Jeffrey D Morenoff

Concordia University–Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (40)110.21 Total impact

  • Jeffrey D Morenoff, David J Harding
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    ABSTRACT: Since the mid-1970s the United States has experienced an enormous rise in incarceration and accompanying increases in returning prisoners and in post-release community correctional supervision. Poor urban communities are disproportionately impacted by these phenomena. This review focuses on two complementary questions regarding incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities:(1) whether and how mass incarceration has affected the social and economic structure of American communities, and (2) how residential neighborhoods affect the social and economic reintegration of returning prisoners. These two questions can be seen as part of a dynamic process involving a pernicious "feedback" loop, in which mass incarceration undermines the structure and social organization of some communities, thus creating more criminogenic environments for returning prisoners and further diminishing their prospects for successful reentry and reintegration.
    Annual Review of Sociology 07/2014; 40:411-429. · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Jessica J. B. Wyse, David J. Harding, Jeffrey D. Morenoff
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    ABSTRACT: In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that nonmarital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this article extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction.
    Sociological Forum 06/2014; 29(2). · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Former prisoners are at high risk of economic insecurity due to the challenges they face in finding employment and to the difficulties of securing and maintaining public assistance while incarcerated. This study examines the processes through which former prisoners attain economic security, examining how they meet basic material needs and achieve upward mobility over time. It draws on unique qualitative data from in-depth, unstructured interviews with a sample of former prisoners followed over a two- to three-year period to assess how subjects draw upon a combination of employment, social supports, and public benefits to make ends meet. Findings reveal considerable struggle among our subjects to meet even minimal needs for shelter and food, although economic security and stability could be attained when employment or public benefits were coupled with familial social support. Sustained economic security was rarely achieved absent either strong social support or access to long-term public benefits. However, a select few were able to leverage material support and social networks into trajectories of upward mobility and economic independence. Policy implications are discussed.
    Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, research has assessed the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic factors and individual health. However, existing research is based almost exclusively on cross-sectional data, ignoring the complexity in health transitions that may be shaped by long term residential exposures. We address these limitations by specifying distinct health transitions over multiple waves of a 15 year study of American adults. We focus on transitions between a hierarchy of health states, (free from health problems, onset of health problems, and death), not just gradients in a single health indicator over time, and use a cumulative measure of exposure to neighborhoods over adulthood. We find that cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage has significant effects on functional decline and mortality. Research ignoring a persons' history of exposure to residential contexts over the life course runs the risk of underestimating the role of neighborhood disadvantage on health.
    Research on Aging 11/2013; 36(1):115-142. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We investigated the association between anticipatory stress, also known as racism-related vigilance, and hypertension prevalence in Black, Hispanic, and White adults. Methods. We used data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a population-representative sample of adults (n = 3105) surveyed in 2001 to 2003, to regress hypertension prevalence on the interaction between race/ethnicity and vigilance in logit models. Results. Blacks reported the highest vigilance levels. For Blacks, each unit increase in vigilance (range = 0-12) was associated with a 4% increase in the odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 1.09). Hispanics showed a similar but nonsignificant association (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.12), and Whites showed no association (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.87, 1.03). Conclusions. Vigilance may represent an important and unique source of chronic stress that contributes to the well-documented higher prevalence of hypertension among Blacks than Whites; it is a possible contributor to hypertension among Hispanics but not Whites. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 14, 2013: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301395).
    American Journal of Public Health 11/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for nativity differences in Latino health may be the strength of social ties among immigrants. We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. We employed OLS regressions to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regressions, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants' length of time in the U.S. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant social ties advantage compared to immigrantsregardless of length of time in the U.S.for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. At the individual level, our findings challenge the expectation that Latino immigrants would have higher levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of contexts that promote the development of social ties.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts, may be the strength of social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods. We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study's Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed-effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition and our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants' length of time in the USA. Results. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their US-born counterparts for all the outcomes, except informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for US-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. US-born Latinos maintained a significant social ties advantage over immigrants - regardless of length of time in the USA - for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion. At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their US-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes.
    Ethnicity and Health 08/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    David J Harding, Jeffrey D Morenoff, Claire W Herbert
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    ABSTRACT: Poor urban communities experience high rates of incarceration and prisoner reentry. This paper examines the residences where former prisoners live after prison, focusing on returns to pre-prison social environments, residential mobility, and the role of intermediate sanctions. Drawing on a unique dataset that follows a cohort of Michigan parolees released in 2003 over time using administrative records, we examine returns to pre-prison environments, both immediately after prison and in the months and years after release. We then investigate the role of intermediate sanctions - punishments for parole violations that are less severe than returning to prison - in residential mobility among parolees. Our results show low rates of return to former neighborhoods and high rates of residential mobility after prison, a significant portion of which is driven by intermediate sanctions resulting from criminal justice system supervision. These results suggest that, through parole supervision, the criminal justice system generates significant residential mobility.
    The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 05/2013; 647(1):214-236. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.
    AIDS and Behavior 02/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Blacks have higher hypertension rates than whites; the reasons for these disparities are unknown. Differential vulnerability, through which stress alters vulnerability to the effects of environmental hazards, is an emergent notion in environmental health that may contribute to these disparities. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether blacks and whites exhibit different associations between blood lead (BL) and blood pressure (BP) and whether depressive symptoms may play a role. METHODS: Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we regressed BP on the three-way interaction among race/ethnicity, BL, and depressive symptoms in blacks and whites aged 20+ years. RESULTS: Blacks but not whites showed a positive association between BL and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The disparity in this association between blacks and whites appeared to be specific to the high depressive symptoms group. In the low depressive symptoms group, there was no significant black-white disparity (βinteraction=0.9 mmHg; 95%CI: -0.9, 2.7). However, of those with high depressive symptoms, blacks and whites had 5.6 mmHg (95%CI: 2.0, 9.2) and 1.2 mmHg (95%CI: -0.5, 2.9) increases in SBP, respectively, in association with each doubling of BL (βinteraction=4.4 mmHg; 95%CI: 0.5, 8.3). The pattern of results was similar for diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that depressive symptoms may contribute to the black-white disparity in the association between BL and BP. Depressive symptoms may result, in part, from psychosocial stress. Our results support the notion that stress increases vulnerability to the health effects of environmental hazards, and suggest that stress-related vulnerability may be an important determinant of racial/ethnic health disparities.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2012; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We explored the notion that social disadvantage increases vulnerability to the health effects of environmental hazards. Specifically, we examined (1) whether race modifies the association between blood lead and blood pressure and (2) whether socioeconomic status (SES) plays a role in this modifying effect. Methods. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2008) and linear regression, we estimated the association between blood lead and blood pressure. Using interactions among race, SES, and lead, we estimated this association by levels of social disadvantage. Results. Black men and women showed a 2.8 (P < .001) and 4.0 (P < .001) millimeters mercury increase in SBP, respectively, for each doubling of blood lead. White adults showed no association. This lead-SBP association exhibited by Blacks was primarily isolated to Blacks of low SES. For example, poor but not nonpoor Black men showed a 4.8 millimeters mercury (P < .001) increase in SBP for each doubling of blood lead. Conclusions. Our results suggest that social disadvantage exacerbates the deleterious health effects of lead. Our work provides evidence that social and environmental factors must be addressed together to eliminate health disparities. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 18, 2012: e1-e8. doi:10. 2105/AJPH.2012.300774).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2012; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get "under the skin" remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 05/2012; 75(6):1038-47. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neighborhood-level interventions provide an opportunity to better understand the impact that neighborhoods have on health. In 2004, municipal authorities in Medellín, Colombia, built a public transit system to connect isolated low-income neighborhoods to the city's urban center. Transit-oriented development was accompanied by municipal investment in neighborhood infrastructure. In this study, the authors examined the effects of this exogenous change in the built environment on violence. Neighborhood conditions and violence were assessed in intervention neighborhoods (n = 25) and comparable control neighborhoods (n = 23) before (2003) and after (2008) completion of the transit project, using a longitudinal sample of 466 residents and homicide records from the Office of the Public Prosecutor. Baseline differences between these groups were of the same magnitude as random assignment of neighborhoods would have generated, and differences that remained after propensity score matching closely resembled imbalances produced by paired randomization. Permutation tests were used to estimate differential change in the outcomes of interest in intervention neighborhoods versus control neighborhoods. The decline in the homicide rate was 66% greater in intervention neighborhoods than in control neighborhoods (rate ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.61), and resident reports of violence decreased 75% more in intervention neighborhoods (odds ratio = 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.11, 0.67). These results show that interventions in neighborhood physical infrastructure can reduce violence.
    American journal of epidemiology 04/2012; 175(10):1045-53. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Chicago, Illinois and Detroit, Michigan to that of the general United States population (aged > or = 25 years) for the period 2001-2003. We examined whether and how much 1) urban populations have less favorable hypertension-related outcomes and 2) the rates of racial/ethnic minorities lag behind those of Whites in order to determine if the national data understate the magnitude of hypertension-related outcomes and racial/ethnic disparities in two large cities in the Midwestern region of the United States and perhaps others. Unstandardized and standardized hypertension-related outcome rates were estimated. The hypertension-related outcomes among Chicago and Detroit residents lag behind the United States by 8%-14% and 10%-18% points, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights the complexity of the racial/ethnic differences in hypertension-related outcomes, where within each population, Blacks were more likely to have hypertension and to be aware of their hypertension status than Whites, and no less likely to be treated. Conversely, Hispanics were less likely to have hypertension and also less likely to be aware of their status when they do have hypertension when compared to Whites. At a time when efficacious treatment for hypertension has been available for more than 50 years, continued racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension is among public health's greatest challenges. To achieve the proposed national hypertension-related goals, future policies must consider the social context of hypertension within central cities of urban areas.
    Ethnicity & disease 01/2012; 22(4):391-7. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    Katherine E King, Jeffrey D Morenoff, James S House
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the role of neighborhood context in the accumulation of biological risk factors and racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Data came from face-to-face interviews and blood sample collection on a probability sample of adults (n = 549) in the 2002 Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Following the approach of prior studies, we constructed an index of cumulative biological risk (CBR) by counting how many of eight biomarkers exceeded clinically defined criteria for "high risk": systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, hemoglobin A(1c), C-reactive protein, waist size, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data are presented as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) based on generalized linear models with a Poisson link function and population-average estimates with robust standard errors. Non-Hispanic blacks (n = 200), Hispanics (n = 149), and people with low (n = 134) and moderate (n = 275) level of education had significantly higher numbers of biological risks than their respective reference groups (IRR = 1.48, 1.59, 1.62, and 1.48, respectively, with p < .01). Black-white (p < .001) and Hispanic-white (p < .003) disparities in CBR remained significant after adjusting for individual-level socioeconomic position and behavioral factors, whereas individual-level controls substantially diminished the low/high (p < .069) and moderate/high (p < .042) educational differences. Estimating "within-neighborhood" disparities to adjust for neighborhood context fully explained the black-white gap in CBR (p < .542) and reduced the Hispanic-white gap to borderline significance (p < .053). Neighborhood affluence predicted lower levels of CBR (IRR = 0.82, p < .027), but neighborhood disadvantage was not significantly associated with CBR (IRR = 1.00, p < .948). Neighborhood environments seem to play a pivotal role in the accumulation of biological risk and disparities therein.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 08/2011; 73(7):572-9. · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Existing research has found a positive association between cognitive function and residence in a socioeconomically advantaged neighbourhood. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been empirically investigated. To test the hypothesis that neighbourhood socioeconomic structure is related to cognitive function partly through the availability of neighbourhood physical and social resources (eg, recreational facilities, community centres and libraries), which promote cognitively beneficial activities such as exercise and social integration. Using data from a representative survey of community-dwelling adults in the city of Chicago (N=949 adults aged 50 and over), cognitive function was assessed with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status instrument. Neighbourhood socioeconomic structure was derived from US census indicators. Systematic social observation was used to directly document the presence of neighbourhood resources on the blocks surrounding each respondent's residence. Using multilevel linear regression, residence in an affluent neighbourhood had a net positive effect on cognitive function after adjusting for individual risk factors. For white respondents, the effects of neighbourhood affluence operated in part through a greater density of institutional resources (eg, community centres) that promote cognitively beneficial activities such as physical activity. Stable residence in an elderly neighbourhood was associated with higher cognitive function (potentially due to greater opportunities for social interaction with peers), but long term exposure to such neighbourhoods was negatively related to cognition. Neighbourhood resources have the potential to promote 'cognitive reserve' for adults who are ageing in place in an urban setting.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 04/2011; 66(8):730-6. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the conventional Spanish translation of the self-rated health survey question helps explain why Latinos' self-rated health is worse than Whites' despite more objective health measures showing them to be as healthy as or healthier than are Whites. We analyzed the relationship between language of interview and self-rated health in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (2001-2003) and the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Being interviewed in Spanish was associated with significantly higher odds of rating health as fair or poor in both data sets. Moreover, adjusting for language of interview substantially reduced the gap between Whites and Latinos. Spanish-language interviewees were more likely to rate their health as fair (regular in Spanish) than as any other choice, and this preference was strongest when compared with categories representing better health (good, very good, and excellent). Our findings suggest that translation of the English word "fair" to regular induces Spanish-language respondents to report poorer health than they would in English. Self-rated health should be interpreted with caution, especially in racial/ethnic comparisons, and research should explore alternative translations.
    American Journal of Public Health 12/2010; 101(7):1306-13. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, the impact of community characteristics on the physical and mental health of residents has emerged as an important frontier of research in population health and health disparities. However, the development and evaluation of measures to capture community characteristics is still at a relatively early stage. The purpose of this work was to assess the reliability of a neighborhood audit instrument administered in the city of Chicago using Google Street View by comparing these "virtual" data to those obtained from an identical instrument administered "in-person". We find that a virtual audit instrument can provide reliable indicators of recreational facilities, the local food environment, and general land use. However, caution should be exercised when trying to gather more finely detailed observations. Using the internet to conduct a neighborhood audit has the potential to significantly reduce the costs of collecting data objectively and unobtrusively.
    Health & Place 11/2010; 16(6):1224-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    Christina Mair, Ana V Diez Roux, Jeffrey D Morenoff
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest in understanding the effects of specific neighborhood conditions on psychological wellbeing. We examined cross-sectional associations of neighborhood stressors (perceived violence and disorder, physical decay and disorder) and social support (residential stability, family structure, social cohesion, reciprocal exchange, social ties) with depressive symptoms in 3105 adults in Chicago. Subjects lived in 343 neighborhood clusters, areas of about two census tracts. Depressive symptoms were assessed with an 11-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Neighborhood variables were measured using rater assessments, surveys, and the US census. We used two-level gender-stratified models to estimate associations of neighborhood conditions with depressive symptoms after adjusting for individual-level covariates. Most social support variables were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in women but not men, while stressors were moderately associated with higher levels in all subjects. Adjusting concurrently for stressors and social support did not change results. This suggests both neighborhood stressors and social support are associated with depressive symptoms.
    Health & Place 04/2010; 16(5):811-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studying the relation between the residential environment and health requires valid, reliable, and cost-effective methods to collect data on residential environments. This 2002 study compared the level of agreement between measures of the presence of neighborhood businesses drawn from 2 common sources of data used for research on the built environment and health: listings of businesses from commercial databases and direct observations of city blocks by raters. Kappa statistics were calculated for 6 types of businesses-drugstores, liquor stores, bars, convenience stores, restaurants, and grocers-located on 1,663 city blocks in Chicago, Illinois. Logistic regressions estimated whether disagreement between measurement methods was systematically correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Levels of agreement between the 2 sources were relatively high, with significant (P < 0.001) kappa statistics for each business type ranging from 0.32 to 0.70. Most business types were more likely to be reported by direct observations than in the commercial database listings. Disagreement between the 2 sources was not significantly correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Results suggest that researchers should have reasonable confidence using whichever method (or combination of methods) is most cost-effective and theoretically appropriate for their research design.
    American journal of epidemiology 03/2010; 171(5):609-17. · 5.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
110.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Health Behavior and Health Education
      • • Department of Health Management & Policy
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Population Studies Center
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Sociology
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Duke University
      • Department of Sociology
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Center for Demography and Ecology
      Madison, MS, United States