Davide Martino

King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (114)462.04 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background A contribution of aberrant interoceptive awareness to the perception of premonitory urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) has been hypothesized. Methods We assessed interoceptive awareness in 19 adults with GTS and 25 age-matched healthy controls using the heartbeat counting task. We also used multiple regression to explore whether the severity of premonitory urges was predicted by interoceptive awareness or severity of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Results We observed lower interoceptive awareness in GTS compared with controls. Interoceptive awareness was the strongest predictor of premonitory urges in GTS, with greater interoceptive awareness being associated with more urges. Greater tic severity was also associated with higher rates of premonitory urges. Conclusion The observed relationship between severity of premonitory urges and interoceptive awareness suggests that interoception might be involved in self-reported premonitory urges in GTS. High levels of interoceptive awareness might reflect a self-attentive capacity to perceive urges.
    Movement Disorders 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/mds.26228 · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • Movement Disorders 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/mds.26225 · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • Renata Rizzo, Davide Martino
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    ABSTRACT: Guanfacine is an α2A-adrenoreceptor agonist currently indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviews the chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of guanfacine, as well as the clinical trial literature on guanfacine for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, mainly focusing on the use of guanfacine extended-release (GXR). Six already published prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one unpublished RCT study were identified for GXR in the treatment of ADHD. All RCTs trials showed superiority over placebo on the primary outcome measure. Guanfacine, especially XR, seems to be an effective and safe treatment option for ADHD in children and adolescents.
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 03/2015; 15(4). DOI:10.1586/14737175.2015.1028370 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tics are the hallmark feature of Tourette syndrome. The basic phenomenological and neurophysiological characteristics of tics have been widely investigated. Interestingly, the spatial distribution of tics across different body parts has received little attention. No previous study has investigated whether the capacity for voluntary tic inhibition also varies across body parts. We analyzed video sequences of 26 adolescents with Tourette syndrome in a "tic freely" condition, and in a "voluntary tic inhibition" condition, to obtain absolute tic counts for different body parts. Two measures of the spatial distribution of tics were then analyzed. Linear regression analyses were employed to investigate the relation between the contribution of each body part to overall tic behavior and the ability to inhibit tics in that body part, averaged over our patient group. Tic distribution across patients showed a characteristic somatotopic pattern, with the face most strongly represented. A significant negative relation was found between the ability to inhibit tics and pooled tic frequency across body parts. The body parts that exhibited the fewest tics were the ones for which tic inhibition was most effective. Our data are consistent with the idea that tic recruitment order reflects a "tic generator" spreading across a somatotopic map in the brain. Voluntary tic inhibition did not simply cause a proportional reduction of tics in each body part. Rather, the least affected body parts showed most effective voluntary tic inhibition. The results are discussed in terms of signal and noise within cortical-subcortical motor loops. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/mds.26188 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is increasingly clear that we extract patterns of temporal regularity between events to optimize information processing. The ability to extract temporal patterns and regularity of events is referred as temporal expectation. Temporal expectation activates the same cerebral network usually engaged in action selection, comprising cerebellum. However, it is unclear whether the cerebellum is directly involved in temporal expectation, when timing information is processed to make predictions on the outcome of a motor act. Healthy volunteers received one session of either active (inhibitory, 1Hz) or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation covering the right lateral cerebellum prior the execution of a temporal expectation task. Subjects were asked to predict the end of a visually perceived human body motion (right hand handwriting) and of an inanimate object motion (a moving circle reaching a target). Videos representing movements were shown in full; the actual tasks consisted of watching the same videos, but interrupted after a variable interval from its onset by a dark interval of variable duration. During the 'dark' interval, subjects were asked to indicate when the movement represented in the video reached its end by clicking on the spacebar of the keyboard. Performance on the timing task was analyzed measuring the absolute value of timing error, the coefficient of variability and the percentage of anticipation responses. The active group exhibited greater absolute timing error compared with the sham group only in the human body motion task. Our findings suggest that the cerebellum is engaged in cognitive and perceptual domains that are strictly connected to motor control.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116607. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116607 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we have tested the effects of the dopamine D2 receptor blocker pimozide on timing performance in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Nine children with TS were tested off-medication and following 3 months of daily treatment with pimozide. Subjects completed a time reproduction and a time production task using supra-second temporal intervals. We show that pimozide improves motor timing performance by reducing the patients' variability in reproducing the duration of visual stimuli. On the other hand, this medication has no effect on the reproduction accuracy and on both variability and accuracy of the performance on the time production task. Our results suggest that pimozide might have improved motor timing variability as a result of its beneficial side effect on endogenous dopamine levels (i.e., normalization). © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
    Journal of Neuropsychology 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/jnp.12064 · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Christos Ganos, Davide Martino
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    ABSTRACT: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a common neuropsychiatric disorder spectrum with tics as the defining feature. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder often complicate clinical presentation. Their recognition is paramount for the introduction of efficient treatment strategies to promote healthy development and good quality of life. Here, knowledge on the movement disorder of tics, the spectrum of associated comorbidities, and the list of differential diagnoses of tic disorders are summarized. Also, an account of the prevailing pathophysiologic models of tic generation is provided, and a concise update on contemporary treatment strategies is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurologic Clinics 11/2014; 33(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ncl.2014.09.008 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • 12th International Congress of Neuroimmunology, Mainz; 11/2014
  • "Inflammation and Disease", British Society of Immunology, Manchester; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: It is recognized that emotional deficits are part of the non-motor features of Parkinson's disease but scant attention has been paid to specific aspects such as emotional facial expression, subjective emotional experience (alexithymia) and recognition of facial emotion expressions. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between alexithymia, emotion facial recognition, and emotion facial expression in PD patients.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 08/2014; 85(8):e3. DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2014-308883.36 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset tic disorder associated with abnormal development of brain networks involved in the sensory and motor processing. An involvement of immune mechanisms in its pathophysiology has been proposed. Animal models based on active immunization with bacterial or viral mimics, direct injection of cytokines or patients' serum anti-neuronal antibodies, and transgenic approaches replicated stereotyped behaviors observed in human TS. A crucial role of microglia in the neural-immune crosstalk within TS and related disorders has been proposed by animal models and confirmed by recent post mortem studies. With analogy to autism, genetic and early life environmental factors could foster the involvement of immune mechanisms to the abnormal developmental trajectories postulated in TS, as well as lead to systemic immune dysregulation in this condition. Clinical studies demonstrate an association between TS and immune responses to pathogens like group A Streptococcus (GAS), although their role as risk-modifiers is still undefined. Overactivity of immune responses at a systemic level is suggested by clinical studies exploring cytokine and immunoglobulin levels, immune cell subpopulations, and gene expression profiling of peripheral lymphocytes. The involvement of autoantibodies, on the other hand, remains uncertain and warrants more work using live cell-based approaches. Overall, a body of evidence supports the hypothesis that disease mechanisms in TS, like other neurodevelopmental illnesses (e.g. autism), may involve dysfunctional neural-immune cross-talk, ultimately leading to altered maturation of brain pathways controlling different behavioral domains and, possibly, differences in organising immune and stress responses.
    Brain Research 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.04.027 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • A. E. Cavanna, D. Martino
    European Journal of Neurology 05/2014; 21(5). DOI:10.1111/ene.12282 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on their phenomenology, tics can be classified as clonic, dystonic, and tonic. Although tic syndromes are considered to be childhood disorders, there are reports on (clonic) tics developing late in life. Literature on dystonic tics is sparse, and it is unclear whether adult-onset dystonic tics are part of the same disorder spectrum that includes Tourette's syndrome or represent a discrete entity. We describe here 11 patients with adult-onset primary dystonic tics. Ten patients (90.1%) were males. Mean age at onset was 42.2 ± 14.9 years. More than 60% had both motor clonic and dystonic tics. Dystonic tics most frequently involved the cranial-cervical region and the shoulders and, less frequently, the limbs. Psychiatric comorbidities were present in 5 patients. Family history for any movement disorder or for psychiatric disorders was present in 2 cases. One patient showed a sensory geste, which allowed him to partially control his tics, whereas another developed overt dystonia 3 years after his first assessment. The hyperkinesias exhibited by these patients were likely consistent with tics. However, other clinical features would allow us to argue that adult-onset dystonic tics may represent a discrete entity, which is intermediate between tics and dystonia.
    04/2014; 1(1). DOI:10.1002/mdc3.12005
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 75-year-old ex-professional boxer who developed diplopia and eye movement abnormalities in his 60's followed by memory impairment, low mood and recurrent falls. Examination shortly before death revealed hypomimia, dysarthria, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and impaired postural reflexes. Pathological examination demonstrated 4-repeat tau neuronal and glial lesions, including tufted astrocytes, consistent with a diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles composed of mixed 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau and astrocytic tangles in a distribution highly suggestive of chronic traumatic encephalopathy were observed together with limbic TDP-43 pathology. Possible mechanisms for the co-occurrence of these two tau pathologies are discussed.
    02/2014; 2(1):24. DOI:10.1186/2051-5960-2-24
  • Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research 02/2014; 20(1):17–18. DOI:10.1016/j.npbr.2014.01.159 · 0.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Migraine is a syndrome rather common in children. Recent results have accounted evidence of altered activity corresponding to the supplemental motor area in this pediatric population. Given the role of this region in the motor timing of supra-second temporal intervals, we hypothesized that time representation is abnormal in childhood migraine. We compared time-processing abilities between 11 children with migraine and 11 age-matched healthy children, employing a time reproduction task in which subjects actively reproduced different supra-second temporal intervals. We show that children with migraine are less accurate (overestimate) and more variable in reproducing time intervals. Results are discussed on the basis of the recent evidence about abnormal cortical and neurochemical activity in childhood migraine, but also in relation to a possible alteration of spatial attention mechanisms in this clinical population. The low number of patients examined represents a limit of this study and indicates that further investigation is needed.
    Cephalalgia 01/2014; 34(7). DOI:10.1177/0333102413517774 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult-onset primary dystonia is thought to be a purely motor disorder. Nevertheless, several studies provided evidence that sensory and psychiatric disturbances may contribute to the clinical spectrum of of dystonia, whereas evidence supporting cognitive impairment is still limited. A set of neuropsychological tests was administered to non depressed, non demented patients with cranial-cervical dystonia and healthy control subjects. The test battery included n-Back Task, Wechsler Memory Scale, Trail Making Test version A and B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. As compared with healthy control subjects of similar age, sex and socio-economic status, patients with cranial-cervical dystonia showed deficit on working memory functions revealed by n-Back task, impairment of mental control and visual reproduction subtests of Wechsler memory scale, deficit on information processing speed and set-shifting capacity revealed by Trail Making Test A and B. Patients with cranial-cervical dystonia may have impairment in specific cognitive domains relative to working memory, processing speed, visual motor ability and short term memory. Probably, these deficits are not dependent on the clinical expression of dystonia but might rather reflect the cortical and subcortical changes highlighted by functional and VBM imaging studies in patients with different forms of dystonia.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 10/2013; 20(2). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.10.008 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Davide Martino, Jonathan W Mink
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    ABSTRACT: Primary tic disorders are complex, multifactorial disorders in which tics are accompanied by other sensory features and an array of comorbid behavioral disorders. Secondary tics are proportionally much less frequent, but their etiology is diverse. This review aims to guide clinicians in the recognition of the phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these disorders. Advances include greater phenomenologic insights, particularly of nonmotor (sensory) features; increased knowledge of disease mechanisms, particularly coming from neuropsychological, functional imaging, pathologic, and animal model studies; growing evidence on the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists and the newer generation of dopamine-modulating agents; and recent strides in the evaluation of cognitive-behavioral therapy and deep brain stimulation surgery. The correct diagnostic approach to tic disorders requires accurate historical gathering, a thorough neurologic examination, and detailed definition of the patient's psychopathologic profile. Treatment should always begin with individualized psychoeducational strategies. Although pharmacologic treatments remain beneficial for most patients, cognitive-behavioral treatments have thus far shown promising efficacy. Deep brain stimulation surgery should still be limited to adult patients refractory to pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
    10/2013; 19(5, Movement Disorders):1287-1311. DOI:10.1212/01.CON.0000436157.31662.af
  • Antonella Macerollo, Davide Martino
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    ABSTRACT: Timing of sequential movements is altered in Parkinson disease (PD). Whether timing deficits in internally generated sequential movements in PD depends also on difficulties in motor planning, rather than merely on a defective ability to materially perform the planned movement is still undefined. To unveil this issue, we adopted a modified version of an established test for motor timing, i.e. the synchronization-continuation paradigm, by introducing a motor imagery task. Motor imagery is thought to involve mainly processes of movement preparation, with reduced involvement of end-stage movement execution-related processes. Fourteen patients with PD and twelve matched healthy volunteers were asked to tap in synchrony with a metronome cue (SYNC) and then, when the tone stopped, to keep tapping, trying to maintain the same rhythm (CONT-EXE) or to imagine tapping at the same rhythm, rather than actually performing it (CONT-MI). We tested both a sub-second and a supra-second inter-stimulus interval between the cues. Performance was recorded using a sensor-engineered glove and analyzed measuring the temporal error and the interval reproduction accuracy index. PD patients were less accurate than healthy subjects in the supra-second time reproduction task when performing both continuation tasks (CONT-MI and CONT-EXE), whereas no difference was detected in the synchronization task and on all tasks involving a sub-second interval. Our findings suggest that PD patients exhibit a selective deficit in motor timing for sequential movements that are separated by a supra-second interval and that this deficit may be explained by a defect of motor planning. Further, we propose that difficulties in motor planning are of a sufficient degree of severity in PD to affect also the motor performance in the supra-second time reproduction task.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75454. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075454 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
462.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012–2015
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
    • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2014
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      • Dipartimento di Neuroscienze
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
    • Universitätsklinikum Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2000–2013
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche ed Oncologia Umana (DIMO)
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2005–2009
    • University College London
      • • Institute of Neurology
      • • Department of Neuroinflammation
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy