Jotaro Akiyoshi

Oita University, Ōita, Ōita, Japan

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Publications (82)205.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Non-fatal suicide attempt is the most important risk factor for later suicide. Emergency department visits for attempted suicide are increasingly recognised as opportunities for intervention. However, no strong evidence exists that any intervention is effective at preventing repeated suicide attempts. We aimed to investigate whether assertive case management can reduce repetition of suicide attempts in people with mental health problems who had attempted suicide and were admitted to emergency departments. Methods In this multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 17 hospital emergency departments in Japan, we randomly assigned people aged 20 years and older with mental health problems who had attempted suicide to receive either assertive case management (based on psychiatric diagnoses, social risks, and needs of the patients) or enhanced usual care (control), using an internet-based randomisation system. Interventions were provided until the end of the follow-up period (ie, at least 18 months and up to 5 years). Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation, but patients and case managers who provided the interventions were not. The primary outcome was the incidence of first recurrent suicidal behaviour (attempted suicide or completed suicide); secondary outcomes included completed suicide and all-cause mortality. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00736918) and UMIN-CTR (C000000444). Findings Between July 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2009, 914 eligible participants were randomly assigned, 460 to the assertive case management group and 456 to the enhanced usual care group. We noted no significant difference in incidence of first recurrent suicidal behaviour between the assertive case management group and the enhanced usual care group over the full study period (log-rank p=0·258). Because the proportional hazards assumption did not hold, we did ad-hoc analyses for cumulative incidence of the primary outcome at months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 after randomisation, adjusting for multiplicity with the Bonferroni method. Assertive case management significantly reduced the incidence of first recurrent suicidal behaviour up to the 6-month timepoint (6-month risk ratio 0·50, 95% CI 0·32–0·80; p=0·003), but not at the later timepoints. Prespecified subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had a greater effect in women (up to 18 months), and in participants younger than 40 years and those with a history of previous suicide attempts (up to 6 months). We did not identify any differences between the intervention and control groups for completed suicide (27 [6%] of 460 vs 30 [7%] of 454, log-rank p=0·660) or all-cause mortality (46 [10%] of 460 vs 42 [9%] of 454, log-rank p=0·698). Interpretation Our results suggest that assertive case management is feasible in real-world clinical settings. Although it was not effective at reducing the incidence of repetition of suicide attempts in the long term, the results of our ad-hoc analyses suggested that it was effective for up to 6 months. This finding should be investigated in future research. Funding The Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 08/2014; 1(3):193–201.
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    ABSTRACT: Automatic thoughts may be risk factors for depression and anxiety, and should be detected early. However, the genetic basis of automatic thoughts remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the genetic association of automatic thoughts with SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) involved in cognition, neurogenesis, neuronal cell structure, neurotransmitters, hypothalamus–pituitary adrenal axis and psychiatric illness. The study included 610 healthy participants. We used the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), a Japanese psychological questionnaire, to assess automatic thoughts. Twenty-five SNPs including COMT, BDNF, FKBP5, SNTB1 (syntrophin-beta 1, rs4512418), and MCPH1 (microcephalin 1, rs2911968) were selected according to their minor allele frequency. Linear regression models were used to test association of mean DACS scores with each allele (major-allele homozygote, heterozygote, and minor-allele homozygote). The significant α-value was set at α < 0.002. Statistical analysis was conducted using SNPStats. Call rates for all genotypes were >98%. Eighteen SNPs did not deviate from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and 7 were excluded from statistical analysis. Significant associations of SNTB1 with interpersonal threat and MCPH1 with future denial were observed only in females. SNTB1 and MCPH1 are located on chromosome 8, which may be involved in neuroticism, avoidant personality and depression. Our results demonstrated that DACS scores showing significant interaction with the 2 SNPs may be regarded as appropriate traits to detect the diathesis of automatic thoughts. The 2 SNPs may be important loci in research on cognitive vulnerability to depression and anxiety. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 06/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder. To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men) using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A). A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05) was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:2123-2133. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20 mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD.
