J Hellwig

BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

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Publications (35)78.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Effects of common anaesthetics such as ether, methoxyflurane, isoflurane, carbon dioxide (at 100%, 80% or 60% admixed with O(2)) on toxicity and clinical pathology parameters in rats were investigated. Ether, methoxyflurane and 100% CO(2) induced toxicity in some animals. Erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit were reduced in females by 100% CO(2), methoxyflurane and isoflurane. Glucose was increased by 60% CO(2), 80% CO(2), ether, isoflurane and methoxyflurane in males. Chloride was reduced by isoflurane and all CO(2) concentrations in females. Serum proteins were reduced by isoflurane and methoxyflurane. Sodium, inorganic phosphate, calcium and magnesium were reduced by methoxyflurane and isoflurane, but increased by all CO(2) concentrations. Potassium was reduced by ether, methoxyflurane or isoflurane. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine were reduced by all anaesthetics. Prolactin was reduced by methoxyflurane, but raised by ether and isoflurane. Erythrocyte cholinesterase (E-ChE) activity is markedly reduced (20-40%) after anaesthesia with all CO(2) concentrations in both sexes. E-ChE was unaffected by ether, methoxyflurane, or isoflurane. Serum and brain cholinesterase activities were not affected. E-ChE inhibition correlated with decreased blood pH, suggesting that this was caused by acidosis. This is of practical relevance in the risk assessment of cholinesterase inhibitors. Conclusions: Clinical pathology data were affected by all anaesthetics. CO(2)/O(2) (80%/20%) and isoflurane are the most suitable anaesthetics. If E-ChE activity is to be determined, isoflurane is the anaesthetic of choice.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 10/2007; 45(9):1709-18. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wistar rats continuously received octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) in the diet through two successive generations at nominal doses of 0, 150, 450 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day. OMC had no adverse effects on estrous cycles, mating behavior, conception, parturition, lactation and weaning, sperm and follicle parameters, macropathology and histopathology of the sexual organs. 1000 mg/kg bw/day reduced parental food consumption and body weight (-14% to -16% in males, -4% to -5% females), increased liver weight, produced hepatic cytoplasmic eosinophilia and erosion/ulceration of glandular stomach mucosa. and led to a slightly decreased implantation rate in the top dose F0 and F1 dams. The high dose F1 and F2 pups had reduced lactation weight gain and organ weights and delayed sexual maturation landmarks. There was no evidence of a selective influence of the test compound on pups' sexual landmarks. The NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) is 450 mg/kg bw/day for fertility and reproductive performance, for systemic parental and developmental toxicity.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 08/2005; 43(7):1083-92. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess potential adverse functional and/or morphological effects of styrene on the neurological system in the F2 offspring following F0 and F1 generation whole-body inhalation exposures. Four groups of male and female Crl:CD (SD)IGS BR rats (25/sex/group) were exposed to 0, 50, 150, and 500 ppm styrene for 6 hr daily for at least 70 consecutive days prior to mating for the F0 and F1 generations. Inhalation exposure continued for the F0 and F1 females throughout mating and through gestation day 20. On lactation days 1 through 4, the F0 and F1 females received styrene in virgin olive oil via oral gavage at dose levels of 66, 117, and 300 mg/kg/day (divided into three equal doses, approximately 2 hr apart). Inhalation exposure of the F0 and F1 females was re-initiated on lactation day 5 and continued through weaning of the F1 or F2 pups on postnatal day (PND) 21. Developmental landmarks were assessed in F1 and F2 offspring. The neurological development of randomly selected pups from the F2 generation was assessed by functional observational battery, locomotor activity, acoustic startle response, learning and memory evaluations, brain weights and dimension measurements, and brain morphometric and histologic evaluation. Styrene exposure did not affect survival or the clinical condition of the animals. As expected from previous studies, slight body weight and histopathologic effects on the nasal olfactory epithelium were found in F0 and F1 rats exposed to 500 ppm and, to