Philip J Kingsley

Vanderbilt University, Нашвилл, Michigan, United States

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Publications (39)260.79 Total impact

  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-80. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30280-8 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) and the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonylethanolamide, to prostaglandins, prostaglandin glyceryl esters, and prostaglandin ethanolamides, respectively. A structural homodimer, COX-2 acts as a conformational heterodimer with a catalytic and an allosteric monomer. Prior studies have demonstrated substrate-selective negative allosteric regulation of 2-AG oxygenation. Here we describe AM-8138 (13(S)-methylarachidonic acid), a substrate-selective allosteric potentiator that augments 2-AG oxygenation by up to 3.5-fold with no effect on AA oxygenation. In the crystal structure of an AM-8138:COX-2 complex, AM-8138 adopts a conformation similar to an unproductive conformation of AA in the substrate binding site. Kinetic analysis suggests that binding of AM-8138 to the allosteric monomer of COX-2 increases 2-AG oxygenation by increasing kcat, and preventing inhibitory binding of 2-AG. AM-8138 restored the activity of COX-2 mutants that exhibited very poor 2-AG oxygenating activity and increased the activity of COX-1 toward 2-AG. Competition of AM-8138 for the allosteric site prevented the inhibition of COX-2-dependent 2-AG oxygenation by substrate-selective inhibitors and blocked the inhibition of AA or 2-AG oxygenation by nonselective time-dependent inhibitors. AM-8138 selectively enhanced 2-AG oxygenation in intact RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. Thus, AM-8138 is an important new tool compound for the exploration of allosteric modulation of COX enzymes and their role in endocannabinoid metabolism. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2015; 290(12). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.634014 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been heavily implicated in the modulation of anxiety and depressive behaviors and emotional learning. However, the role of the most-abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the physiological regulation of affective behaviors is not well understood. Here, we show that genetic deletion of the 2-AG synthetic enzyme diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) in mice reduces brain, but not circulating, 2-AG levels. DAGLα deletion also results in anxiety-like and sex-specific anhedonic phenotypes associated with impaired activity-dependent eCB retrograde signaling at amygdala glutamatergic synapses. Importantly, acute pharmacological normalization of 2-AG levels reverses both phenotypes of DAGLα-deficient mice. These data suggest 2-AG deficiency could contribute to the pathogenesis of affective disorders and that pharmacological normalization of 2-AG signaling could represent an approach for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 11/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.001 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Base propenals are products of the reaction of DNA with oxidants such as peroxynitrite and bleomycin. The most reactive base propenal, adenine propenal, is mutagenic in E. coli and reacts with DNA to form covalent adducts; however, the reaction of adenine propenal with protein has not yet been investigated. A survey of the reaction of adenine propenal with amino acids revealed that lysine and cysteine form adducts whereas histidine and arginine do not. Nε-Oxopropenyllysine, a lysine-lysine cross-link and S-oxopropenyl cysteine are the major products. Comprehensive profiling of the reaction of adenine propenal with human serum albumin and the DNA repair protein, XPA, revealed that the only stable adduct is Nε-oxopropenyllysine. The most reactive sites for modification in human albumin are K190 and K351. Three sites of modification of XPA are in the DNA-binding domain, and two sites are subject to regulatory acetylation. Modification by adenine propenal dramatically reduces XPA's ability to bind to a DNA substrate.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 09/2014; 27(10). DOI:10.1021/tx500218g · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Prevention Research 01/2014; 5(11_Supplement):CN04-02-CN04-02. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.PREV-12-CN04-02 · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2013; 65:S148. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.10.770 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) utilize arachidonic acid for the synthesis of eicosanoids that have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cardiovascular disease. The ability of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, to redirect arachidonic acid into the 5-LO pathway can potentially reduce its efficacy as a chemopreventive agent and increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4), biomarkers of the COX and 5-LO pathways, are elevated in smokers. Here we investigated the effects of zileuton, a 5-LO inhibitor, vs. zileuton and celecoxib for 6 ± 1 days on urinary PGE-M and LTE4 levels in smokers. Treatment with zileuton led to an 18% decrease in PGE-M levels (P=0.03); the combination of zileuton and celecoxib led to a 62% reduction in PGE-M levels (P<0.001). Levels of LTE4 decreased by 61% in subjects treated with zileuton alone (P<0.001) and were unaffected by the addition of celecoxib. Although zileuton use was associated with a small overall decrease in PGE-M levels, increased PGE-M levels were found in a subset (19/52) of subjects. Notably, the addition of celecoxib to the 5-LO inhibitor protected against the increase in urinary PGE-M levels (P=0.03). In conclusion, zileuton was an effective inhibitor of 5-LO activity resulting in marked suppression of urinary LTE4 levels and possible redirection of arachidonic acid into the COX-2 pathway in a subset of subjects. Combining celecoxib and zileuton was associated with inhibition of both the COX-2 and 5-LO pathways manifested as reduced levels of urinary PGE-M and LTE4.
