[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) and coherence of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Here we tested the hypothesis that these two variables could be related.
We investigated VMR and coherence of resting state EEG rhythms in nine normal elderly (Nold) and in 10 amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded at baseline pre-CO2 (ambient air, 2min), during 7% CO2/air mixture inhalation (hypercapnia, 90s) and post-CO2 (ambient air, 2min) conditions. Simultaneous frontal bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was performed to assess VMR by cortical oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes. EEG coherence across all electrodes was computed at delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz) and gamma (30-40Hz) bands.
In Nold subjects, 'total coherence' of EEG across all frequency bands and electrode pairs decreased during hypercapnia, with full recovery during post-CO2. Total coherence resulted lower in pre-CO2 and post-CO2 and presented poor reactivity during CO2 inhalation in MCI patients compared with Nold subjects. Hypercapnia increased oxy-haemoglobin and decreased deoxy-haemoglobin concentrations in both groups. Furthermore, the extent of changes in these variables during CO2 challenge was correlated with the EEG coherence, as a reflection of neurovascular coupling.
Hypercapnia induced normal frontal VMR that was detected by NIRS in both Nold and amnesic MCI groups, while it produced a reactivity of global functional coupling of resting state EEG rhythms only in the Nold group.
In amnesic MCI patients, global EEG functional coupling is basically low in amplitude and does not react to hypercapnia.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we review the contribution of our research group to the study of human consciousness by quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques. We posit that EEG techniques can be extremely useful for a direct measurement of brain electrophysiological activity related to human consciousness for their unsurpassable high temporal resolution (milliseconds). This activity can be expressed in terms of event-related potentials as well as changes of EEG rhythms of interest, for example the dominant alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz). The results of our studies, and those of several independent groups, lead support to the hypothesis that these techniques provide important insights about the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying cortical neural synchronization/desynchronization and the regulation of neuromodulatory systems (e.g. dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, etc.) at the basis of brain arousal and consciousness in healthy subjects and in patients with impairment of the consciousness. A possible interaction of these mechanisms and the drugs administered to patients with consciousness disorders is discussed.
Current pharmaceutical design 09/2013; · 4.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The default mode network is active during restful wakefulness and suppressed during goal-driven behavior. We hypothesize that inhibitory interference with spontaneous ongoing, that is, not task-driven, activity in the angular gyrus (AG), one of the core regions of the default mode network, will enhance the dominant idling EEG alpha rhythms observed in the resting state. Fifteen right-handed healthy adult volunteers underwent to this study. Compared with sham stimulation, magnetic stimulation (1 Hz for 1 min) over both left and right AG, but not over FEF or intraparietal sulcus, core regions of the dorsal attention network, enhanced the dominant alpha power density (8-10 Hz) in occipitoparietal cortex. Furthermore, right AG-rTMS enhanced intrahemispheric alpha coherence (8-10 Hz). These results suggest that AG plays a causal role in the modulation of dominant low-frequency alpha rhythms in the resting-state condition.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 08/2013; · 4.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that these sources in amnesic MCI subjects further deteriorate over 1 year. To this aim, the resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 54 MCI subjects at baseline (Mini Mental State Examination I = 26.9; standard error [SE], 0.2) and at approximately 1-year follow-up (13.8 months; SE, 0.5; Mini Mental State Examination II = 25.8; SE, 0.2). As a control, EEG recordings were also performed in 45 normal elderly and in 50 mild Alzheimer's disease subjects. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Compared with the normal elderly and mild Alzheimer's disease subjects, the MCI subjects were characterized by an intermediate power of posterior alpha1 sources. In the MCI subjects, the follow-up EEG recordings showed a decreased power of posterior alpha1 and alpha2 sources. These results suggest that the resting state EEG alpha sources were sensitive-at least at the group level-to the cognitive decline occurring in the amnesic MCI group over 1 year, and might represent cost-effective, noninvasive and widely available markers to follow amnesic MCI populations in large clinical trials.
Neurobiology of aging 07/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the working hypothesis that the EEG activity associated to non-painful and painful stimuli in condition of waking state (no hypnotic procedure) was related to the hypnotizability level. METHODS: Hypnotizability level was measured in 16 healthy subjects through the Italian version of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS, score: 0-12). EEG data (56 electrodes) were recorded during non-painful and painful electrical stimuli applied to the left index finger. Cortical activity (vertex N1-P2 complex) was compared in subjects with low hypnotizability level (N=8, SHSS:0-6) vs. subjects with high hypnotizability level (N=8, SHSS:7-12). RESULTS: The amplitude of the N1-P2 complex was lower in the High-hypnotizability compared to the Low-hypnotizability group over primary sensorimotor cortex (C3 and C4 electrodes) and centro-parietal midline areas (Cz and Pz electrodes) for non-painful and painful stimuli. The SHSS showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the vertex N1-P2 complex at C3 and Cz (r=-0.5, p<0.05) electrodes for non-painful stimuli. CONCLUSION: Compared to the Low-hypnotizability subjects, High-hypnotizability subjects showed a reduced cortical activity related to non-painful and painful stimuli. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest a relationship between hypnotizability and cortical activity related to non-painful and painful stimuli in the condition of waking state (no hypnotic effect).
