Philip J Kingsley

Vanderbilt University, Нашвилл, Michigan, United States

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Publications (44)268.89 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can oxidize cellular molecules including lipids and DNA. Our laboratory has shown that 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) is the most abundant DNA adduct formed from the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, or the DNA peroxidation product, base propenal. M1dG is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells and is repaired via the nucleotide excision repair system. Here, we report that M1dG levels in intact DNA were increased from basal levels of 1 adduct per 108 nucleotides to 2 adducts per 106 nucleotides following adenine propenal treatment of RKO, HEK293 or HepG2 cells. We also found that M1dG in genomic DNA was oxidized in a time-dependent fashion to a single product, 6-oxo-M1dG, (to ~ 5 adducts per 107 nucleotides) and that this oxidation correlated with a decline in M1dG levels. Investigations in RAW264.7 macrophages indicate the presence of high basal levels of M1dG (1 adduct per 106 nucleotides) and the endogenous formation of 6-oxo-M1dG. This is the first report of the production of 6-oxo-M1dG in genomic DNA in intact cells and it has significant implications for understanding the role of inflammation in DNA damage, mutagenesis and repair.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 10/2015; DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00340 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A polypharmacologic approach to prostanoid based anti-inflammatory therapeutics was undertaken in order to exploit both the anti- and proinflammatory properties attributed to the various prostanoid receptors. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors yielded a prototype compound, compound 1 (AGN 211377), that antagonizes prostaglandin D2 receptors DP1 (49) and DP2 (558), prostaglandin E2 receptors EP1 (266) and EP4 (117), prostaglandin F2α receptor (61), and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) (11) while sparing EP2, EP3, and prostaglandin I2 receptors (IP); Kb values (in nanomoles) are given in parentheses. Compound 1 evoked a pronounced inhibition of cytokine/chemokine secretion from lipopolysaccharide or TNF-α stimulated primary human macrophages. These cytokine/chemokines included cluster of designation 40 receptor (CD40), epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating protein 78 (ENA-78), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) (MCP-1), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of most antagonists selective for a single receptor were modest or absent, and selective EP2 receptor blockade increased cytokine release in some instances. Compound 1 also showed clear superiority to the cyclooxygenase inhibitors diclofenac and rofecoxib. These findings reveal that blockade of multiple prostanoid receptors, with absent antagonism of EP2 and IP, may provide more effective anti-inflammatory activity than global suppression of prostanoid synthesis or highly selective prostanoid receptor blockade. These investigations demonstrate the first working example of prostanoid receptor polypharmacology for potentially safer and more effective anti-inflammatory therapeutics by blocking multiple proinflammatory receptors while sparing those with anti-inflammatory activity.-Wang, J. W., Woodward, D. F., Martos, J. L., Cornell, C. L., Carling, R. W., Kingsley, P. J., Marnett, L. J. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors provides agents with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages.
    The FASEB Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.15-275610 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In aggregate, livers donated after circulatory death (DCD) provide lower rates of graft and patient survival compared to brain dead donors (DBD). A method to identify DCD livers likely to perform well would lead to better decision-making regarding which livers to use and which to discard and is an important unmet clinical need. We hypothesized that the ischemic time between extubation and cold perfusion in the donor leads to immediate and unique biochemical and molecular changes that could be used to predict subsequent function. Methods: Biopsies from normal perfused liver, immediately after cold perfusion during DCD or DBD liver procurement, and during subsequent cold storage were analyzed and compared. Biochemical analysis included adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine, xanthine, inosine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Levels of these metabolites were compared to peak posttransplant aspartate aminotransferase as a marker of ischemic injury. Molecular analysis was performed by transcriptional profiling using high throughput sequencing. Results: Immediately after cold perfusion in the donor, biochemical analysis revealed lower levels of ATP and adenosine diphosphate in DCD versus DBD liver samples (P < 0.01 in both cases). The ATP levels showed high negative correlation with peak aspartate aminotransferase levels in recipients (P = 0.029). Four hundred seventy genes showed differential expression in DCD but not DBD samples immediately after cold perfusion compared with normal liver samples. Upregulated genes function in inflammation and immunity, whereas downregulated genes function in translation. During cold storage, samples were transcriptionally inactive with no consistent changes in messenger RNA expression. Conclusion: The ATP content of liver samples taken immediately postperfusion correlates with ischemic injury. Transcriptional profiling identifies biological process that may be relevant for enhancing function in DCD liver transplantation. Transcriptional inactivity of cold stored samples suggests messenger RNA levels over time are unlikely to provide prognostic data.
    06/2015; 1(5):1-9. DOI:10.1097/TXD.0000000000000527
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising target for the imaging of cancer in a range of diagnostic and therapeutic settings. We report a near-infrared COX-2-targeted probe, fluorocoxib C (FC), for visualization of solid tumors by optical imaging. FC exhibits selective and potent COX-2 inhibition in both purified protein and human cancercell lines. In vivo optical imaging shows selective accumulation of FC in COX-2-overexpressing human tumor xenografts [1483 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)] implanted in nude mice, while minimal uptake is detectable in COX-2-negative tumor xenografts (HCT116)or 1483 HNSCC xenografts preblocked with the COX-2-selective inhibitor celecoxib. Time course imaging studies conducted from 3 h to 7-day post-FC injection revealed a marked reduction in nonspecific fluorescent signals with retention of fluorescence in 1483 HNSCC tumors. Thus, use of FC in a delayed imaging protocol offers an approach to improve imaging signal-to-noise that should improve cancer detection in multiple preclinical and clinical settings.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 05/2015; 20(5):050502. DOI:10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.050502 · 2.86 Impact Factor

  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-80. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30280-8 · 16.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) and the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonylethanolamide, to prostaglandins, prostaglandin glyceryl esters, and prostaglandin ethanolamides, respectively. A structural homodimer, COX-2 acts as a conformational heterodimer with a catalytic and an allosteric monomer. Prior studies have demonstrated substrate-selective negative allosteric regulation of 2-AG oxygenation. Here we describe AM-8138 (13(S)-methylarachidonic acid), a substrate-selective allosteric potentiator that augments 2-AG oxygenation by up to 3.5-fold with no effect on AA oxygenation. In the crystal structure of an AM-8138:COX-2 complex, AM-8138 adopts a conformation similar to an unproductive conformation of AA in the substrate binding site. Kinetic analysis suggests that binding of AM-8138 to the allosteric monomer of COX-2 increases 2-AG oxygenation by increasing kcat, and preventing inhibitory binding of 2-AG. AM-8138 restored the activity of COX-2 mutants that exhibited very poor 2-AG oxygenating activity and increased the activity of COX-1 toward 2-AG. Competition of AM-8138 for the allosteric site prevented the inhibition of COX-2-dependent 2-AG oxygenation by substrate-selective inhibitors and blocked the inhibition of AA or 2-AG oxygenation by nonselective time-dependent inhibitors. AM-8138 selectively enhanced 2-AG oxygenation in intact RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. Thus, AM-8138 is an important new tool compound for the exploration of allosteric modulation of COX enzymes and their role in endocannabinoid metabolism. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2015; 290(12). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.634014 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence J. Marnett · Philip J. Kingsley · Daniel J. Hermanson ·
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the oxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) and AA-containing esters/amides. The latter include the endocannabinoids (ECs), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), and several arachidonoylamino acids. The principal products of oxygenation are analogs of prostaglandins that contain a glycerol ester, ethanolamide, or amino acid. These compounds exert potent biological activities but act through currently uncharacterized receptors. Recent advances have provided analytical methods and chemical tools with which to interrogate the involvement of COX-2-dependent EC oxygenation in physiological and pathophysiological responses. This has led to the discovery of their involvement in pain, anxiety, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. These advances are reviewed and a perspective for the future is offered.
    The Endocannabinoidome, 01/2015: pages 49-65; , ISBN: 9780124201262
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    ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been heavily implicated in the modulation of anxiety and depressive behaviors and emotional learning. However, the role of the most-abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the physiological regulation of affective behaviors is not well understood. Here, we show that genetic deletion of the 2-AG synthetic enzyme diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) in mice reduces brain, but not circulating, 2-AG levels. DAGLα deletion also results in anxiety-like and sex-specific anhedonic phenotypes associated with impaired activity-dependent eCB retrograde signaling at amygdala glutamatergic synapses. Importantly, acute pharmacological normalization of 2-AG levels reverses both phenotypes of DAGLα-deficient mice. These data suggest 2-AG deficiency could contribute to the pathogenesis of affective disorders and that pharmacological normalization of 2-AG signaling could represent an approach for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 11/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.001 · 8.36 Impact Factor
  • Orrette Wauchope · James Galligan · Philip Kingsley · Lawrence Marnett ·

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    ABSTRACT: Base propenals are products of the reaction of DNA with oxidants such as peroxynitrite and bleomycin. The most reactive base propenal, adenine propenal, is mutagenic in E. coli and reacts with DNA to form covalent adducts; however, the reaction of adenine propenal with protein has not yet been investigated. A survey of the reaction of adenine propenal with amino acids revealed that lysine and cysteine form adducts whereas histidine and arginine do not. Nε-Oxopropenyllysine, a lysine-lysine cross-link and S-oxopropenyl cysteine are the major products. Comprehensive profiling of the reaction of adenine propenal with human serum albumin and the DNA repair protein, XPA, revealed that the only stable adduct is Nε-oxopropenyllysine. The most reactive sites for modification in human albumin are K190 and K351. Three sites of modification of XPA are in the DNA-binding domain, and two sites are subject to regulatory acetylation. Modification by adenine propenal dramatically reduces XPA's ability to bind to a DNA substrate.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 09/2014; 27(10). DOI:10.1021/tx500218g · 3.53 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Prevention Research 01/2014; 5(11_Supplement):CN04-02-CN04-02. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.PREV-12-CN04-02 · 4.44 Impact Factor

  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2013; 65:S148. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.10.770 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) utilize arachidonic acid for the synthesis of eicosanoids that have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cardiovascular disease. The ability of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, to redirect arachidonic acid into the 5-LO pathway can potentially reduce its efficacy as a chemopreventive agent and increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4), biomarkers of the COX and 5-LO pathways, are elevated in smokers. Here we investigated the effects of zileuton, a 5-LO inhibitor, vs. zileuton and celecoxib for 6 ± 1 days on urinary PGE-M and LTE4 levels in smokers. Treatment with zileuton led to an 18% decrease in PGE-M levels (P=0.03); the combination of zileuton and celecoxib led to a 62% reduction in PGE-M levels (P<0.001). Levels of LTE4 decreased by 61% in subjects treated with zileuton alone (P<0.001) and were unaffected by the addition of celecoxib. Although zileuton use was associated with a small overall decrease in PGE-M levels, increased PGE-M levels were found in a subset (19/52) of subjects. Notably, the addition of celecoxib to the 5-LO inhibitor protected against the increase in urinary PGE-M levels (P=0.03). In conclusion, zileuton was an effective inhibitor of 5-LO activity resulting in marked suppression of urinary LTE4 levels and possible redirection of arachidonic acid into the COX-2 pathway in a subset of subjects. Combining celecoxib and zileuton was associated with inhibition of both the COX-2 and 5-LO pathways manifested as reduced levels of urinary PGE-M and LTE4.
    Cancer Prevention Research 05/2013; 6(7). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0083 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in mouse corneal wound healing models and in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) if they interact with one another to reduce TRPV1-induced inflammatory and scarring responses. Corneal epithelial debridement elicited in vivo a more rapid wound healing response in wildtype (WT) than in CB1(-/-) mice suggesting functional interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. CB1 activation by injury is tenable based on the identification in mouse corneas of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with tandem LC-MS/MS, a selective endocannabinoid CB1 ligand. Suppression of corneal TRPV1 activation by CB1 is indicated since following alkali burning, CB1 activation with WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced immune cell stromal infiltration and scarring. Western blot analysis of coimmunoprecipitates identified protein-protein interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. Other immunocomplexes were also identified containing transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), TRPV1 and CB1. CB1 siRNA gene silencing prevented suppression by WIN of TRPV1-induced TAK1-JNK1 signaling. WIN reduced TRPV1-induced Ca(2+) transients in fura2-loaded HCEC whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation obviated suppression by WIN of such rises caused by capsaicin (CAP). Whole cell patch clamp analysis of HCEC showed that WIN blocked subsequent CAP-induced increases in nonselective outward currents. Taken together, CB1 activation by injury-induced release of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG downregulates TRPV1 mediated inflammation and corneal opacification. Such suppression occurs through protein-protein interaction between TRPV1 and CB1 leading to declines in TRPV1 phosphorylation status. CB1 activation of the GTP binding protein, G(i/o) contributes to CB1 mediated TRPV1 dephosphorylation leading to TRPV1 desensitization, declines in TRPV1-induced increases in currents and pro-inflammatory signaling events.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2012; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.10.015 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid and the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA). We recently reported that (R)-profens selectively inhibit endocannabinoid oxygenation but not arachidonic acid oxygenation. In this work, we synthesized achiral derivatives of five profen scaffolds and evaluated them for substrate-selective inhibition using in vitro and cellular assays. The size of the substituents dictated the inhibitory strength of the analogs, with smaller substituents enabling greater potency but less selectivity. Inhibitors based on the flurbiprofen scaffold possessed the greatest potency and selectivity, with desmethylflurbiprofen (3a) exhibiting an IC(50) of 0.11 μM for inhibition of 2-AG oxygenation. The crystal structure of desmethylflurbiprofen complexed to mCOX-2 demonstrated a similar binding mode to other profens. Desmethylflurbiprofen exhibited a half-life in mice comparable to that of ibuprofen. The data presented suggest that achiral profens can act as lead molecules toward in vivo probes of substrate-selective COX-2 inhibition.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 09/2012; 3(9):759-763. DOI:10.1021/ml3001616 · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Sarah C. Shuck · Philip J. Kingsley · Dapo Akingbade · Lawrence J. Marnett ·

    Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(8 Supplement):5733-5733. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-5733 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful lipid mediators in many physiological and pathophysiological responses. They are produced by oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) followed by metabolism of endoperoxide intermediates by terminal PG synthases. PG biosynthesis is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Specific inhibition of COX-2 has been extensively investigated, but relatively few COX-1-selective inhibitors have been described. Recent reports of a possible contribution of COX-1 in analgesia, neuroinflammation, or carcinogenesis suggest that COX-1 is a potential therapeutic target. We designed, synthesized, and evaluated a series of (E)-2'-des-methyl-sulindac sulfide (E-DMSS) analogues for inhibition of COX-1. Several potent and selective inhibitors were discovered, and the most promising compounds were active against COX-1 in intact ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3). The compounds inhibited tumor cell proliferation but only at concentrations >100-fold higher than the concentrations that inhibit COX-1 activity. E-DMSS analogues may be useful probes of COX-1 biology in vivo and promising leads for COX-1-targeted therapeutic agents.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 55(5):2287-300. DOI:10.1021/jm201528b · 5.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress triggers DNA and lipid peroxidation, leading to the formation of electrophiles that react with DNA to form adducts. A product of this pathway, (3-(2'-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-α]purine-10(3H)-one), or M(1)dG, is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells and is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. In vivo, M(1)dG is oxidized to a primary metabolite, (3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-α]purine-6,10(3H,5H)-dione, or 6-oxo-M(1)dG, which is excreted in urine, bile, and feces. We have developed a specific monoclonal antibody against 6-oxo-M(1)dG and have incorporated this antibody into a procedure for the immunoaffinity isolation of 6-oxo-M(1)dG from biological matrices. The purified analyte is quantified by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope-labeled analogue ([(15)N(5)]-6-oxo-M(1)dG) as an internal standard. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats excreted 6-oxo-M(1)dG at a rate of 350-1893 fmol/kg·d in feces. This is the first report of the presence of the major metabolite of M(1)dG in rodents without exogenous introduction of M(1)dG.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2012; 25(2):454-61. DOI:10.1021/tx200494h · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: COX-2 is a major contributor to the inflammatory response and cancer progression so it is an important target for prevention and therapy. COX-2 is absent or expressed at low levels in most epithelial cells but is found at high levels in inflammatory lesions, and many premalignant and malignant tumors. Thus, it is an attractive target for molecular imaging. We report a series of novel fluorinated imaging agents, derived from indomethacin or celecoxib that selectively inhibit COX-2. The most promising lead, compound 7, was a fluorinated derivative of celecoxib. Kinetic analysis revealed that this fluorinated compound is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of COX-2 and exhibits minimal inhibitory activity against COX-1. Efficient incorporation of (18)F into compound 7 by radiochemical synthesis and intravenous injection provided sufficient signal for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Selective uptake of (18)F-7 was observed in inflamed rat paws compared with the noninflamed contralateral paws and uptake was blocked by pretreatment with the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib. Uptake of (18)F-7 was not observed when inflammation was induced in COX-2-null mice. In nude mice bearing both a COX-2-expressing human tumor xenograft (1483) and a COX-2-negative xenograft (HCT116), (18)F-7 selectively accumulated in the COX-2-expressing tumor. Accumulation was blocked by pretreatment of the animals with celecoxib. The in vitro and in vivo properties of compound 7 suggest it will be a useful probe for early detection of cancer and for evaluation of the COX-2 status of premalignant and malignant tumors.
    Cancer Prevention Research 09/2011; 4(10):1536-45. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0120 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • James D West · Chelsea E Stamm · Philip J Kingsley ·
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    ABSTRACT: Many α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are used in biochemical and medical research. Their biological effects are due in large part to their electrophilic properties, whereby they undergo reaction with nucleophilic sites in proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we describe a structure-activity comparison of the cytotoxic properties of diethyl maleate (DEM) and closely related chemical analogs. All molecules that contained an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group were cytotoxic to human colorectal carcinoma cells, causing apoptotic cell death. However, related molecules lacking this chemical moiety were not cytotoxic. One of the molecules screened, diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DAD), was considerably more cytotoxic than DEM and other analogues. Induction of cell death by DAD was significantly decreased following preincubation of cells with N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that its reactivity with thiols in cells might account for its cytotoxicity. By use of a model thiol compound, it was found that DAD can undergo addition reactions with two equivalents of thiol. When the reactivity of DAD with proteins was explored, it was determined that DAD induces oligomerization of Gpx3p, a yeast glutathione peroxidase with highly reactive cysteine residues in its active site. Our results suggest that DAD functions as a protein-thiol cross-linker, providing a potential chemical explanation for its cytotoxic potency.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2011; 24(1):81-8. DOI:10.1021/tx100292n · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
268.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Center in Molecular Toxicology
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2005
    • Kagawa University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Takamatu, Kagawa, Japan