Jaesang Lee

Korea University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (39)151.83 Total impact

  • Chemical Engineering Journal 08/2014; 249:285–292. · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanosized zero-valent iron (nFe0) loaded with a secondary metal such as Ni or Cu on its surface was demonstrated to effectively activate periodate (IO4-) and degrade selected organic compounds at neutral pH. The degradation was accompanied by a stoichiometric conversion of IO4- to iodate (IO3-). nFe0 without bimetallic loading led to similar IO4- reduction but no organic degradation, suggesting the production of reactive iodine intermediate only when IO4- is activated by bimetallic nFe0 (e.g., nFe0-Ni and nFe0-Cu). The organic degradation kinetics in nFe0-Ni(or Cu)/IO4- system was substrate dependent: 4-chlorophenol, phenol, and bisphenol A were effectively degraded, whereas little or no degradation was observed with benzoic acid, carbamazepine, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The substrate specificity, further confirmed by little kinetic inhibition with background organic matter, implies the selective nature of oxidant in the nFe0-Ni(or Cu)/IO4- system. The comparison with the photo-activated IO4- system, in which iodyl radical (IO3•) is a predominant oxidant in the presence of methanol, suggests IO3• also as primary oxidant in the nFe0-Ni(or Cu)/IO4- system.
    Environmental science & technology. 06/2014;
  • Jaesang Lee, Jungwon Kim, Wonyong Choi
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the ability of Fe(II)-oxalate complexes for the generation of OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe(2+) and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe(2+) or oxalate. The formation of Fe(II)-oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H2O2 and subsequent production of OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H2O2 and OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe(2+)], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [Fe(II)(Ox)2(2-)], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [Fe(II)(Ox)2(2-)]+[Fe(II)(Ox)(0)]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the Fe(II)-oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with OH.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:79-86. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the applicability of TiO2-based photocatalysts for the treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants in secondary wastewater effluent (SWE). Photolytic experiments using SWEs with different compositions demonstrated that the rates of photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen and carbamazepine inversely correlated with the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), regardless of the type of applied light source and initial pharmaceutical concentration. The critical relevance of organic matter to the scavenging behavior of SWE was further verified by assessing the photocatalytic performance as a function of the concentrations of potential effluent-derived quenchers (i.e., NO3−, Cl−, alkalinity, and humic acid). Kinetic comparison of the degradation of trace levels of pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, cimetidine, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole) using TiO2/UV-A, TiO2/UV-C, and H2O2/UV-C systems revealed that heterogeneous processes showed more significant performance reduction with increasing DOC concentration; this result indicates that organic matter plays dual roles in the scavenging activity of an effluent matrix: (1) OH radical (OH) quenching and (2) active-site coverage. TiO2 surface modifications (i.e., Pt and SiOx loading) accelerated the degradation of all the tested pharmaceuticals in SWEs to a certain degree. Particularly, the relevant altered surface affinity preferentially increased the susceptibility of specific pharmaceuticals to photocatalytic treatment. The presence of the effluent matrix substantially impaired the performance of visible-light-active photocatalysts in most cases. However, photocatalytic pharmaceutical degradation on Pt-doped TiO2, which occurs via direct charge transfer, was much less hindered in SWEs than that on Pt-deposited WO3, which occurs via OH-mediated oxidation.
    Applied Catalysis B Environmental 04/2014; 147:8–16. · 5.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that the production of reactive oxidizing species (e.g., hydroxyl radical (•OH)) during the photolysis of nitrite (NO2(-)) or nitrate (NO3(-)) leads to the oxidative conversion of arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)). While the direct UV photolytic oxidation of As(III) was absent, nitrite (20 or 200 μM) addition markedly accelerated the oxidation of As(III) under UV irradiation (λ > 295 nm), which implies a role of NO2(-) as a photosensitizer for As(III) oxidation. Nitrate-mediated photooxidation of As(III) revealed an initial lag phase during which NO3(-) is converted into NO2(-). UV-Photosensitized oxidation of As(III) was kinetically enhanced under acidic pH condition where nitrous acid (HNO2) with a high quantum yield for •OH production is a predominant form of nitrite. On the other hand, alkaline pH that favors the photo-induced transformation of NO3(-) to NO2(-) significantly facilitated the catalytic reduction/oxidation cycling, which enabled the complete oxidation of As(III) at the condition of [As(III)]/[NO2(-)] > 1 and markedly accelerated NO3(-)-sensitized oxidation of As(III). The presence of O2 and N2O as electron scavengers enhanced the photochemical dissociation of NO2(-) via intermolecular electron transfer, initiating the oxidative As(III) conversion route probably involving NO2• and superoxide radical anion (O2•(-)) as alternative oxidants. The outdoor experiment demonstrated the capability of NO2(-) for the photosensitized production of oxidizing species and the subsequent oxidation of As(III) into As(V) under solar irradiation.
