[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful for identifying such genetic susceptibility factors. However, the single loci so far associated with CRC only represent a fraction of the genetic risk for CRC development in the general population. Therefore, many other genetic risk variants alone and in combination must still remain to be discovered. The aim of this work was to search for genetic risk factors for CRC, by performing single-locus and two-locus GWAS in the Spanish population.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e101178. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed data (7,055,881 SNPs) to perform meta-analysis on 4 previously published GWAS data sets consisting of 17,008 Alzheimer's disease cases and 37,154 controls. In stage 2, 11,632 SNPs were genotyped and tested for association in an independent set of 8,572 Alzheimer's disease cases and 11,312 controls. In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify loci associated with Alzheimer disease, we conducted a three-stage analysis using existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genotyping in a new sample. In Stage I, all suggestive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (at P<0.001) in a previously reported GWAS of seven independent studies (8082 Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases; 12 040 controls) were selected, and in Stage II these were examined in an in silico analysis within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium GWAS (1367 cases and 12904 controls). Six novel signals reaching P<5 × 10-6 were genotyped in an independent Stage III sample (the Fundació ACE data set) of 2200 sporadic AD patients and 2301 controls. We identified a novel association with AD in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 (ATP5H)/Potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing protein 2 (KCTD2) locus, which reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and genotyping sample (rs11870474, odds ratio (OR)=1.58, P=2.6 × 10-7 in discovery and OR=1.43, P=0.004 in Fundació ACE data set; combined OR=1.53, P=4.7 × 10-9). This ATP5H/KCTD2 locus has an important function in mitochondrial energy production and neuronal hyperpolarization during cellular stress conditions, such as hypoxia or glucose deprivation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To estimate the allele frequency of C9orf72 (G4C2) repeats in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN The number of repeats was estimated by a 2-step genotyping strategy. For expansion carriers, we sequenced the repeat flanking regions and obtained APOE genotypes and MAPT H1/H2 haplotypes. SETTING Hospitals specializing in neurodegenerative disorders. SUBJECTS We analyzed 520 patients with FTLD, 389 patients with ALS, 424 patients with AD, 289 patients with PD, 602 controls, 18 families, and 29 patients with PD with the LRRK2 G2019S mutation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The expansion frequency. RESULTS Based on a prior cutoff (>30 repeats), the expansion was detected in 9.3% of patients with ALS, 5.2% of patients with FTLD, and 0.7% of patients with PD but not in controls or patients with AD. It was significantly associated with family history of ALS or FTLD and age at onset of FTLD. Phenotype variation (ALS vs FTLD) was not associated with MAPT, APOE, or variability in the repeat flanking regions. Two patients with PD were carriers of 39 and 32 repeats with questionable pathological significance, since the 39-repeat allele does not segregate with PD. No expansion or intermediate alleles (20-29 repeats) were found among the G2019S carriers and AD cases with TAR DNA-binding protein 43-positive inclusions. Surprisingly, the frequency of the 10-repeat allele was marginally increased in all 4 neurodegenerative diseases compared with controls, indicating the presence of an unknown risk variation in the C9orf72 locus. CONCLUSIONS The C9orf72 expansion is a common cause of ALS and FTLD, but not of AD or PD. Our study raises concern about a reliable cutoff for the pathological repeat number, which is important in the utility of genetic screening.
Archives of neurology 09/2012; · 7.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present research is aimed at assessing the role of 3 estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene variants in late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility. One thousand one hundred thirteen unrelated late onset sporadic AD patients, 1109 healthy controls and 121 neurologically healthy elderly controls were used to carry out case-control genetic association studies with ESR1 rs3844508, rs2234693, and ESR1 noncoding deletion 1 (ESR1-NCD1) polymorphisms. Thirty-five healthy male samples were used for molecular analyses. The rs2234693 polymorphism is associated with AD in our population (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; p = 0.008). The rs3844508 marker confers protection against AD in males (OR, 0.57; p = 0.001) and the deletion ESR1-NCD1 is a risk factor for AD in women (OR, 1.67; p < 0.001). Molecular analyses on ESR1-NCD1 indicate that this deletion confers a higher response to estradiol activity on ESR1 receptor and it is also associated with differential expression of ESR1 isoforms. Our results support the involvement of ESR1 gene in AD and point to the existence of sexual dimorphism for ESR1 markers. In addition, carriers of ESR1-NCD1 deletion could overrespond to estradiol action.
Neurobiology of aging 01/2012; 33(1):198.e15-24. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to identify novel loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Spanish population.
We genotyped 1,128 individuals using the Affymetrix Nsp I 250K chip. A sample of 327 sporadic AD patients and 801 controls with unknown cognitive status from the Spanish general population were included in our initial study. To increase the power of the study, we combined our results with those of four other public GWAS datasets by applying identical quality control filters and the same imputation methods, which were then analyzed with a global meta-GWAS. A replication sample with 2,200 sporadic AD patients and 2,301 controls was genotyped to confirm our GWAS findings.
Meta-analysis of our data and independent replication datasets allowed us to confirm a novel genome-wide significant association of AD with the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster (rs1562990, P = 4.40E-11, odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.91, n = 10,181 cases and 14,341 controls).
Our results underscore the importance of international efforts combining GWAS datasets to isolate genetic loci for complex diseases.
Genome Medicine 05/2011; 3(5):33. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown high variability in clinical outcome among women undergoing follicle-stimulating hormone treatment. Pharmacogenetic studies have revealed a series of genetic markers involved in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) response. FSHR gene-associated SNPs, including the N680S missense variant, are the most promising genetic markers available to date. In this paper the state of the art pharmacogenetic analysis of COH outcome is reviewed and a meta-analysis is conducted with available data that confirms that the N680S marker is associated with poor response during COH. Thus, we propose that by pooling together available information, it is possible to go one step further with this biomarker to definitively validate its utility in the clinical field. We propose to conduct clinical trials, to look for algorithms integrating the N680S genotype and to test if such clinical protocols can optimize recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone dose and detect women at risk of a poor response during a COH cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CALHM1 gene coding non-synonymous SNP P86L (rs2986017) was reported to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a recent study. We have investigated this genetic variant in 2470 individuals from Spain to conduct an independent replication study of the proposed SNP marker. By applying a recessive model, we observed weak evidence of an association between P86L mutation and late-onset AD (LOAD) susceptibility in our case-control study (OR =1.38 C.I. = [1.01-1.89]). Meta-analysis of available studies also supports a recessive model for CALHM1 P86L variant and provides evidence of between study heterogeneity. Importantly, we found that adjusted mean age at AD onset in P86L homozygous LOAD patients was significantly earlier that in the rest of patients (77.01 +/- 6.1 for P86L homozygous carriers versus 79.0 +/- 6.0 for the rest of patients, p=0.002). We concluded that the CALMH1 gene may contribute to AD risk in our study population. The observed genetic model (recessive) and the estimated magnitude of the effect both imply that virtually all studies performed to date were markedly underpowered to detect this effect and underscore the importance of follow up, replication, and meta-analyses of promising genetic signals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic admixture is a common caveat for genetic association analysis. Therefore, it is important to characterize the genetic structure of the population under study to control for this kind of potential bias.
In this study we have sampled over 800 unrelated individuals from the population of Spain, and have genotyped them with a genome-wide coverage. We have carried out linkage disequilibrium, haplotype, population structure and copy-number variation (CNV) analyses, and have compared these estimates of the Spanish population with existing data from similar efforts.
In general, the Spanish population is similar to the Western and Northern Europeans, but has a more diverse haplotypic structure. Moreover, the Spanish population is also largely homogeneous within itself, although patterns of micro-structure may be able to predict locations of origin from distant regions. Finally, we also present the first characterization of a CNV map of the Spanish population. These results and original data are made available to the scientific community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age at natural menopause (ANM) can be considered a complex parameter that depends on the interaction of multiple factors. In the present study, the role of interaction between genetic variants within estrogen synthesis and signalling pathways in the ANM in Spanish women is studied.
Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at different candidate genes related to the estrogen signalling pathway were analysed in 1980 Spanish postmenopausal women.
Independently, none of the nine markers were significantly associated with early ANM. Only heterozygosis at the NRIP rs2229741 locus could be associated with early menopause; however, this marker does not maintain statistical significance. In contrast, linear regression analysis suggests several epistatic interactions including these markers in relation to ANM, especially between ESR2, NRIP1 and BMP15. The genetic variant that appears most in these interactions is that of the BMP15 rs3897937. It was observed that AA-TC combined genotype for NRIP-BMP15 (rs3897937), respectively, appears to be associated with a lower ANM than other possible combinations of these SNP (46.1+/-5.9 versus 50.4+/-3.3; P = 0.002). In the multilocus analysis, the multigenic interaction formed by ESR2 (AA), BMP15 rs3897937 (TC) and NRIP1 (AA) has the lower ANM (45.37+/-6.8 versus 48.69+/-5; P = 0.038).
The results suggest that epistatic interactions of estrogen-related alleles may contribute to variance in ANM in Spanish women. Moreover, BMP15 and NRIP1 also appear as attractive candidate genes for premature menopause but require further investigation to confirm them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The age at natural menopause shows great variability. It has been proposed that early age at menopause is a risk factor for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, whereas later age at menopause is a risk factor for breast cancer. In addition, it is thought that the genetic factors accounting for the genetic variability in age at menopause could also play a role in those diseases, as well as infertility in women. In this minireview we comment on the latest genetics and genomics insights into age at natural menopause.
Genome Medicine 09/2009; 1(8):76. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a complex disease, which is subject to strong environmental influences but with a no less important genetic basis, both in the manner of acquisition and loss of bone mass. Genetic studies are enabling us to identify patients at risk of suffering from common diseases like this, and in its evolution as a clinical tool we have advanced from the search for candidate genes to unilocus analysis of their genetic polymorphisms and their relationships with certain environmental factors. The next step will be to analyse possible gene interactions and the relationship between genetic findings and the response to the most common treatments.
Revista Española de Enfermedades Metabólicas Óseas. 10/2008; 17(5).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 80% of all thyroid malignancies, and genetic alterations associated to its etiology remain largely unknown. Chromosomal band 11q13 seems to be one of the most frequently amplified regions in human cancer, providing several candidate genes that need detailed characterization. The aim of our study was to investigate the existence of allelic imbalance at EMSY, CAPN5, and PAK1, as candidate genes within 11q13.5-q14 region using a single nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis. We selected a panel of 9 polymorphisms that were analyzed in 41 thyroid carcinoma samples, their contralateral non-pathological tissue and 178 controls from the general population. We did not detect allelic imbalance at these loci in our series. However, we observed a difference in the EMSY-haplotype distribution among PTC patients when compared to controls (odds ratio=2.00; p=0.02). We conclude that 11q13.5-q14 is not imbalanced in PTC, but there is evidence suggesting that EMSY might be of relevance in PTC etiology.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 08/2008; 31(7):618-23. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the authors look at an association of genetic variants within estrogen synthesis and signaling pathways and age at menarche (AAM) in Spanish women. They analyzed 9 polymorphisms in 6 different genes in 714 well-characterized postmenopausal women from Spain. They performed a quantitative trait locus study of these markers individually or in digenic combinations in relation to AAM. None of the studied markers, with the exception of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (P = .013), were significantly associated with AAM in the Spanish population, and no marker demonstrated an association of statistical significance after multiple testing corrections (P > .0055). In contrast, linear regression analysis suggests epistatic interactions including ESR1 and ESR2 loci in relation to AAM in the series (P = .003). The results suggest that epistatic interactions of ESR1 and ESR2 alleles could be associated with advancing AAM among Spanish women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to estrogens was found to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The molecular mechanism has been suggested to be the binding of estrogen receptors in mammary tissue, which promotes the proliferation of breast tissue. Different biomarkers mapping estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) have been associated with breast cancer risk, although the size of the effect is not consistent among different reports. Variation in the estrogen receptor gene PvuII has been associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, some studies suggest that its effect might be constrained to a definite subgroup of patients.
In this study the involvement of PvuII in breast cancer was analyzed in an independent sample of 444 unrelated breast cancer cases and 704 controls of Spanish origin. A case-control comparison was performed and the genotype distributions examined according to different tumor and population parameters.
A trend towards association was observed in adjusted case-control association analysis (p=0.07). PvuII was associated with the familial forms of breast cancer (OR=3.81, p=0.02). T allele frequency was higher among patients with highly differentiated tumors (p=0.02), positive for steroid receptors (p=0.06), and negative for p53 (p=0.02). However, the PvuII genetic background did not affect disease-free survival time (p=0.65).
The PvuII T allele may be a germline risk factor for familial forms of breast cancer and is associated with a specific subset of immunohistochemical tumor phenotype.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 04/2008; 14(3):CR136-43. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The difficulty in elucidating the genetic basis of complex diseases roots in the many factors that can affect the development of a disease. Some of these genetic effects may interact in complex ways, proving undetectable by current single-locus methodology.
We have developed an analysis tool called Hypothesis Free Clinical Cloning (HFCC) to search for genome-wide epistasis in a case-control design. HFCC combines a relatively fast computing algorithm for genome-wide epistasis detection, with the flexibility to test a variety of different epistatic models in multi-locus combinations. HFCC has good power to detect multi-locus interactions simulated under a variety of genetic models and noise conditions. Most importantly, HFCC can accomplish exhaustive genome-wide epistasis search with large datasets as demonstrated with a 400,000 SNP set typed on a cohort of Parkinson's disease patients and controls.
With the current availability of genetic studies with large numbers of individuals and genetic markers, HFCC can have a great impact in the identification of epistatic effects that escape the standard single-locus association analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. Familial aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors is a frequent finding, but genetic factors affecting its presentation are still poorly understood. The calpain 10 gene (CAPN10) has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), a complex metabolic disorder with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the CAPN10 gene has been associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in T2DM and in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this work, we have analysed whether the polymorphisms UCSNP44, -43, -19 and -63 are related to several cardiovascular risk factors in the context of MS. Molecular analysis of CAPN10 gene was performed in 899 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey. We have found that CAPN10 gene in our population is mainly associated with two indicators of the presence of insulin resistance: glucose levels two hours after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HOMA values, although cholesterol levels and blood pressure values are also influenced by CAPN10 variants. In addition, the 1221/1121 haplogenotype is under-represented in individuals that fulfil the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) diagnostic criteria for MS. Our results suggest that CAPN10 gene is associated with insulin resistance phenotypes in the Spanish population.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(8):e2953. · 3.53 Impact Factor