Jotaro Akiyoshi

Oita University, Ōita, Ōita, Japan

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Publications (85)265.18 Total impact

  • Psychiatric genetics 06/2015; DOI:10.1097/YPG.0000000000000096 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionStress coping has been defined as the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to conquer, endure, or decrease external and internal demands and the conflicts between them. It has two main elements: the control or modification of the person–environment relationship causing the stress (i.e., problem-focused coping) and/or regulation of stressful feelings (i.e., emotion-focused coping). Research suggests that the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) play important roles in brain adaptation to investigate stress. To clarify the genetic basis of stress coping, we investigated the association of stress-coping strategies and social adaptation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neural plasticity, anxiety, and depression.Methods In 252 healthy controls (94 women; 158 men), we measured and estimated the stress-coping style using the Lazarus-type stress-coping inventory, ego aptitude scale (EAS), and social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). We investigated one SNP of BDNF (rs6265, Val/Met) and five SNPs of NTRK2 (rs11140800, rs1187286, rs1867283, rs1147198, and rs10868235).ResultsWe observed significant associations between BDNF and emotion-focused strategies, seeking social support, self-control, and distancing. We also found significant associations between NTRK2 and cognitive strategies, problem-solving, confrontive- coping, seeking social support, distancing and positive reappraisal. Significant associations were also found between BDNF and critical attitudes and between NTRK2 and all seven ego-related factors on the EAS. In the SASS, the minor allele rs1867283 of NTRK2 had a significantly higher score than the heterozygote.Conclusions These findings may provide insights into the partial effects of genetic mutations in BDNF and NTRK2 on stress tolerance and personality.
    Brain and Behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/brb3.360
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of transmembrane protein 132D (TMEM132D), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor alpha 6 subunit (GABRA6) genotypes with cingulate, frontal cortex and hippocampal emotional processing in panic disorder (PD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TMEM132D, COMT, and GABRA6 were examined in patients with MDD, PD, and healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in patients with MDD, PD, and healthy controls. rs4680 in COMT and rs3219151 in GABRA6 showed positive associations with PD and MDD. A dynamic fearful face was shown to the participants during fMRI scanning. In PD patients, responses in the bilateral anterior cingulate were stronger in carriers of the AA genotype of SNP rs11060369 in TMEM132D compared with carriers of the AC + CC genotype, and stronger in CT + TT genotype carriers of SNP rs3219151 in GABRA6 compared with carriers of the CC genotype. The response in the medial orbital frontal cortex was stronger in carriers of the CT + TT genotypes of SNP rs3219151 in PD. In MDD patients, the response in the right parahippocampus of carriers of the GG genotype of rs4680 in COMT was stronger than that of carriers of the AA + AG genotype. These results suggest that TMEM132D, GABRA6, and COMT variants may increase vulnerability to panic.
    International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 05/2015; DOI:10.3109/13651501.2015.1043133 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 04/2015; 228(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.008 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder. To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men) using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A). A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05) was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 11/2014; 10:2123-2133. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S68629 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20 mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD.
    09/2014; 2014:591023. DOI:10.1155/2014/591023
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    ABSTRACT: Automatic thoughts may be risk factors for depression and anxiety, and should be detected early. However, the genetic basis of automatic thoughts remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the genetic association of automatic thoughts with SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) involved in cognition, neurogenesis, neuronal cell structure, neurotransmitters, hypothalamus–pituitary adrenal axis and psychiatric illness. The study included 610 healthy participants. We used the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), a Japanese psychological questionnaire, to assess automatic thoughts. Twenty-five SNPs including COMT, BDNF, FKBP5, SNTB1 (syntrophin-beta 1, rs4512418), and MCPH1 (microcephalin 1, rs2911968) were selected according to their minor allele frequency. Linear regression models were used to test association of mean DACS scores with each allele (major-allele homozygote, heterozygote, and minor-allele homozygote). The significant α-value was set at α < 0.002. Statistical analysis was conducted using SNPStats. Call rates for all genotypes were >98%. Eighteen SNPs did not deviate from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and 7 were excluded from statistical analysis. Significant associations of SNTB1 with interpersonal threat and MCPH1 with future denial were observed only in females. SNTB1 and MCPH1 are located on chromosome 8, which may be involved in neuroticism, avoidant personality and depression. Our results demonstrated that DACS scores showing significant interaction with the 2 SNPs may be regarded as appropriate traits to detect the diathesis of automatic thoughts. The 2 SNPs may be important loci in research on cognitive vulnerability to depression and anxiety. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 09/2014; 165(6). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32252 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-fatal suicide attempt is the most important risk factor for later suicide. Emergency department visits for attempted suicide are increasingly recognised as opportunities for intervention. However, no strong evidence exists that any intervention is effective at preventing repeated suicide attempts. We aimed to investigate whether assertive case management can reduce repetition of suicide attempts in people with mental health problems who had attempted suicide and were admitted to emergency departments.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 08/2014; 1(3):193–201. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)70259-7
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved with personality traits. We examined the association between corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) genes and personality traits. We investigated the 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of intron CRHR (six in CRHR1 and six in CRHR2, respectively) in 218 healthy volunteers using TaqMan PCR assays. Personality traits were assessed using the Revised NEO-Personality Inventory, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. No significant associations were observed between CRHR1 and CRHR2 expression and personality traits. These results fail to provide support for an association of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with personality traits in a Japanese adult population.