    Cancer Prevention Research 05/2013; 6(7). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0083 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in mouse corneal wound healing models and in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) if they interact with one another to reduce TRPV1-induced inflammatory and scarring responses. Corneal epithelial debridement elicited in vivo a more rapid wound healing response in wildtype (WT) than in CB1(-/-) mice suggesting functional interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. CB1 activation by injury is tenable based on the identification in mouse corneas of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with tandem LC-MS/MS, a selective endocannabinoid CB1 ligand. Suppression of corneal TRPV1 activation by CB1 is indicated since following alkali burning, CB1 activation with WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced immune cell stromal infiltration and scarring. Western blot analysis of coimmunoprecipitates identified protein-protein interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. Other immunocomplexes were also identified containing transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), TRPV1 and CB1. CB1 siRNA gene silencing prevented suppression by WIN of TRPV1-induced TAK1-JNK1 signaling. WIN reduced TRPV1-induced Ca(2+) transients in fura2-loaded HCEC whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation obviated suppression by WIN of such rises caused by capsaicin (CAP). Whole cell patch clamp analysis of HCEC showed that WIN blocked subsequent CAP-induced increases in nonselective outward currents. Taken together, CB1 activation by injury-induced release of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG downregulates TRPV1 mediated inflammation and corneal opacification. Such suppression occurs through protein-protein interaction between TRPV1 and CB1 leading to declines in TRPV1 phosphorylation status. CB1 activation of the GTP binding protein, G(i/o) contributes to CB1 mediated TRPV1 dephosphorylation leading to TRPV1 desensitization, declines in TRPV1-induced increases in currents and pro-inflammatory signaling events.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2012; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.10.015 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid and the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA). We recently reported that (R)-profens selectively inhibit endocannabinoid oxygenation but not arachidonic acid oxygenation. In this work, we synthesized achiral derivatives of five profen scaffolds and evaluated them for substrate-selective inhibition using in vitro and cellular assays. The size of the substituents dictated the inhibitory strength of the analogs, with smaller substituents enabling greater potency but less selectivity. Inhibitors based on the flurbiprofen scaffold possessed the greatest potency and selectivity, with desmethylflurbiprofen (3a) exhibiting an IC(50) of 0.11 μM for inhibition of 2-AG oxygenation. The crystal structure of desmethylflurbiprofen complexed to mCOX-2 demonstrated a similar binding mode to other profens. Desmethylflurbiprofen exhibited a half-life in mice comparable to that of ibuprofen. The data presented suggest that achiral profens can act as lead molecules toward in vivo probes of substrate-selective COX-2 inhibition.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 09/2012; 3(9):759-763. DOI:10.1021/ml3001616 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Sarah C. Shuck · Philip J. Kingsley · Dapo Akingbade · Lawrence J. Marnett
    Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(8 Supplement):5733-5733. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-5733 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful lipid mediators in many physiological and pathophysiological responses. They are produced by oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) followed by metabolism of endoperoxide intermediates by terminal PG synthases. PG biosynthesis is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Specific inhibition of COX-2 has been extensively investigated, but relatively few COX-1-selective inhibitors have been described. Recent reports of a possible contribution of COX-1 in analgesia, neuroinflammation, or carcinogenesis suggest that COX-1 is a potential therapeutic target. We designed, synthesized, and evaluated a series of (E)-2'-des-methyl-sulindac sulfide (E-DMSS) analogues for inhibition of COX-1. Several potent and selective inhibitors were discovered, and the most promising compounds were active against COX-1 in intact ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3). The compounds inhibited tumor cell proliferation but only at concentrations >100-fold higher than the concentrations that inhibit COX-1 activity. E-DMSS analogues may be useful probes of COX-1 biology in vivo and promising leads for COX-1-targeted therapeutic agents.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 55(5):2287-300. DOI:10.1021/jm201528b · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress triggers DNA and lipid peroxidation, leading to the formation of electrophiles that react with DNA to form adducts. A product of this pathway, (3-(2'-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-α]purine-10(3H)-one), or M(1)dG, is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells and is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. In vivo, M(1)dG is oxidized to a primary metabolite, (3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-α]purine-6,10(3H,5H)-dione, or 6-oxo-M(1)dG, which is excreted in urine, bile, and feces. We have developed a specific monoclonal antibody against 6-oxo-M(1)dG and have incorporated this antibody into a procedure for the immunoaffinity isolation of 6-oxo-M(1)dG from biological matrices. The purified analyte is quantified by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope-labeled analogue ([(15)N(5)]-6-oxo-M(1)dG) as an internal standard. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats excreted 6-oxo-M(1)dG at a rate of 350-1893 fmol/kg·d in feces. This is the first report of the presence of the major metabolite of M(1)dG in rodents without exogenous introduction of M(1)dG.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2012; 25(2):454-61. DOI:10.1021/tx200494h · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: COX-2 is a major contributor to the inflammatory response and cancer progression so it is an important target for prevention and therapy. COX-2 is absent or expressed at low levels in most epithelial cells but is found at high levels in inflammatory lesions, and many premalignant and malignant tumors. Thus, it is an attractive target for molecular imaging. We report a series of novel fluorinated imaging agents, derived from indomethacin or celecoxib that selectively inhibit COX-2. The most promising lead, compound 7, was a fluorinated derivative of celecoxib. Kinetic analysis revealed that this fluorinated compound is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of COX-2 and exhibits minimal inhibitory activity against COX-1. Efficient incorporation of (18)F into compound 7 by radiochemical synthesis and intravenous injection provided sufficient signal for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Selective uptake of (18)F-7 was observed in inflamed rat paws compared with the noninflamed contralateral paws and uptake was blocked by pretreatment with the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib. Uptake of (18)F-7 was not observed when inflammation was induced in COX-2-null mice. In nude mice bearing both a COX-2-expressing human tumor xenograft (1483) and a COX-2-negative xenograft (HCT116), (18)F-7 selectively accumulated in the COX-2-expressing tumor. Accumulation was blocked by pretreatment of the animals with celecoxib. The in vitro and in vivo properties of compound 7 suggest it will be a useful probe for early detection of cancer and for evaluation of the COX-2 status of premalignant and malignant tumors.
    Cancer Prevention Research 09/2011; 4(10):1536-45. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0120 · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • James D West · Chelsea E Stamm · Philip J Kingsley
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    ABSTRACT: Many α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are used in biochemical and medical research. Their biological effects are due in large part to their electrophilic properties, whereby they undergo reaction with nucleophilic sites in proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we describe a structure-activity comparison of the cytotoxic properties of diethyl maleate (DEM) and closely related chemical analogs. All molecules that contained an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group were cytotoxic to human colorectal carcinoma cells, causing apoptotic cell death. However, related molecules lacking this chemical moiety were not cytotoxic. One of the molecules screened, diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DAD), was considerably more cytotoxic than DEM and other analogues. Induction of cell death by DAD was significantly decreased following preincubation of cells with N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that its reactivity with thiols in cells might account for its cytotoxicity. By use of a model thiol compound, it was found that DAD can undergo addition reactions with two equivalents of thiol. When the reactivity of DAD with proteins was explored, it was determined that DAD induces oligomerization of Gpx3p, a yeast glutathione peroxidase with highly reactive cysteine residues in its active site. Our results suggest that DAD functions as a protein-thiol cross-linker, providing a potential chemical explanation for its cytotoxic potency.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2011; 24(1):81-8. DOI:10.1021/tx100292n · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Xingya Wang · Philip J Kingsley · Larry J Marnett · Thomas E Eling
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    ABSTRACT: The antitumor effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are assumed to be due to the inhibition of COX activity, but COX-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) is induced by NSAIDs and has antitumorigenic activities. To determine the contribution of COX-2 inhibition and NAG-1/GDF15 expression to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis by NSAIDs, we evaluated several sulindac derivatives [des-methyl (DM)-sulindac sulfide and its prodrug DM-sulindac] that do not inhibit COX-2 activity. Sulindac sulfide and DM-sulindac induced the expression of NAG-1/GDF15 in HCT116 cells as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We fed APC/Min mice with 320 ppm of sulindac and doses of DM-sulindac. Only sulindac significantly inhibited tumor formation inAPC/Min mice. To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of sulindac and DM-sulindac in vivo, wild-type C57/B6 mice were fed with sulindac and DM-sulindac at 80, 160, and 320 ppm. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the conversion of DM-sulindac to DM-sulindac sulfide (active form) was less efficient than the conversion of sulindac to sulindac sulfide (active form) in the mice. Lower levels of DM-sulindac sulfide accumulated in intestinal and colon tissues in comparison with sulindac sulfide. In addition, NAG-1/GDF15 was induced in the liver of sulindac-fed mice but not in the DM-sulindac-fed mice. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor-inhibitory effects of sulindac in APC/Min mice may be due to, in part, NAG-1/GDF15 induction in the liver. Our study also suggests that pharmacologic properties should be carefully evaluated when developing drug candidates.