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 04/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Obese subjects without eating disorders were characterised by poor electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms during resting-state eye-closed condition (Babiloni et al., 2011b). Is this true also for the desynchronisation of alpha rhythms during resting-state eyes opening? METHODS: EEG data were recorded in 15 underweight, 20 normal-weight, and 18 overweight/obese subjects during resting-state eyes-closed and -open conditions. EEG sources were estimated by LORETA for alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz). The alpha desynchronisation was calculated as the difference eyes-open minus -closed condition. RESULTS: The occipital alpha 1 desynchronisation was lower in overweight/obese and underweight subjects compared with normal-weight subjects (p<0.000005). The same was true for parietal, occipital and temporal alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz) desynchronisation (p<0.000002). The parietal and temporal alpha 1 desynchronisation was lower in overweight/obese than in normal-weight subjects (p<0.00001). These effects spatially matched those observed in the resting-state eyes-closed condition. CONCLUSION: Subjects with abnormal weight and normal eating behaviour are characterised by poor alpha desynchronisation during resting-state eyes opening. SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects without eating disorders show abnormal mechanisms of cortical neural synchronisation and desynchronisation of alpha rhythms in the resting state condition.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 02/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that these sources are also sensitive to the progression of early stage AD over the course of one year. The resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 88 mild AD patients at baseline (Mini Mental State Evaluation, MMSE I = 21.7 ± 0.2 standard error, SE) and at approximately one-year follow up (13.3 months ± 0.5 SE; MMSE II = 20 ± 0.4 SE). All patients received standard therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. EEG recordings were also performed in 35 normal elderly (Nold) subjects as controls. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Compared to the Nold subjects, the mild AD patients were characterized by a power increase of widespread delta sources and by a power decrease of posterior alpha sources. In the mild AD patients, the follow-up EEG recordings showed increased power of widespread delta sources as well as decreased power of widespread alpha and posterior beta 1 sources. These results suggest that the resting state EEG sources were sensitive, at least at group level, to the cognitive decline occurring in the mild AD group over a one-year period, and might represent cost-effective and non-invasive markers with which to enrich cohorts of AD patients that decline faster for clinical studies.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human brain contains an intricate network of about 100 billion neurons. Aging of the brain is characterized by a combination of synaptic pruning, loss of cortico-cortical connections, and neuronal apoptosis that provoke an age-dependent decline of cognitive functions. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodeling of brain networking, also secondary to mental and physical training, promote maintenance of brain activity and cognitive status in healthy elderly subjects for everyday life. However, age is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) that impact on cognition. Growing evidence supports the idea that AD targets specific and functionally connected neuronal networks and that oscillatory electromagnetic brain activity might be a hallmark of the disease. In this line, digital electroencephalography (EEG) allows noninvasive analysis of cortical neuronal synchronization, as revealed by resting state brain rhythms. This review provides an overview of the studies on resting state eyes-closed EEG rhythms recorded in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects. Several studies support the idea that spectral markers of these EEG rhythms, such as power density, spectral coherence, and other quantitative features, differ among normal elderly, MCI, and AD subjects, at least at group level. Regarding the classification of these subjects at individual level, the most previous studies showed a moderate accuracy (70-80%) in the classification of EEG markers relative to normal and AD subjects. In conclusion, resting state EEG makers are promising for large-scale, low-cost, fully noninvasive screening of elderly subjects at risk of AD.