    Psychiatric genetics 08/2013; DOI:10.1097/YPG.0000000000000002 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social anxiety disorder is believed to be a stress-induced disease. Although it can be inferred from the symptoms during attacks that there exists some abnormality of autonomic nervous system in any of the stress systems in social anxiety disorder, little evidence has been reported. This study focused on comparing the reactivity of 2 stress systems, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with social anxiety disorder.32 patients with the generalized type of social anxiety disorder were compared with 80 age- and gender-matched controls. We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after electrical stimulation to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) were also determined following stimulation.SAA in patients displayed a significantly higher level at baseline and a significantly larger response to electrical stimulation as compared to controls, whereas no group differences were seen in any HRV. Neither within-subject nor group differences were seen in salivary cortisol levels.These results suggest that SAD patients displayed enhanced ANS (but not HPA axis) activity vs. healthy controls.
    Pharmacopsychiatry 08/2013; 46(7). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1353157 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the reversal of compromised regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in older patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is dependent on specific parameters of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment and to examine the efficacy of such treatment. METHODS: Forty-five patients with moderate MDD were studied following 8 weeks of treatment with SSRIs. Twelve patients displayed a positive response to SSRIs, whereas 33 patients did not respond to SSRI treatment. A comparison group of 30 healthy volunteers was also studied. The age of all participants was greater than 50 years. Age, gender, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores were examined. The rCBF was assessed using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography after SSRI treatment. RESULTS: The rCBF levels in the right middle frontal cortex in non-responsive MDD patients were lower compared with responsive MDD patients. Compared with healthy controls, non-responders had significantly lower rCBF levels in the bilateral middle frontal cortex and insula and had significantly higher rCBF levels in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex and left middle temporal cortex. Compared with healthy controls, responders had significantly higher rCBF levels in the left inferior frontal, middle temporal, precentral, and fusiform gyrus. We found no changes in single photon emission computed tomography between pre-treatment and post-treatment stages for the responders to SSRI treatment. CONCLUSION: Hypoperfusion in older, non-responsive MDD patients was primarily localized in the middle frontal cortex. It is possible that the responders to SSRI treatment at baseline already displayed higher rCBF values in the frontal regions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 07/2013; 28(7). DOI:10.1002/gps.3887 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and panic disorder (PD) are common and disabling medical disorders with stress and genetic components. Dysregulation of the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling via primary receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2), is considered to play a major role for onset and recurrence in MDD and PD. To confirm the association of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with MDD and PD, we investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4076452, rs7209436, rs110402, rs242924, rs242940, and rs173365 for CRHR1 and rs4722999, rs3779250, rs2267710, rs1076292, rs2284217, and rs226771 for CRHR2) in MDD patients (n = 173), PD patients (n = 180), and healthy controls (n = 285). The SNP rs110402 and rs242924 in the CRHR1 gene and the rs3779250 in the CRHR2 gene were associated with MDD. The SNP rs242924 in the CRHR1 gene was also associated with PD. The T-A-T-G-G haplotype consisting of rs7209436 and rs173365 in CRHR1 was positively associated with MDD. The T-A haplotype consisting of rs7209436 and rs110402 in CRHR1 was positively associated with MDD. The C-C haplotype consisting of rs4722999 and rs37790 in CRHR1 was associated with PD. These results provide support for an association of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with MDD and PD.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2013; 159B(4):429-36. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32046 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salivary α-amylase (sAA) serves as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. Salivary AA has not been extensively studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. In the current study, 45 OCD patients and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Measures of heart rate variability (HRV), sAA, and salivary cortisol were also obtained following the application of electrical stimulation stress. The Y-BOCS and POMS Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores were significantly increased in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores were significantly decreased in patients with OCD relative to scores in healthy controls. There was no difference in HRV between the patients and the controls. Salivary AA levels in female and male OCD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. In contrast, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between OCD patients and controls. The elevated secretion of sAA before and after stimulation may suggest an increased responsiveness to novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with OCD. An increase in sAA might be a characteristic change of OCD.
    12/2012; 209(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.11.010
  • 09/2012; 3. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.19418
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    ABSTRACT: Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS). eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.