    Environmental Science & Technology 03/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Jaesang Lee, Jungwon Kim, Wonyong Choi
    Journal of Hazardous Materials. 01/2014; 274:79–86.
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    ABSTRACT: A magnetically recyclable photosensitizing system for harnessing solar energy for water treatment and disinfection is reported. This system comprises C60 aminofullerene as a sensitizer for singlet oxygenation and functionalized mesoporous silica (msu-f SiO2) encapsulating magnetite nanoparticles (msu-SiO2/mag) as a magnetically separable host. Rapid degradation of furfuryl alcohol (FFA) (a singlet oxygen (1O2) probe) under visible-light irradiation along with the kinetic retardation of FFA decomposition in the presence of 1O2 quenchers suggests that the visible-light activity of C60 aminofullerene-derivatized msu-SiO2/mag (C60/msu-SiO2/mag) is related to the photosensitization of 1O2. On the other hand, the use of SiO2 gel and fumed SiO2 as magnetic supports drastically reduced the photosensitized generation of 1O2, which is ascribed to the absence of an ordered pore structure in the alternative silica support, resulting in an uncontrolled growth of Fe3O4 and an aggregation of the fullerenes on the SiO2 gel and fumed SiO2. Significant 1O2 production using C60/msu-SiO2/mag led to the effective oxidation of emerging pharmaceutical contaminants and inactivation of MS-2 bacteriophage under visible-light irradiation. Magnetic recovery and the subsequent reuse of the composite did not cause any significant loss in the photosensitizing activity of C60/msu-SiO2/mag, demonstrating its potential for catalytic applications.
    Carbon. 01/2014; 69:92–100.
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    ABSTRACT: A photocatalytically active stainless steel filter (P-SSF) was prepared by integrating electrospun TiO2 nanofibers on SSF surface through a hot-press process where a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers interlayer acted as a binder. By quantifying the photocatalytic oxidation of cimetidine under ultraviolet radiation and assessing the stability of TiO2 nanofibers integrated on the P-SSF against sonication, the optimum thickness of the TiO2 and PVDF layer was found to be 29 and 42μm, respectively. At 10L/m(2)h flux, 40-90% of cimetidine was oxidized when the thickness of TiO2 layer increased from 10 to 29μm; however, no further increase of cimetidine oxidation was observed as its thickness increased to 84μm, maybe due to limited light penetration. At flux conditions of 10, 20, and 50L/m(2)h, the oxidation efficiencies for cimetidine were found to be 89, 64, and 47%, respectively. This was attributed to reduced contact time of cimetidine within the TiO2 layer. Further, the degradation efficacy of cimetidine was stably maintained for 72h at a flux of 10L/m(2)h and a trans-filter pressure of 0.1-0.2kPa. Overall, our results showed that it can potentially be employed in the treatment of effluents containing organic micropollutants.
    Journal of hazardous materials 05/2013; 258-259C:124-132. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico as an impetus, we explored the potential for TiO(2)-mediated photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to increase the bioavailability (solubility) and biodegradability of weathered oil after a spill. Food grade TiO(2), which is FDA approved for use as food additive in the United States, was tested as a photocatalyst for this novel application. Photocatalytic pre-treatment (0.05wt.% TiO(2), UV irradiation 18Wm(-2), 350-400nm) for 24h in a bench top photoreactor increased the soluble organic carbon content of weathered oil by 60%, and enhanced its subsequent biodegradation (measured as O(2) consumption in a respirometer) by 37%. Photocatalytic pre-treatment was also tested outdoors under sunlight illumination, but no significant increase in solubility or biodegradation was observed after 11d of exposure. Although sunlight irradiation of food-grade TiO(2) generated ROS (assessed by the degradation of 4-chlorophenol as a probe compound), the efficacy of weathered oil pre-treatment was apparently hindered by sinking of the photocatalysts under quiescent conditions and illumination occlusion by the oil. Overall, results indicate that photocatalytic pre-treatment to stimulate bioremediation of weathered oil deserves further consideration, but controlling the buoyancy and surface hydrophobicity of the photocatalysts will be important for future efforts to enable ROS generation in proximity to the target compounds.
    Chemosphere 11/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Samuel D Snow, Jaesang Lee, Jae-Hong Kim
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    ABSTRACT: The vast range of C60 derivatives makes it difficult to assess potential environmental impact of this class of materials, while past environmental studies mostly focused only on pristine C60. Central to derivatized C60's potential to negatively impact (micro)biological receptors upon unintended release is its unique property of mediating the transfer of light energy to ambient oxygen, producing 1O2. To initiate the process of establishing a thorough understanding of the photo-induced adverse biological effects of functionalized fullerenes and their aqueous dispersions, the photochemical properties relevant to 1O2 production were evaluated using three selected series of mono-, bis- and tris- adducted fullerene materials. Differential 1O2 production of derivatives in toluene were explained by spectral variations under visible and UVA light conditions. Of the nine functionalities studied only aggregates of two positively charged derivatives showed significant photoactivity under experimental conditions. Laser flash photolysis revealed a triplet excited state in the photoactive aggregates with a sufficiently long lifetime to be quenched by 3O2. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction patterns revealed aggregates with sizes typical of aqueous C60 colloids that varied in crystallinity based on functionality. Results raised questions about our current understanding of the photoactivity of fullerene aggregates.
    Environmental Science & Technology 11/2012; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A magnetite-loaded mesocellular carbonaceous material, Fe(3)O(4)/MSU-F-C, exhibited superior activity as both a Fenton catalyst and an adsorbent for removal of phenol and arsenic, and strong magnetic property rendering it separable by simply applying magnetic field. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the catalytic process by Fe(3)O(4)/MSU-F-C completely oxidized phenol and As(III) under the conditions where commercial iron oxides showed negligible effects. Notably, the decomposition of H(2)O(2) by Fe(3)O(4)/MSU-F-C was not faster than those by commercial iron oxides, indicating that hydroxyl radical produced via the catalytic process by Fe(3)O(4)/MSU-F-C was used more efficiently for the oxidation of target contaminants compared to the other iron oxides. The homogeneous Fenton reaction by the dissolved iron species eluted from Fe(3)O(4)/MSU-F-C was insignificant. At relatively high doses of Fe(3)O(4)/MSU-F-C, total concentration of arsenic decreased to a significant extent due to the adsorption of arsenic on the catalyst surface. The removal of arsenic by adsorption was found to proceed via preoxidation of As(III) into As(V) and the subsequent adsorption of As(V) onto the catalyst.
    Chemosphere 08/2012; 89(10):1230-7. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the potential application of tin porphyrin- and C(60) aminofullerene-derivatized silica (SnP/silica and aminoC(60)/silica) as (1)O(2) generating systems for photochemical degradation of organic pollutants. Photosensitized (1)O(2) production with SnP/silica, which was faster than with aminoC(60)/silica, effectively oxidized a variety of pharmaceuticals. Significant degradation of pharmaceuticals in the presence of the 400-nm UV cutoff filter corroborated visible light activation of both photosensitizers. Whereas the efficacy of aminoC(60)/silica for (1)O(2) production drastically decreased under irradiation with λ > 550 nm, Q-band absorption caused negligible loss of the photosensitizing activity of SnP/silica in the long wavelength region. Faster destruction of phenolates by SnP/silica and aminoC(60)/silica under alkaline pH conditions further implicated (1)O(2) involvement in the oxidative degradation. Direct charge transfer mediated by SnP, which was inferred from nanosecond laser flash photolysis, induced significant degradation of neutral phenols under high power light irradiation. Self-sensitized destruction caused gradual activity loss of SnP/silica in reuse tests unlike aminoC(60)/silica. The kinetic comparison of SnP/silica and TiO(2) photocatalyst in real wastewater effluents showed that photosensitized singlet oxygenation of pharmaceuticals was still efficiently achieved in the presence of background organic matters, while significant interference was observed for photocatalyzed oxidation involving non-selective OH radical.