Supplements to Clinical neurophysiology 01/2013; 62:223-36.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD) impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64493. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from prodromal (i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and overt Alzheimer's disease (AD) show abnormal cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. Here we tested the hypothesis that these sources show extensive abnormalities in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients with a cognitive impairment due to covert and diffuse hepatic encephalopathy (CHE). EEG activity was recorded in 64 LC (including 21 CHE), 21 aMCI, 21 AD, and 21 cognitively intact (Nold) subjects. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), and beta 2 (20-30 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by LORETA. Widespread sources of theta (all but frontal), alpha 1 (all but occipital), and alpha 2 (parietal, temporal) rhythms were higher in amplitude in all LC patients than in the Nold subjects. In these LC patients, the activity of central, parietal, and temporal theta sources correlated negatively, and parietal and temporal alpha 2 sources correlated positively with an index of global cognitive status. Finally, widespread theta (all but frontal) and alpha 1 (all but occipital) sources showed higher activity in the sub-group of LC patients with CHE than in the patients with aMCI or AD. These results unveiled the larger spatial-frequency abnormalities of the resting state EEG sources in the CHE compared to the AD condition.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 12/2012; · 4.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are the most widely used symptomatic treatment for mild to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, while N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine is licensed for use in moderate to severe AD patients. In this article, the effect of these compounds on resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in AD patients is reviewed to form a knowledge platform for the European Innovative Medicine Initiative project "PharmaCog" (IMI Grant Agreement No. 115009) aimed at developing innovative translational models for drug testing in AD. Indeed, quite similar EEG experiments and the same kind of spectral data analysis can be performed in animal models of AD and in elderly individuals with prodromal or manifest AD. Several studies have shown that AChEIs affect both resting state EEG rhythms and cognitive functions in AD patients. After few weeks of successful treatment, delta (0-3Hz) or theta (4-7Hz) rhythms decrease, dominant alpha rhythms (8-10Hz) increase, and cognitive functions slightly improve. Beneficial effects of these rhythms and cognitive functions were also found in AD responders to the long-term successful treatment (i.e. 6-12months). In contrast, only one study has explored the long-term effects of memantine on EEG rhythms in AD patients, showing reduced theta rhythms. The present review enlightens the expected effects of AChEIs on resting state EEG rhythms in AD patients as promising EEG markers for the development of translational protocols both within the PharmaCog project and for wider use.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 10/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we have shown that passive recognition of tactile geometrical shapes (i.e. no exploratory movement) engages prefrontal and premotor areas in addition to somatosensory regions (Savini et al., 2010). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that these regions are involved not only in the perception but also during working memory of such somatic information. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the execution of N-BACK tasks, with 2D geometrical shapes blindly pressed on the subjects' right hand palm. Three conditions with increasing memory load (0-BACK, 1-BACK, 2-BACK) were used. Results showed that primary somatosensory area (SI), secondary somatosensory area (SII) and bilateral Insula were active in all conditions, confirming their importance in coding somatosensory stimuli. Activation of fronto-parietal circuit in supplementary motor area (SMA), right superior parietal lobe (rSPL), bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right superior frontal sulcus was significantly larger during 1-BACK and 2-BACK than 0-BACK. Left superior parietal lobe and right frontal eye field showed a higher activation during the 2-BACK than 0-BACK. Finally, SMA and rSPL were characterized by a statistically significant higher activation during 2-BACK than 1-BACK, revealing their sensitivity to the memory load. These results suggest that working memory of tactile geometrical shapes (no exploratory movement) involves a complex circuit of modal and supramodal fronto-parietal areas.
International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different kinds of challenge can alter spontaneous ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in animal models, thus providing paradigms to evaluate treatment effects in drug discovery. The effects of challenges represented by pharmacological agents, hypoxia, sleep deprivation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on EEG rhythms are here reviewed to build a knowledge platform for innovative translational models for drug discovery in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been reported that antagonists of cholinergic neurotransmission cause synchronisation of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms in terms of enhanced power of EEG low frequencies and decreased power of EEG high frequencies. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and serotonergic drugs may restore a normal pattern of EEG desynchronisation. Sleep deprivation and hypoxia challenges have also been reported to elicit abnormal synchronisation of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms in rodents. The feasibility and reproducibility of TMS have been demonstrated in rodents but information on a consistent modulation of EEG after TMS manipulation is very limited. Transgenic mice over-expressing human amyloid precursor protein complementary DNAs (cDNAs) harbouring the 'Swedish' mutation and PS-1 cDNAs harbouring the A264E mutation, which recapitulate some of the pathological features of AD, exhibit alterations of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms at several low and high frequencies. This does not appear, however, to be a consequence of beta-amyloid deposition in the brain. The present review provides a critical evaluation of changes of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms due to the experimental manipulations described above, in order to stimulate the promote more adherent models fitting dynamics in humans.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 10/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TMS interference over right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) causally disrupts behaviorally and EEG rhythmic correlates of endogenous spatial orienting before visual target presentation [Capotosto, P., Babiloni, C., Romani, G. L., & Corbetta, M. Differential contribution of right and left parietal cortex to the control of spatial attention: A simultaneous EEG-rTMS study. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 446-454, 2012; Capotosto, P., Babiloni, C., Romani, G. L., & Corbetta, M. Fronto-parietal cortex controls spatial attention through modulation of anticipatory alpha rhythms. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 5863-5872, 2009]. Here we combine data from our previous studies to examine whether right parietal TMS during spatial orienting also impairs stimulus-driven reorienting or the ability to efficiently process unattended stimuli, that is, stimuli outside the current focus of attention. Healthy volunteers (n = 24) performed a Posner spatial cueing task while their EEG activity was being monitored. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied for 150 msec simultaneously to the presentation of a central arrow directing spatial attention to the location of an upcoming visual target. Right IPS-rTMS impaired target detection, especially for stimuli presented at unattended locations; it also caused a modulation of the amplitude of parieto-occipital positive ERPs peaking at about 480 msec (P3) post-target. The P3 significantly decreased for unattended targets and significantly increased for attended targets after right IPS-rTMS as compared with sham stimulation. Similar effects were obtained for left IPS stimulation albeit in a smaller group of volunteers. We conclude that disruption of anticipatory processes in right IPS has prolonged effects that persist during target processing. The P3 decrement may reflect interference with postdecision processes that are part of stimulus-driven reorienting. Right IPS is a node of functional interaction between endogenous spatial orienting and stimulus-driven reorienting processes in human vision.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 08/2012; · 4.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that cortical sources of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms show peculiar frequency/spatial features in naïve human subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared to healthy control subjects.
Resting-state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 18 naïve HIV subjects (15 males; mean age 39years±2.0 standard error of mean, SEM) and in 18 age-matched cognitively normal subjects (15 males; 38.7years±2.2 SEM). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha1 (8-10Hz), alpha2 (10-12Hz), beta1 (13-20Hz) and beta2 (20-30Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by normalised, low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).
Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was lower in HIV (26.5±0.7 SEM) than in healthy (29.2±0.5 SEM) subjects (p<0.05). Central and parietal delta sources showed higher amplitude in the HIV than in control subjects. Furthermore, topographically widespread, cortical sources of resting-state alpha rhythms were lower in amplitude in HIV subjects than in control subjects.
The present results suggest that topography and frequency of the cortical sources of resting-state EEG rhythms can distinguish groups of HIV and control subjects.
These results encourage future studies in an enlarged cohort of HIV subjects to test the hypothesis that the present methodological approach provides clinically useful information for an early detection of the effect of HIV infection on brain and cognitive functions.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 08/2012; 123(11):2163-71. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Brain rhythms of both hemispheres are involved in the processing of emotional stimuli but their interdependence between the two hemispheres is poorly known. Here we tested the hypothesis that passive visual perception of facial emotional expressions is related to a coordination of the two hemispheres as revealed by the inter-hemispherical functional coupling of brain electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. METHODS: To this aim, EEG data were recorded in 14 subjects observing emotional faces with neutral, happy or sad facial expressions (about 33% for each class). The EEG data were analyzed by directed transfer function (DTF), which estimates directional functional coupling of EEG rhythms. The EEG rhythms of interest were theta (about 4-6Hz), alpha 1 (about 6-8Hz), alpha 2 (about 8-10Hz), alpha 3 (about 10-12Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (21-30Hz), and gamma (31-44Hz). RESULTS: In the frontal regions, inter-hemispherical DTF values were bidirectionally higher in amplitude across all frequency bands, during the perception of faces with sad compared to neutral or happy expressions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the processing of emotional negative facial expressions is related to an enhancement of a reciprocal inter-hemispherical flux of information in frontal cortex, possibly optimizing executive functions and motor control. SIGNIFICANCE: Dichotomical view of hemispherical functional specializations does not take into account remarkable reciprocal interactions between frontal areas of the two hemispheres during the processing of negative facial expressions.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 08/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brain needs continuous oxygen supply even in resting-state. Hypoxia enhances resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in the delta range, and reduces those in the alpha range, with a pattern similar to that observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested whether resting-state cortical EEG rhythms in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), as a model of acute hypoxia, present frequency similarities with AD patients, comparable by cognitive status revealed by the mini mental state examination (MMSE).
Eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 10 CHF patients, 20 AD patients, and 20 healthy elderly subjects (Nold) as controls. LORETA software estimated cortical EEG generators.
Compared to Nold, both AD and CHF groups presented higher delta (2-4Hz) and lower alpha (8-13Hz) temporal sources. The highest delta and lowest alpha sources were observed in CHF subjects. In these subjects, the global amplitude of delta sources correlated with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in the blood, as a marker of disease severity.
Resting-state delta and alpha rhythms suggest analogies between the effects of acute hypoxia and AD neurodegeneration on the cortical neurons' synchronization.
Acute ischemic hypoxia could affect the mechanisms of cortical neural synchronization generating resting state EEG rhythms, inducing the "slowing" of EEG rhythms typically observed in AD patients.
International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 07/2012; 86(1):98-107. · 3.05 Impact Factor