a lesser extent, 150 ppm. There were no indications of adverse effects on reproductive performance in either the F0 or F1 generation. There were exposure-related reductions in mean body weights of the F1 and F2 offspring from the mid and high-exposure groups and an overall pattern of slightly delayed development evident in the F2 offspring only from the 500-ppm group. This developmental delay included reduced body weight (which continued through day 70) and slightly delayed acquisition of some physical landmarks of development. Styrene exposure of the F0 and F1 animals had no effect on survival, the clinical condition or necropsy findings of the F2 animals. Functional observational battery evaluations conducted for all F1 dams during the gestation and lactation periods and for the F2 offspring were unaffected by styrene exposure. Swimming ability as determined by straight channel escape times measured on PND 24 were increased, and reduced grip strength values were evident for both sexes on PND 45 and 60 in the 500-ppm group compared to controls. There were no other parental exposure-related findings in the F2 pre-weaning and post-weaning functional observational battery assessments, the PND 20 and PND 60 auditory startle habituation parameters, in endpoints of learning and memory performance (escape times and errors) in the Biel water maze task at either testing age, or in activity levels measured on PND 61 in the 500-ppm group. Taken together, the exposure-related developmental and neuromotor changes identified in F2 pups from dams exposed to 500 ppm occurred in endpoints known to be both age- and weight-sensitive parameters, and were observed in the absence of any other remarkable indicators of neurobehavioral toxicity. Based on the results of this study, an exposure level of 50 ppm was considered to be the NOAEL for growth of F2 offspring; an exposure level of 500 ppm was considered to be the NOAEL for F2 developmental neurotoxicity.
    Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 07/2005; 74(3):221-32. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential adverse effects of styrene on reproductive capability from whole-body inhalation exposure of F0 and F1 parental animals. Assessments included gonadal function, estrous cyclicity, mating behavior, conception rate, gestation, parturition, lactation, and weaning in the F0 and F1 generations, and F1 generation offspring growth and development. Four groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD)IGS BR rats (25/sex/group) were exposed to 0, 50, 150, and 500 ppm styrene for 6 hr daily for at least 70 consecutive days prior to mating for the F0 and F1 generations. Inhalation exposure for the F0 and F1 females continued throughout mating and gestation through gestation day 20. Inhalation exposure of the F0 and F1 females was suspended from gestation day 21 through lactation day 4. On lactation days 1 through 4, the F0 and F1 females received styrene in virgin olive oil via oral gavage at dose levels of 66, 117, and 300 mg/kg/day (divided into three equal doses, approximately 2 hr apart). These oral dosages were calculated to provide similar maternal blood peak concentrations as provided by the inhalation exposures. Inhalation exposure of the F0 and F1 females was re-initiated on lactation day 5. Styrene exposure did not affect survival or clinical observations. Rats in the 150- and 500-ppm groups in both parental generations gained weight more slowly than the controls. There were no indications of adverse effects on reproductive performance in either the F0 or F1 generation. Male and female mating and fertility indices, pre-coital intervals, spermatogenic endpoints, reproductive organ weights, lengths of estrous cycle and gestation, live litter size and postnatal survival were similar in all exposure groups. Additionally, ovarian follicle counts and corpora lutea counts for the F1 females in the high-exposure group were similar to the control values. No adverse exposure-related macroscopic pathology was noted at any exposure level in the F0 and F1 generations. A previously characterized pattern of degeneration of the olfactory epithelium that lines the dorsal septum and dorsal and medial aspects of the nasal turbinates occurred in the F0 and F1 generation animals from the 500-ppm group. In the 500-ppm group, F2 birthweights were reduced compared to the control and F2 offspring from both the 150- and 500-ppm exposure groups gained weight more slowly than the controls. Based on the results of this study, an exposure level of 50 ppm was considered to be the NOAEL for F0 and F1 parental systemic toxicity; the NOAEL for F0 and F1 reproductive toxicity was 500 ppm or greater.
    Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 07/2005; 74(3):211-20. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA) of the Federal Republic of Germany convened a panel with expertise in reproductive and developmental toxicology to evaluate the OECD Screening Tests 421 (Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test) and 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test) with respect to their ability to unmask any potential toxic effects on reproduction. The original assignment for that panel was to "validate" those screening tests. However, the panel members recognized beforehand that this was actually an impossible task because of lack of a sufficient database. Only five chemicals with known reproductive toxicity had been examined following the OECD Screening Test Guidelines 421 or 422. A comparison of these test results with those of the definitive OECD Test Guidelines 414, 415, 416, or additional investigations could, therefore, only have been made with this very limited number of chemicals that had also undergone evaluation by one of the test guidelines cited. In each case biological properties relevant to reproductive toxicity were also indicated by the OECD Screening Tests 421 or 422. This communication reviews the main differences in study design of OECD Screening Test Guidelines 421 and 422 compared to those definitive test guidelines of similar study design for reproduction or developmental toxicity (especially with the one-generation study, OECD Test Guideline 415). The very limited possibilities of detecting late postnatal and postlactational manifestations are emphasized, as is the low statistical power of the OECD Screening Tests 421 and 422. Furthermore, the very limited ability to unmask teratogenicity is delineated. The outcome of screening tests was evaluated based on the results of 57 studies conducted according to the OECD Test Guideline 421 or 422. The test results were categorized according to the incidence of toxic effects on reproduction in the parent animals or their offspring and related to general toxic effects. Based on the ranking of these results, recommendations regarding setting rational priorities for further evaluations of existing chemicals' reproductive hazards are made. In general, the reviewer panel supports the OECD position that the screening tests are useful for initial hazard assessment and can contribute to the decision-making process on setting priorities for further test requirements. The panel also agrees with the OECD statement that the OECD Screening Tests 421 and 422 are neither an alternative to definitive tests (i.e., OECD Test Guidelines 414, 415, and 416) nor are they intended as their replacement.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 09/2003; 38(1):17-26. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    M S Christian, Stefan Schulte, Jürgen Hellwig
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic crystalline lycopene is a nutritional supplement to increase dietary intake of lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid. Its potential oral developmental toxicity was studied in rats and rabbits. Each study included 3 control groups (water and matrix for Lycopene 10 CWD or LycoVit 10%), 3 Lycopene 10 CWD groups [500, 1500 and 3000 (rats)/2000 (rabbits) mg/kg/day] and 1 LycoVit 10% group [3000 mg/kg/day (rats)/2000 (rabbits)]. The high dosages were at maximum achievable concentrations and dosage volumes (15 and 10 ml/kg for rats and rabbits, respectively) of the highly viscous test material suspensions. Dosages were administered on gestation days (GDs) 6 through 19 (rats) or GDs 6 through 28 (rabbits). Endpoints evaluated included viability, body weight, feed consumption, necropsy observations [GD 20 (rats)/GD 29 (rabbits)], uterine contents and fetal viability, gender, body weight and morphology (skeletons double-stained). Feed consumption and weight gain were essentially unaffected in rats and rabbits, despite intubation problems in both species and reduced gastrointestinal motility and mortality in rabbits attributable to the physical properties of the gels. Neither Lycopene 10 CWD nor LycoVit 10% caused direct maternal or developmental toxicity in rats or rabbits at dosages as high as 3000 or 2000 mg/kg/day, respectively.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 07/2003; 41(6):773-83. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article is a report on the Fourth Berlin Workshop on Terminology in Developmental Toxicology, which was held in April 2002. The workshop is part of an international project in the field of harmonization of terminology in developmental toxicology supported by IPCS. The goal of the Harmonization Project is to ensure better chemical risk assessment. The aim of this Fourth Workshop was to discuss the results of a previously conducted survey on classification of external and visceral anomalies, which are listed in the international glossary, developed under the auspices of IFTS (1997 glossary). The discussions among experts from research institutions, regulatory agencies, and industries were mainly focussed on terms for which there was disagreement and/or uncertainties and the possible reasons. For the illustration of "gray-zone" anomalies, pictures were provided by the participants, which constituted the basis for detailed discussions. There was high agreement that most of the external anomalies (>66%) should be classified as malformations. The few external anomalies for which there was low agreement to classify as a malformation were discussed in detail. None of the external findings, which had in the survey a high agreement, were categorized as a variation.A high agreement regarding the classification of approximately one-third of visceral anomalies was achieved with 34 and 2% being described as malformation and variation, respectively. Most of the visceral findings had low agreement indices and there appeared to be several reasons for this. Thus, the response, 'Not known/not used in the laboratory' (N) was often given. A couple of reasons for difficulties in the classification of an anomaly were that it is only rarely seen upon fetal examination or tends to be species specific. Furthermore, the classification of some anomalies as malformation or variation will remain vague as the decision must be made on a case-by-case basis. Factors affecting the decision include: the availability of appropriate historical control data, description of the grading and severity, whether the anomaly occurs in isolation or whether there is a relationship with an abnormal process, and finally, if the change represents an irreversible one, affecting human and/or animal health. It was concluded that a severity grading, supported by pictures of the anomaly, would be especially helpful to classify certain changes as malformation or as variation. Several of the soft tissue changes were considered likely to be the consequence of functional disorders and thus not strictly developmental anomalies. The possibility to describe a finding as 'Not Malformation' (Unclassified) was agreed upon. As a general conclusion it was emphasized that the observation of a permanent structural change should be considered to be a warning of possible consequences to humans, even when there is no apparent adverse effect on health and survival in adult animals of the species under investigation. Therefore, research is needed to further investigate postnatal consequences. Future collaboration in the field of reproductive and developmental toxicology should aim to further develop and implement a harmonized approach to the interpretation of study data. Therefore, this terminology work will continue in close cooperation with the IPCS Harmonization Project. A Steering Group should be established to facilitate the implementation of harmonized terminology into daily scientific work and its regulatory application.
    Reproductive Toxicology 01/2003; 17(5):625-37. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    Food and Chemical Toxicology 01/2003; 41(5):743-743. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnant Wistar rats were administered 0, 100, 400 or 1000 mg mono-n-butylamine hydrochloride/kg body weight/day by gavage on days 6 through 15 post coitum (sperm-positive=day 0), or inhaled mono-n-butylamine 0, 17, 50 or 152 ppm (whole-body exposure), 6 h/day on days 6 through 19 post coitum. Oral n-butylamine HCl 1000 mg/kg reduced maternal feed consumption, increased early post-implantation losses (embryonic resorptions), reduced fetal and placental weight, and retarded skeletal development (incomplete skull and sternebral ossification), and produced malformations (filiform/kinked tail, enlarged cardiac ventricular chamber(s), malpositioned heart, aortic arch atresia, diaphragmatic hernia); 100 mg/kg was the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for prenatal developmental toxicity; 400 mg/kg, the maternal no-effect level, produced only malformations (aortic arch atresia, malpositioned heart, diaphragmatic hernia). Inhaled n-butylamine produced concentration-dependent nasal epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, inflammation and necrosis; the maternal NOAEL was less than 17 ppm. There were no treatment-related signs of embryo/fetotoxicity, particularly, no effects on fetal morphology. The developmental NOAEL was 152 ppm. The neutralization of n-butylamine by hydrochloride converts it from a strong alkali causing tissue burns into a weak acid/base which is fetotoxic. Possible mechanisms of fetotoxicity are free radical production, metabolic acidosis, and lysosomotrophy.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 01/2003; 40(12):1833-42. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • J Hellwig, C Gembardt, S Jasti
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    ABSTRACT: In a two-generation reproduction toxicity study, 25 male and 25 female Wistar rats per dose group and generation were exposed continuously to tetrahydrofuran in the drinking water for at least 70 days prior to and during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation to weaning, at concentrations of 0, 1000, 3000 or 9000 ppm (approximately 100, 300 and 700 mg/kg/day in males and females premating, 100, 300 and 800 mg/kg/day in females during gestation, and 200, 500 and 1300 mg/kg/day in females during lactation) through two successive generations. In both generations and sexes, water consumption was dose-relatedly reduced at all doses; food consumption and body weight were reduced at 9000 ppm. Necropsy kidney weights were increased in 9000 ppm F0 males. Pup body weight gain during lactation was reduced in both generations (F1 and F2 pups) and eye opening delayed in the first generation (F1 pups) at 9000 ppm; there were no treatment-related malformations. The NOAEL of tetrahydrofuran in drinking water is 9000 ppm for parental fertility and reproductive performance, and 3000 ppm for systemic parental and developmental toxicity.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 11/2002; 40(10):1515-23. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reproductive effects of the administration of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) to rats were evaluated through two generations, from prior to mating, throughout mating, to gestation and lactation. MCPA was administered in the diet at doses of 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppm to 25 male and female immature rats (F0 parents) for 10 weeks. F0 parents were then mated to produce a first litter (F1a), retained only until weaning, and were subsequently remated to produce a second litter, F1b. Groups of male and female F1b animals were then dosed as were their parents for 10 weeks postweaning, and the breeding was repeated to produce F2a and F2b animals. The study concluded with the F2b weanlings. MCPA was administered continuously throughout the study. Only minimal, non-treatment-related observations were noted, which included rhinorrhea (in both treated and control animals in the F0 generation) and malocclusion and alopecia (in both the F0 and F1b generations). There were no consistent dose-related effects on reproductive function for parental animals of either sex in either generation. Statistically significant differences were noted in body weights and body weight gains in the 450-ppm dose group for both male and female pups in F2a and F2b. There were no treatment-related macroscopic or microscopic observations noted for any animal in this study. The no-observable-effect level (NOEL) for reproductive function in rats administered MCPA continuously for two successive generations was determined to be 450 ppm (approximately 22 mg/kg/day). The NOEL for general systemic toxicity, based on body weight effects in adult animals in the F1b generation was 150 ppm. The NOEL for effects on the offspring of the F1b generation, manifested as reduced pup weights and pup weight gains was also 150 ppm (approximately 8 mg/kg/day). Based upon the results of this study, MCPA, administered for two generations to Crl:CD(SD)BR Albino rats, is considered not to be a reproductive toxicant.
    International Journal of Toxicology 01/2001; 20(1):29-38. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The initial efforts of the Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV) and the Free University of Berlin to standardise terminology in the field of developmental toxicology began in 1995. Procedures were undertaken to harmonise the terminology used by the International Federation of Teratology Societies (IFTS) and the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). This article reflects these activities and is a report on the Third Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology held in September 2000. This Workshop served as a forum to discuss the results of a survey on the classification of skeletal anomalies that had been previously sent to scientists active in the field. Although high agreement was reached among the evaluators for several terms, the use of a number of terms was rather variable. Therefore, the discussions at the workshop among the experts from research institutions, regulatory agencies, and industry were mainly focussed on those terms for which there was disagreement and/or uncertainties and the possible reasons. Pictures provided by the participants for the illustration of “grey zone” anomalies constituted the basis for detailed discussions. In many of the cases with lower agreement, decisions were facilitated by the provision of the corresponding picture. The main reasons for lower agreement were imprecise terms, insufficient knowledge on postnatal consequences, theoretical terms that are unlikely to occur in isolation, and the possibility of observing a range of severity that might be decisive for the classification of either a malformation or variation. The attendees concluded that “grey-zone” anomalies will never disappear completely and that for the assessment, the grade of severity and/or the frequency of the observation can be decisive for the terminology chosen. A Joint IPCS/IFTS Project was proposed to further consensus of terminology and classification and to link these anomalies to pictures at different skeletal sites. In order to support the harmonisation of regulatory decisions, it was proposed to establish a “Clearinghouse” System under the umbrella of the IPCS. The Clearinghouse could be contacted either by the regulatory authorities or by any company to clarify their queries, particularly with regard to registration or authorisation processes. Finally, it was recommended to also carry out a similar survey on “soft tissue anomalies” and “external findings.” The results of this survey will be discussed at a Joint IPCS/IFTS Workshop in Berlin in 2002.
    Reproductive Toxicology - REPROD TOXICOL. 01/2001; 15(6):713-721.