    Case reports in psychiatry. 01/2014; 2014:591023.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved with personality traits. We examined the association between corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) genes and personality traits. We investigated the 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of intron CRHR (six in CRHR1 and six in CRHR2, respectively) in 218 healthy volunteers using TaqMan PCR assays. Personality traits were assessed using the Revised NEO-Personality Inventory, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. No significant associations were observed between CRHR1 and CRHR2 expression and personality traits. These results fail to provide support for an association of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with personality traits in a Japanese adult population.
    Psychiatric genetics 08/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social anxiety disorder is believed to be a stress-induced disease. Although it can be inferred from the symptoms during attacks that there exists some abnormality of autonomic nervous system in any of the stress systems in social anxiety disorder, little evidence has been reported. This study focused on comparing the reactivity of 2 stress systems, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with social anxiety disorder.32 patients with the generalized type of social anxiety disorder were compared with 80 age- and gender-matched controls. We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after electrical stimulation to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) were also determined following stimulation.SAA in patients displayed a significantly higher level at baseline and a significantly larger response to electrical stimulation as compared to controls, whereas no group differences were seen in any HRV. Neither within-subject nor group differences were seen in salivary cortisol levels.These results suggest that SAD patients displayed enhanced ANS (but not HPA axis) activity vs. healthy controls.
    Pharmacopsychiatry 08/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salivary α-amylase (sAA) serves as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. Salivary AA has not been extensively studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. In the current study, 45 OCD patients and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Measures of heart rate variability (HRV), sAA, and salivary cortisol were also obtained following the application of electrical stimulation stress. The Y-BOCS and POMS Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores were significantly increased in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores were significantly decreased in patients with OCD relative to scores in healthy controls. There was no difference in HRV between the patients and the controls. Salivary AA levels in female and male OCD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. In contrast, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between OCD patients and controls. The elevated secretion of sAA before and after stimulation may suggest an increased responsiveness to novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with OCD. An increase in sAA might be a characteristic change of OCD.
    Psychiatry research. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the reversal of compromised regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in older patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is dependent on specific parameters of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment and to examine the efficacy of such treatment. METHODS: Forty-five patients with moderate MDD were studied following 8 weeks of treatment with SSRIs. Twelve patients displayed a positive response to SSRIs, whereas 33 patients did not respond to SSRI treatment. A comparison group of 30 healthy volunteers was also studied. The age of all participants was greater than 50 years. Age, gender, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores were examined. The rCBF was assessed using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography after SSRI treatment. RESULTS: The rCBF levels in the right middle frontal cortex in non-responsive MDD patients were lower compared with responsive MDD patients. Compared with healthy controls, non-responders had significantly lower rCBF levels in the bilateral middle frontal cortex and insula and had significantly higher rCBF levels in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex and left middle temporal cortex. Compared with healthy controls, responders had significantly higher rCBF levels in the left inferior frontal, middle temporal, precentral, and fusiform gyrus. We found no changes in single photon emission computed tomography between pre-treatment and post-treatment stages for the responders to SSRI treatment. CONCLUSION: Hypoperfusion in older, non-responsive MDD patients was primarily localized in the middle frontal cortex. It is possible that the responders to SSRI treatment at baseline already displayed higher rCBF values in the frontal regions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 09/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd's paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video- EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS). eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The fire-setting behavior and Todd's paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.
    BMC Psychiatry 08/2012; 12(1):132. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Two opposing models for the action of ghrelin in the behavioral responses to stress were recently proposed. Some studies suggest that an increase in ghrelin contributes to the mechanisms responsible for the development of stress-induced depression and anxiety, while others suggest that it helps minimize what otherwise would be more severe manifestations of depression and anxiety following stress. Methods: We measured serum ghrelin levels, Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores in nonresponders (treatment-resistant patients; 30) and responders (38) with major depressive disorder (MDD), nonresponders (29) and responders (51) with panic disorder and 97 healthy controls. Results: The ghrelin concentration in nonresponders with MDD was higher than that of responders with MDD and normal controls. The ghrelin concentration in nonresponders with panic disorder was higher than that of normal controls. POMS vigor scores in patients with MDD and panic disorder were significantly decreased compared with those in healthy controls. Other POMS scores in patients with MDD and panic disorder were significantly increased compared with those of healthy controls. Trait and state anxiety of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in MDD and panic disorder patients were higher than those in healthy controls. Conclusions: These results indicate that decreased serum ghrelin levels might be associated with antidepressant treatment to confer the maximum therapeutic effect in patients with MDD and panic disorder.
    Neuropsychobiology 08/2012; 66:185-92. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS) occurs after abrupt discontinuation of an antidepressant medication. A 23-year-old man with right hippocampal agenesis demonstrated sexual crime (hypersexuality) since the age of eight and had been successfully treated with carbamazepine since the age of 13. He had required increased doses of paroxetine and carbamazepine owing to the development of an unstable affect after quitting his job. He abruptly stopped taking his medication for 3 days and his criminal behaviors re-emerged. We examined changes in brain structure and activity before and after medication cessation, using MRI and functional MRI (fMRI). The image of a girl in a swimsuit increased activity in the thalamus only after medication discontinuation. The alteration in thalamic activity might induce hypersexuality. We conclude that a primary hypersexuality had been suppressed with carbamazepine and paroxetine treatment, and the discontinuation of the medication caused the hypersexuality.
    Journal of Forensic Sciences 08/2012; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show differential response patterns to distinct kinds of stressors.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e39375. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and panic disorder (PD) are common and disabling medical disorders with stress and genetic components. Dysregulation of the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling via primary receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2), is considered to play a major role for onset and recurrence in MDD and PD. To confirm the association of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with MDD and PD, we investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4076452, rs7209436, rs110402, rs242924, rs242940, and rs173365 for CRHR1 and rs4722999, rs3779250, rs2267710, rs1076292, rs2284217, and rs226771 for CRHR2) in MDD patients (n = 173), PD patients (n = 180), and healthy controls (n = 285). The SNP rs110402 and rs242924 in the CRHR1 gene and the rs3779250 in the CRHR2 gene were associated with MDD. The SNP rs242924 in the CRHR1 gene was also associated with PD. The T-A-T-G-G haplotype consisting of rs7209436 and rs173365 in CRHR1 was positively associated with MDD. The T-A haplotype consisting of rs7209436 and rs110402 in CRHR1 was positively associated with MDD. The C-C haplotype consisting of rs4722999 and rs37790 in CRHR1 was associated with PD. These results provide support for an association of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with MDD and PD.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 03/2012; 159B(4):429-36. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions is as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in panic disorder patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with panic disorder following electrical stimulation stress. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) scores and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, heart rate variability (HRV), and levels of sAA and salivary cortisol in 34 patients with panic disorder and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. 34 alprazolam-treated patients with panic disorder were divided into non-responder and responder group. Vigor scores in patients with panic disorder were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. Another score in POMS in patients with panic disorder were significantly increased compared with healthy controls. Trait and state anxiety of STAI in panic disorder patients were higher than healthy controls. There was no difference in either HRV or threshold of electrical stimulation applied between panic disorder patients and healthy controls. SAA levels in the responder group were significantly elevated compared with the non-responder group and controls both before and after electrical stimulation. In addition, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between responder and non-responder groups of patients with panic disorder and control. The sample may not be representative of the general population. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be useful predictive biological markers of treatment responsiveness in patients with panic disorder.