    Environmental Science & Technology 08/2012; 46(17):9606-13. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that C(60) aminofullerenes immobilized on silica support (aminoC(60)/silica) efficiently produce singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and inactivate virus and bacteria under visible light irradiation. (1) We herein evaluate this new photocatalyst for oxidative degradation of 11 emerging organic contaminants, including pharmaceuticals such as acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, propranolol, ranitidine, sulfisoxazole, and trimethoprim, and endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A and pentachlorophenol. Tetrakis aminoC(60)/silica degraded pharmaceuticals under visible light irradiation faster than common semiconductor photocatalysts such as platinized WO(3) and carbon-doped TiO(2). Furthermore, aminoC(60)/silica exhibited high target-specificity without significant interference by natural organic matter. AminoC(60)/silica was more efficient than unsupported (water-suspended) C(60) aminofullerene. This was attributed to kinetically enhanced (1)O(2) production after immobilization, which reduces agglomeration of the photocatalyst, and to adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto the silica support, which increases exposure to (1)O(2) near photocatalytic sites. Removal efficiency increased with pH for contaminants with a phenolic moiety, such as bisphenol A and acetaminophen, because the electron-rich phenolates that form at alkaline pH are more vulnerable to singlet oxygenation.
    Environmental Science & Technology 11/2011; 45(24):10598-604. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new strategy is described to immobilize photoactive C(60) aminofullerene on silica gel (3-(2-succinic anhydride)propyl functionalized silica), thus enabling facile separation of the photocatalyst for recycling and repeated use. An organic linker moiety containing an amide group was used to anchor C(60) aminofullerene to the functionalized silica support. The linker moiety prevents aqueous C(60) aggregation/agglomeration (shown by TEM images), resulting in a remarkable enhancement of photochemical (1)O(2) production under visible light irradiation. With no loss in efficacy of (1)O(2) production plus insignificant chemical modification of the aminoC(60)/silica photocatalyst after multiple cycling, the system offers a promising new visible-light-activated photocatalyst. Under visible-light irradiation, the aminoC(60)/silica photocatalyst is capable of effective and kinetically enhanced oxidation of Ranitidine and Cimetidine (pharmaceutical pollutants) and inactivation of MS-2 bacteriophage compared to aqueous solutions of the C(60) aminofullerene alone. Thus, this photocatalyst could enable water treatment in less developed areas by alleviating dependence on major infrastructure, including the need for electricity.
    Environmental Science & Technology 11/2010; 44(24):9488-95. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported the successful synthesis of various hexakis C60 derivatives (i.e., C60 with six functional groups containing NH3+-, CO2H-, or OH-terminals) with enhanced stability in water for aqueous phase application (Lee et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, pp 6604-6610). Among these newly synthesized C60 derivatives, the cationic hexakis C60 derivative with amine functionality, C60(CR2)6 (R=CO2(CH2)2NH3+CF3CO2-), was found to exhibit remarkable efficiency to inactivate Escherichia coli and MS-2 bacteriophage under UVA irradiation. Herein, we report that this amine-functionalized C60 derivative is also photoactive in response to visible light from both commercial fluorescence lamps and sunlight. Efficient production of 1O2, facile reaction of 1O2 with proteins in MS-2 phage capsid and electrostatic attraction between positively charged C60 derivative and negatively charged MS-2 phage collectively contributed to high efficiency of MS-2 phage inactivation in this photocatalytic disinfection system. The rate of 1O2 production was evaluated using a probe compound, furfuryl alcohol, and 1O2 CT (the product of 1O2 concentration and exposure time) required to achieve a target level of virus inactivation was quantitatively analyzed. The unique visible-light sensitized virucidal property makes this C60 derivative highly desirable for the development of sustainable disinfection strategies that do not require continuous chemical addition nor an external energy source other than ambient light.
    Environmental Science & Technology 09/2010; 44(17):6685-91. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extraordinary chemical and physical properties of materials at the nanometer scale enable novel applications ranging from structural strength enhancement and energy conservation to antimicrobial properties and self-cleaning surfaces. Consequently, manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and nanocomposites are being considered for various uses in the construction and related infrastructure industries. To achieve environmentally responsible nanotechnology in construction, it is important to consider the lifecycle impacts of MNMs on the health of construction workers and dwellers, as well as unintended environmental effects at all stages of manufacturing, construction, use, demolition, and disposal. Here, we review state-of-the-art applications of MNMs that improve conventional construction materials, suggest likely environmental release scenarios, and summarize potential adverse biological and toxicological effects and their mitigation. Aligned with multidisciplinary assessment of the environmental implications of emerging technologies, this review seeks to promote awareness of potential benefits of MNMs in construction and stimulate the development of guidelines to regulate their use and disposal to mitigate potential adverse effects on human and environmental health.