    Cancer Prevention Research 01/2011; 4(1):150-60. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0196 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective diagnosis of inflammation and cancer by molecular imaging is challenging because of interference from nonselective accumulation of the contrast agents in normal tissues. Here, we report a series of novel fluorescence imaging agents that efficiently target cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is normally absent from cells, but is found at high levels in inflammatory lesions and in many premalignant and malignant tumors. After either i.p. or i.v. injection, these reagents become highly enriched in inflamed or tumor tissue compared with normal tissue and this accumulation provides sufficient signal for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Further, we show that only the intact parent compound is found in the region of interest. COX-2-specific delivery was unambiguously confirmed using animals bearing targeted deletions of COX-2 and by blocking the COX-2 active site with high-affinity inhibitors in both in vitro and in vivo models. Because of their high specificity, contrast, and detectability, these fluorocoxibs are ideal candidates for detection of inflammatory lesions or early-stage COX-2-expressing human cancers, such as those in the esophagus, oropharynx, and colon.
    Cancer Research 05/2010; 70(9):3618-27. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2664 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    Melissa V Turman · Philip J Kingsley · Lawrence J Marnett
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    ABSTRACT: N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)arachidonoylamide (AM404) is an inhibitor of endocannabinoid inactivation that has been used in cellular and animal studies. AM404 is a derivative of arachidonic acid and has been reported to inhibit arachidonate oxygenation by prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 and -2 (PGHS-1 and -2, respectively). While examining the structural requirements for inhibition of PGHS, we discovered that the meta isomer of AM404, N-(3-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonoylamide (3-HPAA), is a substrate for purified PGHS. PGHS-2 efficiently oxygenated 3-HPAA to prostaglandin and hydroxyeicosatetraenoate products. No oxidation of the phenolamide moiety was observed. 3-HPAA appeared to be converted by PGHS-1 in a similar manner; however, conversion was less efficient than that by PGHS-2. PGHS-2 was selectively, dose-dependently, and irreversibly inactivated in the presence of 3-HPAA. Complete inactivation of PGHS-2 was achieved with 10 muM 3-HPAA. Preliminary characterization revealed that 3-HPAA inactivation did not result from covalent modification of PGHS-2 or damage to the heme moiety. These studies provide additional insight into the structural requirements for substrate metabolism and inactivation of PGHS and report the first metabolism-dependent, selective inactivator of PGHS-2.
    Biochemistry 11/2009; 48(51):12233-41. DOI:10.1021/bi901181z · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for development and exacerbation of neuropsychiatric illness. Repeated stress causes biochemical adaptations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling that contribute to stress-response habituation, however, the synaptic correlates of these adaptations have not been examined. Here, we show that the synthetic enzyme for the eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase alpha, is heterogeneously expressed in the amygdala, and that levels of 2-AG and precursor DAGs are increased in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) after 10 days, but not 1 day, of restraint stress. In contrast, arachidonic acid was decreased after both 1 and 10 days of restraint stress. To examine the synaptic correlates of these alterations in 2-AG metabolism, we used whole-cell electrophysiology to determine the effects of restraint stress on depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in the BLA. A single restraint stress exposure did not alter DSI compared with control mice. However, after 10 days of restraint stress, DSI duration, but not magnitude, was significantly prolonged. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation with MAFP also prolonged DSI duration; the effects of repeated restraint stress and MAFP were mutually occlusive. These data indicate that exposure to repeated, but not acute, stress produces neuroadaptations that confer BLA neurons with an enhanced capacity to elevate 2-AG content and engage in 2-AG-mediated short-term retrograde synaptic signaling. We suggest stress-induced enhancement of eCB-mediated suppression of inhibitory transmission in the BLA could contribute to affective dysregulation associated with chronic stress.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2009; 34(13):2699-709. DOI:10.1038/npp.2009.101 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel series of iodinated indomethacin derivatives was synthesized, and evaluated as selective inhibitors of COX-2. Two candidate compounds N-(p-iodobenzyl)-2-(1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetamide (3) and 1-(p-iodobenzyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indoleacetic acid (9) possessed optimum properties suitable for potential in vivo imaging. Arylstannane precursors for radioiododestannylation were synthesized in 70–85% yield from the iodo compounds by reaction with hexabutylditin and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) in refluxing dioxane. Radioiododestannylation was conducted by reaction with carrier-added Na[123I] in the presence of Chloramine-T in an EtOAc/H2O binary system under acidic conditions (pH 3.5), allowing direct isolation of the labeled products by separation of the organic phase. Radioiodinated products [123I]3 and [123I]9 were recovered in a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 86–87% and radiochemical purity of 98–99%. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds 07/2009; 52(9):387 - 393. DOI:10.1002/jlcr.1615

Publication Stats

2k Citations
260.79 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Center in Molecular Toxicology
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2005
    • Kagawa University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Takamatu, Kagawa, Japan