    Neuroscience Research 02/2012; 73(1):80-4. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Panic disorder (PD) is a moderately heritable anxiety disorder whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Due to the lack of power in previous association studies, genes that are truly associated with PD might not be detected. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two independent data sets using the Affymetrix Mapping 500K Array or Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We obtained imputed genotypes for each GWAS and performed a meta-analysis of two GWAS data sets (718 cases and 1717 controls). For follow-up, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 329 cases and 861 controls. Gene ontology enrichment and candidate gene analyses were conducted using the GWAS or meta-analysis results. We also applied the polygenic score analysis to our two GWAS samples to test the hypothesis of polygenic components contributing to PD. Although genome-wide significant SNPs were not detected in either of the GWAS nor the meta-analysis, suggestive associations were observed in several loci such as BDKRB2 (P=1.3 × 10(-5), odds ratio=1.31). Among previous candidate genes, supportive evidence for association of NPY5R with PD was obtained (gene-wise corrected P=6.4 × 10(-4)). Polygenic scores calculated from weakly associated SNPs (P<0.3 and 0.4) in the discovery sample were significantly associated with PD status in the target sample in both directions (sample I to sample II and vice versa) (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that large sets of common variants of small effects collectively account for risk of PD.
    Translational psychiatry. 01/2012; 2:e186.
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    ABSTRACT: The primary treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). However, approximately a third of patients do not respond to SSRIs and remain chronically affected. Therefore, we added aripiprazole to SSRI therapy for 13 patients with treatment-refractory OCD (subjects who failed to respond to SSRI therapy for at least 2 months, and for an average of 508 days). Participants underwent at least 7 weeks of treatment with aripiprazole augmentation. Patients were evaluated using the Y-BOCS and GAF scales. Aripiprazole (3-12 mg)/SSRI co-therapy significantly improved Y-BOCS and GAF scores. However, many patients needed to take antiparkinsonian drugs to control extrapyramidal symptoms. These results suggest that aripiprazole augmentation of SSRI therapy may be effective for treatment-refractory OCD.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 01/2012; 13(1):14-21. · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • Jotaro Akiyoshi
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to genetic factors, the role of epigenetic and other environmental factors in the promotion of anxiety disorder has attracted much attention in psychiatric research. When stress is encountered in the environment, the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal system (HPA system) is activated and cortisol is secreted. CRHR gene function is closely related to this response. As a result of haplotype analysis of CRHR genes in depression and panic disorder patients, it was found that genetic polymorphism of CRHR1 and CRHR2 was related to both disorders. It is reported that abused children are more susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorder upon reaching adulthood, but there also exist genetic polymorphisms that may moderate this relationship. Direct methylation of DNA (typically repressing gene expression) and modification of chromatin structure (complexes of histone proteins and DNA) via acetylation (typically facilitating gene expression) represent epigenetic modifications that are thought to influence behavioral phenotypes. For example, it is rare that schizophrenia develops in identical twins brought up together in the same environment, and thus phenotypic differences cannot be explained simply by genetic polymorphism. We also evaluated salivary cortisol and amylase reactivity (indices of the HPA system and sympathoadrenal medullary system, respectfully) after electrical stimulation stress and Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) administration. Here we found differences in the cortisol stress response between electrical stimulation and TSST stressors, in contrast to the theory of Selye. In addition, we found alterations in activity patterns and difficulties integrating sensorimotor information in panic disorder patients, suggesting links between sensorimotor integration and stress in panic disorder. Moreover, state and trait anxiety may be associated with stabilograph factors.
    Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 01/2012; 114(9):1063-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The G protein-coupled receptor 39-b (GPR39-1b) is a splice variant of which is expressed in the central nervous and gastrointestinal systems. Previously, GPR39-1b was proposed to be the receptor for obestatin, but current evidence does not support this hypothesis. The purpose of the present work was to identify the role of GPR39-1b in anxiety and eating behaviors. Antisense oligonucleotides were infused at a constant rate into the cerebral lateral ventricles of rats and their effect on anxiety-like behavior and food intake was monitored. GPR39-1b antisense oligonucleotides produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated-plus maze test and in the black and white box test. Antisense oligonucleotides also decreased food intake. These results indicate that inhibition of GPR39-1b induces a decrease in anxiety-related behaviors and disturbs appetite.
    Neuroscience Research 12/2011; 72(3):257-62. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 10/2011; 36(2):220-4. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    Different Views of Anxiety Disorders, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-560-0