    ACS Nano 07/2010; 4(7):3580-90. · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactions of water-stable C(60) clusters (nC(60)) in water with OH radicals (*OH) and hydrated electrons (e(aq)(-)), generated by steady-state gamma-radiation, were observed and characterized. Ordered C(60) clusters were relatively recalcitrant to highly reactive *OH and e(aq)(-) species, with only a fraction of carbons oxidized and reduced, respectively. Pulse radiolysis suggested that the reactions of nC(60) with OH* and e(aq)(-) were diffusion limited, with rate constants of (7.34 +/- 0.31) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.34 +/- 0.02) x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Quantum mechanical calculations of binding energy of the C(60)-OH adduct as a function of C(60) clustering degree indicate, despite an initial fast reaction, a slower overall conversion due to thermodynamic instability of C(60)-OH intermediates. The results imply that ordered clustering of C(60) in the aqueous phase significantly hinders C(60)'s fundamental reactivity with radical species.
    Environmental Science and Technology 05/2010; 44(10):3786-92. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four novel hexakis C60 derivatives with varying functionalities were synthesized, and their photochemical properties and photodynamic disinfection efficiencies were quantitatively evaluated. All these C60 derivatives generated 1O2 more efficiently than commercial multihydroxylated C60 (fullerol), as assessed by furfuryl alcohol consumption and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Despite significant agglomeration/aggregation in the aqueous phase to micrometer-sized particles, nanosecond laser flash photolysis showed that the lifetime of triplet state (a key intermediate for energy transfer responsible for 1O2 production) was comparable to reported values for pristine C60 in organic phase. As a result of facile 1O2 production, the C60 derivatives efficiently inactivated Escherichia coli and MS-2 bacteriophage. Cationic aminofullerene hexakis, which likely exerted electrostatic attraction, exhibited exceptionally rapid virus inactivation even compared to commercial nano-TiO2 photocatalyst. These unique photodynamic, hydrophilic and cationic properties may be instrumental for the development of next generation photocatalysts for disinfection applications. The high ROS (reactive oxygen species) production activity and associated cytotoxicity are concerns for potential releases of functionalized C60 to the environment, and require careful assessment apart from other forms of C60 (e.g., nC60) that have been widely studied as model nanomaterials but behave differently.
    Environmental Science and Technology 08/2009; 43(17). · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that water-stable C60 cluster (nC60) undergoes a photochemical transformation(s) when irradiated with monochromatic UV light at 254 nm. Upon UV exposure, characteristic absorption of nC60 in the visible (ca. 450-550 nm, indicative of a cluster structure) and UV regions (indicative of underivatized molecular C60) gradually disappeared. Concurrently, a new product with absorption centered at 210 nm formed. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed a complete reduction in aggregation and formation of a soluble product. Negligible loss of total organic carbon (TOC) and drastic retardation in degradation kinetics in the absence of oxygen collectively implied that photochemical transformation was accomplished via oxidative pathway without carbon mineralization. MS (LDI), FTIR, and XPS analyses indicated a 60 carbon cage product, containing various oxygen functional groups such as epoxides and ethers. In addition, this product demonstrated significantly less antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli when compared to the parent nC60. The results of this study suggest that accurate assessment of C60 in environmental life cycles and impact should consider the light-mediated transformation of C60 in the aqueous phase and resulting water-soluble products.
    Environmental Science and Technology 08/2009; 43(13):4878-83. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oxidative reactivity of THF derivatives formed during THF/nC60 synthesis was evaluated with indigo dye as a model compound. The results showed that the formation of previously undetected oxidizing agents during THF/nC60 synthesis accounted for the degradation of indigo dye by THF/nC60 (THF/nC60/unwashed), while THF/nC60 after vigorous washing (THF/nC60/washed) and nC60 prepared without the use of THF were not reactive. gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) was detected by GC-MS in the THF/nC60/unwashed as one of THF derivatives, but showed no reactivity with indigo dye. An organic peroxide was detected in the THF/nC60/unwashed by HPLC, and was reactive with indigo dye. This compound was found to also account for the elevated antibacterial and bactericidal activities of THF/nC60/unwashed on E. coli. Analysis by LC/(+ESI)MS and 1H NMR showed that the detected THF peroxide was tetrahydro-2-(tetrahydrofuran-2-ylperoxy)furan. The formation of THF peroxide during the preparation of aqueous stable C60 aggregates provides another potential explanation for the reactivity and oxidative stress mechanisms of THF/nC60 system reported in the literature, although it does not exclude the potential reactivity and toxicity of nC60 itself.
    Environmental Science and Technology 02/2009; 43(1):108-13. · 5.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

444 Citations
151.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Korea University
      • Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Water Resource Cycle Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Rice University
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Civil & Environmental Engineering
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Radiology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2005
    • King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
      Az̧ Z̧ahrān, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia