[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a veterinary pathogen that has been seldom described as a human agent of disease. Features of this probably under-reported coagulase positive Staphylococcus species are here depicted through the description of a Graft versus Host Disease-related wound infection caused by a multidrug-resistant strain.
Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes is dominating group of resident bacteria in skin biocenosis. These bacteria participate in autosterilisation of skin with the process of decomposition of triglycerides into free fatty acids and by keeping the pH of skin on the level 5.5. When the process goes out of control the excess of fatty acids in sebaceous glands leads to necrosis and inflammation. Apart of the presence on the skin P acnes also are present in mucous membranes of intestinal tract, eyes, internal ears channels, and in upper respiratory tracts. Traditionally they are regarded as anaerobes, but they tolerate oxygen atmosphere and are resistant to phagocytosis, surviving even in macrophages. These bacteria produce a number of enzymes and proinflammatory factors activating monocytes, stimulating mitogenic activity of lymphocytes T. According to common opinion they are responsible for disease acne vulgaris, but there are also researchers claiming their low pathogenicity. The list of the P acnes related diseases is not short, some of these diseases may be facilitated by predisposing factors as surgery interventions, diagnostic, or cosmetic procedures. The aim of the study was to compare standard biochemical analysis of P acnes strains to genotypic typing basing on the results from MP-PCR analyses. Relations of hemolysis activity to biochemical types or genetic types were also analysed.
The analysis of 66 P acnes strains isolated from skin lesions of patients with acne vulgaris was performed. A collection of the strains was analysed biochemically according to Pulverer, Sourek and Hoffler method modified by Kasprowicz, and typed genetically by MP-PCR method. Relations of biochemical and genetic types to beta-hemolysis of strains were studied.
Dominating biochemical type was type number I grouping 79% of all isolates, and dominant genotype was A which was detected in 75% of all collected strains. Beta-hemolysis was a feature present in 34% of strains, more frequently in type I (40%) than in type II (12%). beta-hemolysis was present only in A-genotype strains, but A-genotype by itself does not determine that reaction: 53% of A-genotype strains does not exhibit beta-hemolysis. All type I strains represent A-genotype. Type II was genotypicaly differentiated: all genotypes A, A', B, and C were present.
The results obtained show genotypic heterogenity of P acnes strains and relations to biochemical types. Hemolysis was detected independently to biotype or genotype representation. The results confirm biochemical and genetic heterogenities of P acnes, but the observations also indicate necessity of further microbiological-molecular investigation of that bacteria group using other molecular techniques to the study.
Medycyna doświadczalna i mikrobiologia 01/2012; 64(3):203-10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the staphylococcal colonization pattern in healthy and diseased dogs, living in two particular environments, a number of microbiological samples were taken. Overall, twenty dogs, either healthy or with infected skin lesions, were examined. In each case bacterial swabs were collected from the nasal mucosa, ear, perineum, lumbo-sacralis triangle, and from the infection sites if such were present. A total number of 104 isolates representing different staphylococcal species were isolated and identified using routine biochemical methods applied in diagnostic laboratories. Among 17 isolated staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus intermedius was the most common species isolated from both healthy or diseased dogs living either in animal shelter or household environments. The pattern of Staphylococcus sp. colonization differs considerably for animals living in the two tested habitats. In particular, S. aureus MRSA and MSSA isolates were detected only in infected skin lesion samples from animals that dwelled in the animal shelter. As could be expected, S. intermedius was found to be a predominant causative agent in canine skin infections. In our study, we demonstrated that S. intermedius in its carrier-state, inhabits mainly the mucosal membrane of the nasal vestibule. It was also found in the samples taken from the skin, the lumbo-sacralis triangle and perineum, but was rarely isolated from the ears.
Polish journal of microbiology / Polskie Towarzystwo Mikrobiologów = The Polish Society of Microbiologists 01/2011; 60(1):19-26. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported a bacterial infection in a dog with progressive dysplasia of the hips. Orthopedic surgery was performed. Seven weeks prior to the surgery, the patient was bitten by another dog. The postimplantation wound exuded for four days after the surgery. Microbiological analysis performed by standard identification techniques showed the presence of Staphylococcus intermedius, but an additional molecular analysis indicated S. pseudintermedius. This was followed by an evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility of the strain which showed cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doksycycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin resistance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for selected antibiotics were reported. Resistance for cefoxitin indicates that methicillin resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains were present in individual macroorganisms, but they can expand and persist the colonization of other hosts.
Polish journal of microbiology / Polskie Towarzystwo Mikrobiologów = The Polish Society of Microbiologists 01/2010; 59(2):133-5. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates is a necessary procedure for monitoring the transmission of S. aureus among carriers and in epidemiology. Evaluation of the range of relationship among isolates rely on epidemiological markers and is possible because of the clonal character of S. aureus species. Effective typing shows the scheme of transmission of infection in a selected area, enables identifying the reservoir of the microorganism, and may enhance effective eradication. A set of typing methods for use in analyses of epidemiological correlations and the identification of S. aureus isolates is presented. The following methods of typing are described: biotyping, serotyping, antibiogram, protein electrophoresis, cell protein profiles (proteom), immunoblotting, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), zymotyping, and standard species identification of S. aureus in the diagnostic laboratory. Phenotyping methods for S. aureus isolates used in the past and today in epidemiological investigations and in analyses of correlations among S. aureus isolates are presented in this review. The presented methods use morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and chemical structures of the bacteria as criteria for typing. The precision of these standard methods is not always satisfactory as S. aureus strains with atypical biochemical characters have evolved recently. Therefore it is essential to introduce additional typing procedures using molecular biology methods without neglecting phenotypic methods.
Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 02/2008; 62:322-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine (TauBr) are the main haloamines produced by activated neutrophils. TauCl exerts both anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. Clinical studies showed that TauCl may be useful as an antimicrobial agent in the local treatment of infections. Much less is known about TauBr. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Propionibacterium acnes (PA) has a role in the inflammation of acne. Available topical therapies include antimicrobial agents which reduce total PA numbers and anti-inflammatory agents which suppress activity of the cells present in acne inflammatory lesions. In this study the bactericidal activities of TauBr and TauCl against PA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), as a control strain, were investigated. Moreover, the influence of these haloamines on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activated neutrophils was also tested.
TauBr and TauCl were prepared by reaction of taurine with HOBr and HOCl, respectively. The reaction was monitored by UV absorption spectra. The bactericidal activities of TauBr and TauCl were determined by the pourplate method. The generation of ROS by neutrophils was determined by luminol chemiluminescence assay.
In our experimental set-up, TauBr showed stronger antibacterial activity than TauCl. Interestingly, PA was significantly more susceptible to TauBr than SE was. Moreover, TauBr at non-cytotoxic concentrations significantly reduced ROS generation by neutrophils.
Since PA is considered to be an etiological agent in acne and ROS are closely correlated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, the reported data suggest that TauBr may be a good candidate for the topical therapy for acne vulgaris.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes is a component of physiological flora of human skin. It colonizes the outlets of sebaceous glands and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease. It is found in more or less exacerbated form in approximately 85% of adolescent population. The main purpose of the research was to confirm the hypothesis of Propionibacterium bacteria participation in the aetiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The researches have proved the presence of Propionibacterium acnes on the surface of the skin both of people with acne-related changes and these with whom such changes were not found. Statistically significant differences were found in the number of P. acnes bacteria per 1 square centimeter of healthy and disease-affected skin as well as in the diversity of biochemical types. The highest number of P. acnes bacteria have been found in fresh changes with visible symptoms of inflammation. In order to confirm the hypothesis of the participation of Propionibacterium bacteria in the aetiopathogenesis of acne, a detailed phenotypical analysis of isolated P. acnes strains have been conducted. Type, biotype, resistance pattern, proteolytic and lipolytic properties have been determined.
Medycyna doświadczalna i mikrobiologia 02/2004; 56(1):79-92.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various 5-chloroarylidene-2-amino substituted derivatives of imidazoline-4-one were synthesized and evaluated for their activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other type strains of bacteria and fungi. 2-Chloro- and 2,4-dichlorobenzylidene substituted hydantoins exhibited antimycobacterial effect. The most potent compounds 3i, 3j, 3o, 3q and 3s were classified for further tests. The antimitotic effect of the investigated hydantoins was also examined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes (PA) and Staphyloccocus epidermidis (SE) are two major bacterial strains isolated from acne lesions. Nevertheless, only PA seems to be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Evidence for this, however, remains indirect and the precise role of PA in inflammatory acne is still a matter for conjecture. The aim of this study was to compare some pro-inflammatory and adjuvant properties of PA and SE.
To determine some of the pathogenic, immunostimulatory, and pro-inflammatory proper of PA and SE, two experimental models of inflammation were used. In vivo; chronic inflammation was induced by intradermal injection of living bacteria into the ear. In vitro; peritoneal macrophages elicited by the bacteria were examined for their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines.
PA, but not SE, evoked mild local inflammation of infected ears. Macrophages elicited with PA produced more tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin IL-12 than those induced with SE, while SE was a stronger inducer of IL-10 production. Both bacteria equally induced the generation of NO and ROS. In contrast, only PA showed adjuvant proper-ties.
The results of these studies indicate that SE, in contrast to PA, does not exert pro-inflammatory properties. Thus it is unlikely that SE may be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne vulgaris.
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 53(1):79-85. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taurine bromamine (TauBr), the product of taurine and hypobromous acid (HOBr), exerts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Recently we have shown that Propionibacterium acnes, a potential pathogenic agent of acne, is extremely sensitive to TauBr. As topical antibiotics are associated with the emergence of resistant bacteria, TauBr seems to be a good candidate for topical therapy for acne vulgaris. In our double blind investigation, the efficacy and safety of 3.5 mM TauBr cream was evaluated. 1% Clindamycin gel (Clindacin T), one of the most common topical agents in the treatment of acne vulgaris, was used as a control. Forty patients with mild to moderate inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were randomly treated with either TauBr or clindamycin for 6 weeks, twice-a-day. More than 80% of the patients markedly improved with both treatments, without any adverse effects observed. Both TauBr and clindamycin produced a significant reduction in inflammatory skin lesion counts (papules/ pustules). After 6 weeks, comparable reductions of acne lesions, 65% and 68%, were observed in the TauBr and clindamycin groups, respectively. In conclusion, these data support our concept that TauBr can be used as a topical agent in the treatment of acne vulgaris, especially in patients who have already developed antibiotic resistance.
European journal of dermatology: EJD 18(4):433-9. · 1.76 Impact Factor