN-alpha enhanced the sensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells to 5'-dFUrd with dose-dependent increase. IFN-alpha (10 000 U/ml) reduced IC(50) of 5'-dFUrd from (102.1 +/- 18.4) micromol/L to (34.2 +/- 4.1) micromol/L (P < 0.05). There was no obvious relation between use of IFN-alpha and 5-FU sensitivity. IC(50) of 5-FU was (5.8 +/- 2.0) micromol/L and (6.3 +/- 1.4) micromol/L in with IFN-alpha (10 000 U/ml) and control group, respectively. Under the use of interferon, sensitivity to 5'-dFUrd increased positively related to up-regulation of TP mRNA expression.
IFN-alpha enhanced cytotoxicity of 5'-dFUrd against SMMC-7721 cells positively related to its induction of TP mRNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after resection.
CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, Foxp3-positive, and granzyme B-positive TILs were assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing HCC from 302 patients. Prognostic effects of low- or high-density TIL subsets were evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis using median values as cutoff.
CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs were associated with neither overall survival (OS) nor disease-free survival (DFS). The presence of low intratumoral Tregs in combination with high intratumoral activated CD8+ cytotoxic cells (CTLs), a balance toward CTLs, was an independent prognostic factor for both improved DFS (P = .001) and OS (P < .0001). Five-year OS and DFS rates were only 24.1% and 19.8% for the group with intratumoral high Tregs and low activated CTLs, compared with 64.0% and 59.4% for the group with intratumoral low Tregs and high activated CTLs, respectively. Either intratumoral Tregs alone (P = .001) or intratumoral activated CTLs (P = .001) alone is also an independent predictor for OS. In addition, high Tregs density was associated with both absence of tumor encapsulation (P = .032) and presence of tumor vascular invasion (P = .031).
Tregs are associated with HCC invasiveness, and intratumoral balance of regulatory and cytotoxic T cells is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival in HCC. A combination of depletion of Tregs and concomitant stimulation of effector T cells may be an effective immunotherapy to reduce recurrence and prolong survival after surgery.