J A Mosjidis

Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States

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Publications (40)55.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata), a condensed tannin rich plant, has been used in recent years to aid in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep and goats. Grazing or feeding dried SL leads to a reduction in egg production by GIN and reduces coccidiosis. Growth rates in lambs and kids when fed SL for more than 56 d has not been well characterized. The objective was to determine the effects of feeding SL leaf meal pellets on growth rate in lambs and kids. Lambs or kids weaned between 86 and 108 days of age (day 0) were supplemented with up to 900 g of a control supplement (CO) or SL leaf meal pellets for 56–112 days while grazing grass pastures at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Booneville, AR or Louisiana State University (LSU), Baton Rouge, LA in 2010 (ARS lambs only), 2011 (lambs only), 2012, and 2013 (kids only). Animals were weighed every 28 days for up to 112 days of supplemental feeding. Data were analyzed using GLM [average daily gain (ADG)], mixed models using repeated measures, or regression. Between days 0 and 56, ADG was greater in 2012 (P=0.01) or tended to be greater in 2010 (P=0.07) in SL than CO lambs at ARS, but lower in SL than CO ARS lambs (P<0.001) and kids in 2012 (P=0.02) and 2013 (P<0.001), and similar in LSU lambs. During the latter growth phase, ADG was reduced in SL compared with CO fed lambs and kids (P<0.01, all), except for LSU lambs in 2011 which were similar between groups. Additional studies are necessary to understand changes in growth rate of SL supplemented lambs and kids. It may be necessary to restrict the period of supplementation to less than 56 days to maximize weight gains in lambs and kids.
    Livestock Science. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n=76) were weaned (102.7±1.4d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial design to receive 2% of BW/d of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without amprolium added to drinking water (n=38/level or 19/treatment). Fecal oocyst counts (FOC), egg counts (FEC), and fecal score (1=solid pellets; 5=slurry) were determined every 7d between weaning and 21d post-weaning. In Exp. 2, twin rearing ewes were randomly assigned to two groups, and their naturally infected lambs were fed a control creep supplement (16% CP; n=40) or SL pellets (14% CP; n=32) 30d before weaning. Intake of SL was initially low (100g/lamb daily) and increased to 454g/lamb daily after weaning. Lambs were weaned at 103.6±0.9d of age and moved to semi-confinement. The FEC, FOC, packed cell volume (PCV), fecal score, and dag score (soiling around rear of lamb; 1=no soiling; 5=heavy soiling) were determined at d -14, 0 (weaning), 7, 14, and 21. In Exp. 3, lambs were randomly assigned to a control or SL diet (n=12/diet) fed at 1.4kg/d for 22d and inoculated with 50,000 sporulated oocysts on d 8, 11, and 13. The FEC, FOC, and fecal score were determined every 2 to 3d between d 1 and 29 (d 0=first day of dietary treatment). Data on all experiments were analyzed using mixed models. The FOC and FEC data were log transformed. Chi squared analysis was used to determine differences in incidence of treatment (sulfadimethoxine) for coccidiosis in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 1, FOC and FEC were similar between dietary groups, and FOC declined more rapidly in amprolium treated lambs following weaning (P<0.001). Fecal score was higher in the control compared with the SL fed lambs (P=0.05), suggesting more signs of coccidiosis in control lambs. In Exp. 2, FOC was similar initially but was reduced in SL fed lambs by weaning and remained lower thereafter (P=0.004). Dag (P=0.01) and fecal (P=0.001) scores were similar before weaning, but lower in SL fed lambs by weaning and remained lower thereafter. No SL lambs required treatment for coccidiosis, whereas 33% of control lambs required treatment (P<0.001). Fecal egg counts were similar before weaning but were reduced in SL compared with control fed lambs after weaning (P<0.001). In Exp. 3, FOC (P<0.001) and FEC (P<0.001) were reduced in SL compared with control fed lambs. Sericea lespedeza was effective in the prevention and control of coccidiosis as well as in reducing GIN infection. Use of SL could reduce lamb loss post-weaning, reduce the need to treat for coccidiosis, and create a significant economic benefit to livestock producers.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6±2.8kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants.
    Veterinary Parasitology 08/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    Andrew J. Price, Jessica Kelton, Jorge Mosjidis
    02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0159-8
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    Jessica Kelton, Andrew J. Price, Jorge Mosjidis
    02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0159-8
  • J M Burke, J E Miller, J A Mosjidis, T H Terrill
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    ABSTRACT: Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve worm control in organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) compared with grass pastures for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in lambs. In Experiment 1, Katahdin lambs grazed bermudagrass (BG; n=14), tall fescue (TF; n=7), or SL (n=19) pastures during early summer months. In Experiment 2, lambs grazed TF (n=15) or SL (n=13) pastures during late summer. Stocking rate of pastures was based on forage availability; additional lambs grazed pastures in Experiment 2, but were not sampled. Lambs were dewormed with 0.5 g COWP if FAMACHA(©) score was >3. In Experiment 1, FEC were reduced within 35 days in SL compared with BG lambs (forage by time, P=0.03). The PCV was more resilient to changes over time in SL compared with other groups of lambs (forage by time, P=0.001). In Experiment 2, FEC were lower (P=0.02) and PCV tended to be higher (P=0.09) in lambs grazing SL compared with TF forage. Incidence of deworming was similar among forage groups in both experiments. Grazing SL reduced FEC in lambs in early and late summer, despite reluctance by lambs to graze. Grazing forage and selective deworming using COWP was effective in lambs.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2011; 186(3-4):507-12. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • J M Burke, J E Miller, J A Mosjidis, T H Terrill
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    ABSTRACT: Because of a high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and consumer demand for chemical free meat products, management tools to minimize the need for deworming are needed. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) in a mixed grass or a pure forage system for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN); in other words pasture systems included grass, grass plus SL, or SL alone (Experiments 2 and 3). Selective use of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) based on the FAMACHA(©) system was used to aid in GIN control. In Experiment 1, lambs co-grazed bermudagrass (BG; n=21) or SL in a mixed grass pasture (SLM; n=22) with dams for 14 days. In Experiment 2, lambs grazed BG (n=14), SLM (n=13), or pure SL (SLP; n=13) pastures for 56 days. In Experiment 3, doe kids grazed BG (n=12), SLM (n=13), or SLP (n=13) for 84 days. Animals were fed a 16% crude protein supplement based on NRC requirements and estimated forage quality of pastures, so that 454, 389, and 200 g/lamb (Experiment 2), or 454, 300, and 150 g of supplement/goat (Experiment 3) was fed to BG, SLM, and SLP, respectively. Animals were dewormed with COWP if FAMACHA(©) was >3. Coprocultures were conducted to identify GIN genus. In Experiment 1, FEC were reduced in lambs grazing SLM compared with BG pastures. In Experiment 2, FEC were reduced in SLP compared with BG lambs on all days, and reduced in SLM compared with BG lambs on day 56. Initially, Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode, but the population shifted to other species in the SL groups by the end of the study. The mean number of dewormings/lamb was 0.71, 0.20, and 0.21±0.13 for BG, SLM, and SLP groups, respectively. In goats in Experiment 3, Trichostrongylus spp. was the predominant nematode in May and June and H. contortus in July. There was little meaningful effect of forage treatments on GIN infection in kids. Because H. contortus was not the predominant nematode in kids, the integrated approaches used may not have been effective in controlling GIN. Grazing SL was effective for GIN control in lambs in early summer, but the effect was delayed in lambs grazing a mixed SL/grass pasture unless lambs initially grazed with dams. An integrated approach used that included SL grazing and COWP for deworming was effective in lambs.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2011; 186(3-4):328-36. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats. Consequently, infection with GIN is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. With anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the U.S., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. The Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in response to this crisis and over the last decade has successfully validated the use of several novel control technologies, including FAMACHA(©) for the implementation of targeted selective treatments (TST), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), nematode-trapping fungi, and grazing or feeding hay of the high-tannin perennial legume sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)]. Producer attitudes toward GIN control in the U.S. have been shifting away from exclusive dependence upon anthelmintics toward more sustainable, integrated systems of parasite control. Some novel control technologies have been readily adopted by producers in combination with appropriate diagnostic tools, such as FAMACHA(©). Others techniques are still being developed, and will be available for producer use as they are validated. Although new drugs will likely be available to U.S. goat and sheep producers in the future, these will also be subject to development of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, the adoption and implementation of sustainable GIN control principles will remain important. With emerging markets for grass-fed or organic livestock, there will continue to be a critical need for research and outreach on development and on-farm application of integrated GIN control systems for small ruminants in the U.S. for the foreseeable future.
    Veterinary Parasitology 11/2011; 186(1-2):28-37. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of three experiments was to determine the impact of supplementing sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; SL) in three concentrations in a loose or pelleted diet on gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants. Experiments on lambs were conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service in Booneville, AR (Exp. 1) and at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA (Exp. 2); an experiment on goat kids occurred at University of Maryland-Eastern Shore (Exp. 3). Exp. 1 used crossbred hair sheep lambs naturally infected with GIN that were randomly allocated to diets containing 0, 25, 50, and 75% SL diets (n=11 or 12/diet). Exp. 2 consisted of Haemonchus contortus-inoculated crossbred wool breed lambs that were blocked by gender and FEC and randomly assigned to 0, 25, 50, or 75% SL diet (n=8/diet). Fecal egg counts (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were not influenced by SL supplementation in Exp. 1 and 2. Exp. 3 consisted of naturally GIN infected Boer crossbred goat kids in individual pens. Kids were blocked by FEC and randomly allotted to treatments of 0, 20, 40, or 60% SL with 9-13 goats/diet. The more SL fed, the greater the reduction in FEC (P<0.001). There was an increase in PCV in SL fed goats (P<0.001). Larval speciation at the end of the experiment indicated that feces from control animals produced 43% H. contortus larva while 20, 40 and 60% SL resulted in 39%, 35% and 31% H. contortus larvae, respectively. Feeding dried SL may be less effective in lambs than kids, though concurrent studies must be conducted to confirm this.
    Veterinary Parasitology 05/2011; 181(2-4):345-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Jorge A. Mosjidis, Glenn Wehtje
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    ABSTRACT: Sunn hemp is a tropical, herbaceous annual legume that has potential as a cover crop during the summer in temperate climates. Due to the recent increased interest in sunn hemp breeding and seed production for temperate climates, there is a need for weed control in sunn hemp production. No herbicide product currently on the market specifically identifies sunn hemp as a tolerant crop. The aims of this research were 1) to evaluate herbicides with the intent of identifying a herbicide program that can assure near weed free sunn hemp intended for seed harvest and 2) to demonstrate and quantify sunn hemp-weed suppression. Pre-emergence applied treatments consisted of pendimethalin alone, imazethapyr alone, and pendimethalin plus imazethapyr. Pendimethalin alone provided consistent effective weed control and maximum sunn hemp biomass, but when yellow nutsedge was present, imazethapyr was required for effective control and greater sunn hemp biomass. The combination of pendimethalin and imazethapyr was detrimental to sunn hemp biomass yield. Results also established that sunn hemp is tolerant of 2,4-DB applied post-emergence, but was not necessary for weed control in these studies because of the lack of broadleaf weed pressure. In a separate study with variable sunn hemp densities, weed biomass reductions of ≥50% were obtained with sunn hemp densities of only 20 to 50 plants m−2. This degree of weed suppression obtained from relatively modest sunn hemp densities is likely indicative of the ability of sunn hemp to grow faster and taller than other plants.
    Crop Protection - CROP PROT. 01/2011; 30(1):70-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha). Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.
    International Journal of Agronomy 01/2011; 2011.
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus larvae. In the first experiment, ten 8-10 month old male Spanish and Alpine cross kids pair matched for body weight and age were fed SL or bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay one week before infection and were infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). The animals were maintained on the same diet for the remaining period and were slaughtered 28 days post-infection (DPI) to determine the establishment of incoming infective larvae. Goats fed SL had lower establishment (P<0.05) of H. contortus larvae than that of the control goats fed BG hay. In the second experiment, twenty-five 8-10 months old male Alpine cross, Saanen, Nubian×Saanen and Spanish kids reared in confinement on BG were experimentally infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). On 35 DPI, the animals were allocated to two groups after blocking by fecal egg count (FEC), and one group was fed SL leaf meal (n=13), and another control group remained on BG (n=12). Four goats/group were slaughtered successively on days 7, 14, and 28 days post SL feeding, except on day 7, when five SL fed goats were slaughtered. Fecal egg counts and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were measured at weekly intervals and worm count, female worm fecundity, worm length and mucosal eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes were measured after slaughter. Goats fed SL had a lower FEC (P<0.05) one week after feeding, as compared to those fed on BG, and the values remained at low level thereafter. Similarly, PCV was also significantly affected by feeding (P<0.01), and feeding and time interaction (P<0.05). However, worm burden, female worm fecundity, parasite length, and mucosal inflammatory cell count were similar between the groups. Feeding SL reduced the establishment of infective larvae and FEC of H. contortus in experimental studies and this plant could be used for biological control of parasite infection under field conditions to limit the harmful effects of the parasites in goats.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2010; 178(1-2):192-7. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to plague the small ruminant industry, especially in parts of the world with warm, humid climates. Alternatives to chemicals are needed for GIN control because of anthelmintic resistance and a desire to reduce chemical residues in meat products. Three experiments using peri-parturient does or ewes addressed the objective: 1) in Arkansas, meat goats were untreated (n =20) or fed copper oxide wire particles (COWP; 2g each) in pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; n =22) before kidding while consuming sericea lespedeza hay, 2) in Arkansas, 42 Katahdin ewes were randomly assigned to remain untreated or were fed COWP (2g each) before lambing within groups fed bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) or sericea lespedeza hay in a 2×2 factorial design, 3) in Louisiana, Gulf Coast Native ewes were randomly assigned to remain untreated or were fed COWP (4g each) in a pelleted ration (n =10 each) after lambing began. Fecal egg counts (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were determined weekly in all experiments, and coproculture to examine GIN species was conducted in the first two experiments. Haemonchus contortus is typically the predominant GIN in the southeastern U.S., even during cooler months. However, Trichostrongylus spp. was the predominant GIN in Arkansas during these experiments. In all of the experiments, feeding COWP led to a reduction in FEC, but no change in PCV. The sericea lespedeza hay fed to ewes in Experiment 2 was associated with a reduction in FEC compared with ewes fed bermudagrass hay. Kids and lambs from COWP-treated dams in two experiments were lighter than those from untreated dams. Sericea lespedeza aided in the control of GIN infection, and while feeding COWP to peri-parturient ewes and does offered some reduction in GIN infection, body weight of offspring at birth and 60 or 90days of age may be reduced.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small ruminants appears to be 75%, whereas 50-75% SL reduces FEC, which could lead to reduced larval infection on pasture.
    Veterinary Parasitology 08/2009; 163(1-2):52-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of the genus Lespedeza is not well known and the phylogenetic relationship of Lespedeza with the genus Kummerowia is unclear. We report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago, cowpea and soybean were used to assess the genetic diversity of the USDA Lespedeza germplasm collection and clarify its phylogenetic relationship with the genus Kummerowia. Phylogenetic analysis partitioned 44 Lespedeza accessions into three main groups some of which were species-specific and eight subgroups. This data set revealed some misidentified accessions, and indicated that the two species in the genus Kummerowia are closely related to the genus Lespedeza. Morphological reexamination was used to correct the misidentified accessions within the genus Lespedeza. Our results demonstrated that phylogenetic analysis with morphological reexamination provides a more complete approach to classify accessions in plant germplasm collection and conservation.
    Conservation Genetics 01/2009; 10(1):79-85. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2008; 86(9):2328-37. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P < 0.03), and FEC decreased on these days (P < 0.001). In 5 and 10 g of COWP-treated goats, PCV increased (P < 0.001), but FEC and PCV remained unchanged over time in control goats. Fecal egg counts were similar among all low doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 g) of COWP administered to weaned kids for all dates examined (P > 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P < 0.05) but similar by d 28, compared with FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated kids. Packed cell volume was lower in 0 g compared with all COWP-treated kids by d 14 (COWP x date, P < 0.05). Feeding management in combination with COWP for GIN control had little effect compared with COWP alone for these short-term studies. In conclusion, a dose of COWP as low as 0.5 g, which was considered optimal to reduce the risk of copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/2007; 85(10):2753-61. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) to anthelmintic treatment has increased pressure to find alternative, non-chemical control methods. Feeding hay of the high condensed tannin (CT) forage sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] to sheep and goats has reduced GIN fecal egg count (FEC) and worm numbers in the abomasum and small intestines. This effect has been reported with both unground (long) and ground hay. Pelleting of ground hay increases ease of storage, transport, and feeding, but heating during the pelleting process could reduce biological activity of CT. Eighteen naturally GIN-infected 5-6-month-old Kiko-Spanish cross bucks were fed pelleted and ground SL hay and ground bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactyon (L.) Pers.] hay diets (n=6 per treatment) in a confinement trial. The bucks were fed the ground BG hay (75% of daily intake) plus a pelleted 16% CP commercial goat chow (25% of daily intake) for 3 weeks, after which they were assigned to treatment groups based upon FEC, 12 animals were switched to ground and pelleted SL hay plus goat chow for 4 weeks, and then all animals were fed the BG ration for one additional week. Throughout the trial, feces and blood were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and blood packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. All goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial, with adult worms in the abomasum and small intestines recovered, counted, and identified to species. Both forms of SL hay reduced (P<0.05) FEC in goats relative to BG hay-fed animals, with a greater reduction in goats fed the SL pellets. There was no effect on PCV until the final sampling date, when the SL pellet-fed goats' PCV increased (P<0.05) compared with the other treatments. Feeding pelleted SL reduced (P<0.05) abomasal worms, primarily Haemonchus contortus, relative to the BG hay-fed goats. Worm numbers in the goats fed ground SL hay were intermediate. Pelleting SL hay enhanced its efficacy against parasitic nematodes and may facilitate the broader use of this forage in small ruminant GIN control programs.
    Veterinary Parasitology 06/2007; 146(1-2):117-22. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parasitic infection is one of the leading economic constraints in small ruminant production. This problem is exacerbated as the resistance of nematode populations to chemical treatment (anthelmintics) becomes increasingly more common. Condensed tannin (CT) containing plants are being investigated as alternative solutions to address these problems. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of the CT containing forage, Lespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza, SL) fed as hay, on Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Naturally and experimentally infected lambs were fed either SL or bermudagrass (BG, control) hay for 49 days. All lambs were fed BG hay for an additional 14 days. SL hay effectively reduced (67-98%) fecal egg count (FEC) during the time of feeding for both infection groups. FEC increased in both infection groups after SL feeding was stopped which indicated an effect on fecundity. SL hay feeding also reduced worm numbers, with more of an effect on reducing naturally infected worm burdens (67.2%) than on establishment of incoming larvae (26.1%). SL fed as hay may be more useful to remove existing worms than establishing worms. The decrease in FEC would have the benefit of reduced pasture contamination.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2006; 141(3-4):273-8. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of the genus Crotalaria is unknown even though many species in this genus are economically valuable. We report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago and soybean were used to assess the genetic diversity of the Crotalaria germplasm collection. This collection consisted of 26 accessions representing 4 morphologically characterized species. Phylogenetic analysis partitioned accessions into 4 main groups generally along species lines and revealed that 2 accessions were incorrectly identified as Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria spectabilis instead of Crotalaria retusa. Morphological re-examination confirmed that these 2 accessions were misclassified during curation or conservation and were indeed C. retusa. Some amplicons from Crotalaria were sequenced and their sequences showed a high similarity (89% sequence identity) to Medicago truncatula from which the EST-SSR primers were designed; however, the SSRs were completely deleted in Crotalaria. Highly distinguishing markers or more sequences are required to further classify accessions within C. juncea.
    Genome 07/2006; 49(6):707-15. · 1.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

256 Citations
79 Downloads
55.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2013
    • Auburn University
      • Department of Agronomy and Soils
      Auburn, Alabama, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Agricultural Research Service
      Kerrville, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Fort Valley State University
      Georgia, United States
  • 2007
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1984–1988
    • University of California, Riverside
      • Department of Botany and Plant Sciences
      Riverside, California, United States