  • H J Klimisch, J Hellwig
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    ABSTRACT: (1) Dimethylacetamide was tested for developmental toxicity after inhalation exposure of pregnant Himalayan rabbits. Fifteen female rabbits per main group were exposed to dimethylacetamide vapours at concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.7 or 2.0 mg/l (equivalent to 0, 57, 199.5 or 570 ppm) and five female rabbits per satellite group to 0 or 2.0 mg/l 6 h/day from day 7 post-insemination (p.i.) to day 19 p.i. All animals were observed until day 29 p.i. (2) No signs of maternal toxicity were seen in the does of the main groups (body weight and gross pathology) or in the does of the satellite groups (body weight, blood chemistry, histopathological findings of the liver). (3) Fetotoxic effects were caused at a concentration of 0.7 mg/l (e.g., increased skeletal variations) and 2.0 mg/l (e.g., significantly decreased fetal and placental weights, increase in soft tissue and skeletal variations). At 2.0 mg/l, there were also signs of a weak teratogenic effect expressed as a marginal, statistically not significant increase in soft tissue malformations (regarding the heart and great vessels). No compound-related effects were observed in the fetuses after exposure to 0.2 mg/l. (4) The highest concentration tested under these conditions (2.0 mg/l) was found to be a no-observable-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for the maternal Himalayan rabbit, whereas 0.2 mg/l was defined as the NOAEL for the developing organism.
    Human &amp Experimental Toxicology 01/2001; 19(12):676-83. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vinclozolin administered to pregnant Wistar and Long-Evans rats from day 14 postcoitum to day 3 postpartum at 200 mg/kg body wt/day was maternally toxic (reduced food consumption and body weight gain) and increased perinatal mortality; major adverse effects on sex-specific organs in male offspring were seen (reduced anogenital distance and index; persistence of nipples/areolas into adulthood; hypospadic penis; penile hypoplasia or development of a vaginal pouch; transient paraphimosis; hypoplasia and chronic inflammation of epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicles, and coagulating glands; and also testicular tubular atrophy and chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder in some Long-Evans) with isolated inflammation-related deaths due to pyelonephritis. At 12 mg/kg, prevalence of female areola/nipple anlagen in immature (preweaning) male offspring was increased in both strains; these persisted to adulthood in a few treated Long-Evans but not Wistar offspring. Adult Long-Evans but not Wistar at this dose also had hypoplasia of prostate, seminal vesicles, and coagulating glands, and a minority had testicular tubular atrophy. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) were 12 and 6 mg/kg body wt in Wistar and Long-Evans rats, respectively, in these studies. The data suggest that both the Long-Evans and the Wistar rats are comparably sensitive to the antiandrogenic effects of vinclozolin. At dose levels below the NOAEL (1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively), there were no indications of any test-substance-related effects.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 09/2000; 32(1):42-50. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    A O Gamer, J Hellwig, J E Doe, R W Tyl
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    ABSTRACT: Mated Wistar rats, 25/group, were exposed to polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosol of respirable size for 6 h/day, on gestational days (gd) 6 through 15, at 0, 1, 4, and 12 mg/m3. Maternal clinical signs, body weights, and feed and water consumption were measured throughout gestation. At scheduled sacrifice on gd 20, maternal body, gravid uterine, liver, and paired lung weights were documented. Corpora lutea were counted, implantation sites were identified: resorptions, dead and live fetuses, and placentas were weighed. All live fetuses were counted, sexed, weighed, and examined for external alterations; approximately 50% of the live fetuses/litter were preserved in Bouin's fixative and examined for visceral alterations, and the remaining live fetuses/ litter were cleared and stained with alizarin red S and examined for ossified skeletal alterations. Maternal toxicity was observed at 12 mg/m3, including mortality (2 of 24 pregnant), damage to the respiratory tract, reduced body weights and weight gain, reduced liver and increased lung weights, and reduced gravid uterine weight (the last not statistically significantly different from the control value). Developmental toxicity was also observed at 12 mg/m3, including reduced placental and fetal body weights and an increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations and skeletal retardations. There was no evidence of maternal or developmental toxicity at 1 or 4 mg/m3. The no observed adverse effect concentration for maternal and developmental toxicity was therefore 4 mg/m3. There were no treatment-related teratogenic effects at any concentrations evaluated.
    Toxicological Sciences 05/2000; 54(2):431-40. · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Reproductive Toxicology 01/1999; 13(1):77-82. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of ambiguities and inconsistencies in the use of terms for structural anomalies is a major problem in developmental toxicology and causes great difficulties for administrative decision makers involved in public health evaluation of chemical substances. The absence of harmonisation of terminology is no longer acceptable for regulatory purposes. The debate is unending, however, refinement and consensus are indispensable. This article is a report of the Second Workshop on Terminology in Developmental Toxicology. Experts from research institutions, regulatory agencies, and industries took part in this workshop, which has started a process of discussion that eventually will lead to a harmonisation of terminology used for classification of structural anomalies. The participants put forward a scheme of classification for foetal abnormalities that consists of only two categories: “malformation and variation.” Finally, consensus was achieved in defining the terms malformation and variation. Malformation is defined as a permanent structural change that is likely to adversely affect the survival or health of the species under investigation. The term variation is defined as a change that occurs within the normal population under investigation and is unlikely to adversely affect survival or health. This change might include a delay in growth or morphogenesis that has otherwise followed a normal pattern of development.
    Reproductive Toxicology 01/1999; 13(1):77-82. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of ambiguities and inconsistencies in the use of terms for structural anomalies is a major problem in developmental toxicology and causes great difficulties for administrative decision makers involved in public health evaluation of chemical substances. The absence of harmonisation of terminology is no longer acceptable for regulatory purposes. The debate is unending, however, refinement and consensus are indispensable. This article is a report of the Second Workshop on Terminology in Developmental Toxicology. Experts from research institutions, regulatory agencies, and industries took part in this workshop, which has started a process of discussion that eventually will lead to a harmonisation of terminology used for classification of structural anomalies. The participants put forward a scheme of classification for foetal abnormalities that consists of only two categories: “malformation and variation.” Finally, consensus was achieved in defining the terms malformation and variation. Malformation is defined as a permanent structural change that is likely to adversely affect the survival or health of the species under investigation. The term variation is defined as a change that occurs within the normal population under investigation and is unlikely to adversely affect survival or health. This change might include a delay in growth or morphogenesis that has otherwise followed a normal pattern of development.
    Reproductive Toxicology 01/1999; 13(1):77-82. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored this work to address any concern that styrene dimers and trimers that might migrate from polystyrene containers into food could possess some estrogenic activity and thus possibly affect human health. All phases of the study were conducted in conformance with GLP regulations and without knowledge of the oligomer migrates tested. All activities were managed and audited under a third-party contract between the SSC and Argus International. Low and high doses of the styrene oligomer migrates of 23 polystyrene samples [i.e. 9 general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS), 8 high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) and 6 expandable polystyrenes (EPS)] were tested for estrogenicity in an in vivo uterotrophic assay (immature female rat model). This model is considered to be the "gold standard" for use in screening for estrogenic effects because it evaluates both direct and indirect potential effects. The two concentrations of migrates of each of the 23 polystyrenes tested were selected to simulate daily human consumption of a low and high amount of food. Representative dimer and trimer concentrations were obtained in conformance with EEC Council Directives and calculated to be at levels simulating human consumption of 0.5 or 5 kg of food for the GPPS and the HIPS samples and of 0.5 or 3.15 kg of food for the EPS samples, respectively. The study was conducted in a series of three blocks. Each block included concurrent untreated control (negative control), vehicle control (25% ethanol, 20 ml/kg/day) and positive control (diethylstilbestrol-dipropionate, DES-DP, 5 micrograms/kg/day) groups, and low and high doses of each of 7 (1 block) or 8 (2 blocks) polystyrene oligomer migrates. Each group in each block consisted of 10 immature Wistar (Chbb: THOM-SPF) female rats. Beginning when the rats were 22 +/- 1 days of age, each rat was appropriately handled (untreated control group) or administered twice daily oral (gavage) dosages of the vehicle, positive control agent or one of the two doses of the migrates of each polystyrene for 4 consecutive days and then sacrificed at 26 +/- 1 days of age. The uterus of each rat was weighed, and the uterine weight was compared with the terminal body weight. The positive control agent (DES-DP, 5 micrograms/kg/day) significantly increased both absolute and relative (to terminal body weight) uterine weights, as compared to the untreated and vehicle control group values in each block, demonstrating sensitivity and response of the animals to an estrogenic agent. None of the 23 polystyrene oligomer migrates tested at low and high doses demonstrated biologically important or statistically significant differences from the untreated or vehicle control group values for absolute or relative (to body weight) uterine weights. Based on these data, it is concluded that low and high doses of the 23 polystyrene oligomer migrates tested did not induce an estrogenic response.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 02/1998; 21 Suppl 1:1-30. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inclusion of biological outlier values was found to bias the results of rat uterotrophic assays towards false negatives, i.e., not identify uterotrophic effects in treated populations. The present investigation was conducted to identify the background variability in the rat uterotrophic assay and to evaluate the need to exclude biological outlier values in untreated control groups. The Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) co-sponsored this work with Argus Research Laboratories (Argus). The rat uterotrophic response assay originally was used as a pharmacology screen to identify estrogenic agents. Classically, 5 to 10 immature female rats (18 to 22 days of age) are administered an agent for three or four days. At sacrifice on the following day (21 to 26 days of age), the uterus is removed, weighed and a uterine weight/terminal body weight ratio calculated. This in vivo assay has been adapted for use in identifying the potential estrogenicity of chemicals, generally using 10 immature female rats per group, more closely controlling the ages, and adding one or more positive control groups to demonstrate sensitivity and response of the test system. Statistically significant increases in the positive control group means for absolute and relative uterine weights, as compared with the untreated (or vehicle-treated) means, is generally interpreted as identifying a sensitive test system. The untreated (and/or vehicle-treated) control group is then compared with the various test groups, and statistically significant increases in the mean absolute and relative uterine weights are identified as evidence of estrogenicity of the agent. Although not fully described previously, the inherent biological variability existing in both untreated and treated animals, can confound interpretation of the data, especially when numbers are relatively small. Our laboratories have identified that under controlled GLP-compliant conditions, some Wistar rats [randomly assigned (weight-ordered) to groups of ten at 22 +/- 1 days of age, and sacrificed when 26 +/- 1 days of age] in untreated control groups have high relative uterine weights that skew data distributions such that statistically significant differences are not present between untreated control and positive control groups. Based on these observations, further evaluations of untreated control and positive control (DES-DP, 2.5 micrograms/kg, b.i.d.) populations of three rat strains [Wistar--Chbb:THOM-SPF, Wistar--Crl:(WI)BR and Sprague-Dawley--Crl:CD(SD)IBS BR VAF/Plus "International Genetic Standard"] were made to define when such normal findings should be considered biological outliers, and whether outlier values should be excluded from analyses. Our data indicate that body weight is not always predictive of uterine weight, that relative uterine weight outlier values occur in each of these rat strains, and that statistically significant differences exist between groups of untreated control animals when outlier values are included in analyses. Of 98, 60 and 60 untreated control rats in the three respective strains, 11 (11.2%), 16 (26.7%) and 15 (25.0%) had relative uterine weights > or = 0.150%, and 5 (5.1%), 4 (6.7%) and 9 (15.0%) of these rats had relative uterine weights > or = 0.200%, values within the positive control range. All positive control rats attained relative uterine weights > or = 0.100%. Of 50, 60 and 60 positive control rats in the three respective rat strains, 27 (54%), 47 (78.3%) and 36 (60%) had relative uterine weights > or = 0.200%, 9 (18%), 2 (3.3%) and 7 (11.7%) had relative uterine weights > or = 0.300% and 5 (10%), 1 (1.7%) and 3 (5%) had relative uterine weights > or = 0.400%. The incidences of relative uterine weights > or = 0.300% in the positive control group may indicate the presence of high responders. Histological evaluations of uteri of positive control rats and untreated control rats with relative uterine weights > or = 0.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 02/1998; 21 Suppl 1:51-100. · 1.29 Impact Factor