    BMC Psychiatry 08/2012; 12(1):132. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-12-132 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Two opposing models for the action of ghrelin in the behavioral responses to stress were recently proposed. Some studies suggest that an increase in ghrelin contributes to the mechanisms responsible for the development of stress-induced depression and anxiety, while others suggest that it helps minimize what otherwise would be more severe manifestations of depression and anxiety following stress. Methods: We measured serum ghrelin levels, Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores in nonresponders (treatment-resistant patients; 30) and responders (38) with major depressive disorder (MDD), nonresponders (29) and responders (51) with panic disorder and 97 healthy controls. Results: The ghrelin concentration in nonresponders with MDD was higher than that of responders with MDD and normal controls. The ghrelin concentration in nonresponders with panic disorder was higher than that of normal controls. POMS vigor scores in patients with MDD and panic disorder were significantly decreased compared with those in healthy controls. Other POMS scores in patients with MDD and panic disorder were significantly increased compared with those of healthy controls. Trait and state anxiety of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in MDD and panic disorder patients were higher than those in healthy controls. Conclusions: These results indicate that decreased serum ghrelin levels might be associated with antidepressant treatment to confer the maximum therapeutic effect in patients with MDD and panic disorder.
    Neuropsychobiology 08/2012; 66(3):185-92. DOI:10.1159/000339948 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS) occurs after abrupt discontinuation of an antidepressant medication. A 23-year-old man with right hippocampal agenesis demonstrated sexual crime (hypersexuality) since the age of eight and had been successfully treated with carbamazepine since the age of 13. He had required increased doses of paroxetine and carbamazepine owing to the development of an unstable affect after quitting his job. He abruptly stopped taking his medication for 3 days and his criminal behaviors re-emerged. We examined changes in brain structure and activity before and after medication cessation, using MRI and functional MRI (fMRI). The image of a girl in a swimsuit increased activity in the thalamus only after medication discontinuation. The alteration in thalamic activity might induce hypersexuality. We conclude that a primary hypersexuality had been suppressed with carbamazepine and paroxetine treatment, and the discontinuation of the medication caused the hypersexuality.
    Journal of Forensic Sciences 08/2012; 58(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02248.x · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show differential response patterns to distinct kinds of stressors.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e39375. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039375 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bipolar disorder (BP) is often associated with a change in hypothalamus– pituitary–adrenal axis function change due to chronic stress. Salivary α-amylase (sAA) levels increase in response to psychosocial stress and thus function as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system activity. However, sAA has been studied less often than salivary cortisol in BP patients. Method We measured Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol levels during electrical stimulation stress in 25 BP patients and 22 healthy volunteers. Results Tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores in BP patients significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. In contrast, the vigor scores of BP patients significantly decreased compared with those of the healthy controls. Significant difference in the sAA levels was observed between BP patients and healthy controls. sAA of female patients was significantly higher than that of female healthy controls, and sAA in male patients tended to be higher than that of male healthy controls. No difference in salivary cortisol was observed between BP patients and the healthy controls. Only three time points were measured before and after the electrical stimulation stress. Furthermore, sAA secretion by BP patients increased before and after electrical stimulation. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that sAA may be a useful biological marker for BP patients.
    Neuroscience Research 02/2012; 73(1):80-4. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2012.01.006 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Jotaro Akiyoshi
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to genetic factors, the role of epigenetic and other environmental factors in the promotion of anxiety disorder has attracted much attention in psychiatric research. When stress is encountered in the environment, the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal system (HPA system) is activated and cortisol is secreted. CRHR gene function is closely related to this response. As a result of haplotype analysis of CRHR genes in depression and panic disorder patients, it was found that genetic polymorphism of CRHR1 and CRHR2 was related to both disorders. It is reported that abused children are more susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorder upon reaching adulthood, but there also exist genetic polymorphisms that may moderate this relationship. Direct methylation of DNA (typically repressing gene expression) and modification of chromatin structure (complexes of histone proteins and DNA) via acetylation (typically facilitating gene expression) represent epigenetic modifications that are thought to influence behavioral phenotypes. For example, it is rare that schizophrenia develops in identical twins brought up together in the same environment, and thus phenotypic differences cannot be explained simply by genetic polymorphism. We also evaluated salivary cortisol and amylase reactivity (indices of the HPA system and sympathoadrenal medullary system, respectfully) after electrical stimulation stress and Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) administration. Here we found differences in the cortisol stress response between electrical stimulation and TSST stressors, in contrast to the theory of Selye. In addition, we found alterations in activity patterns and difficulties integrating sensorimotor information in panic disorder patients, suggesting links between sensorimotor integration and stress in panic disorder. Moreover, state and trait anxiety may be associated with stabilograph factors.
    Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 01/2012; 114(9):1063-9.