[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood Cancer Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access online journal publishing pre-clinical and clinical work in the field of hematology with ramifications into translational biology research down to new therapies
Blood Cancer Journal 08/2015; 5(8):e344. DOI:10.1038/bcj.2015.70 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) with long-term outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors has not been well described. We studied the association of SES with the outcomes of 283 consecutive allogeneic HCT recipients transplanted between 2003 and 2012 who had survived for at least 1 year in remission. Median annual household income was estimated using Census tract data and from ZIP code of residence. SES categories were determined by recursive partitioning analysis (low SES (<$51 000/year), N=203; high SES (⩾$51 000/year), N=80). In multivariable analyses, low SES patients had higher risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, P=0.012) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR 2.22, P=0.028), but similar risks of relapse mortality (HR 1.01, P=0.97) compared with high SES patients. A trend toward better survival and lower NRM for high SES patients with no chronic GVHD was observed; low SES patients without GVHD had similar survival as patients with chronic GVHD. In allogeneic HCT survivors who survive in remission for at least 1 year, SES is associated with long-term survival that is primarily mediated through higher risks of NRM. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms of health-care disparities and interventions to mitigate them.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.166.
Bone marrow transplantation 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.166 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Whether pre-HCT QOL adds prognostic information to patient and disease related risk factors has not been well described. We investigated the association of pre-HCT QOL with relapse, non-relapse mortality (NRM), and overall mortality after allogeneic HCT. From 2003 to 2012, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant Scale instrument was administered before transplantation to 409 first allogeneic HCT recipients. We examined the association of the three outcomes with (1) individual QOL domains, (2) trial outcome index (TOI) and (3) total score. In multivariable models with individual domains, functional well-being (hazard ratio (HR) 0.95, P=0.025) and additional concerns (HR 1.39, P=0.002) were associated with reduced risk of relapse, no domain was associated with NRM, and better physical well-being was associated with reduced risk of overall mortality (HR 0.97, P=0.04). TOI was not associated with relapse or NRM but was associated with reduced risk of overall mortality (HR 0.93, P=0.05). Total score was not associated with any of the three outcomes. HCT-comorbidity index score was prognostic for greater risk of relapse and mortality but not NRM. QOL assessments, particularly physical functioning and functional well-being, may provide independent prognostic information beyond standard clinical measures in allogeneic HCT recipients.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 1 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.122.
Bone marrow transplantation 06/2015; 50(9). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.122 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of race on outcome has been identified in a number of cancers, with African Americans having poorer survival compared with whites. We conducted a study to investigate the association of race with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes. We identified 789 patients (58 African Americans and 731 whites) who underwent allogeneic HCT for hematologic disorders. There were no significant differences between African Americans and white patients in gender, performance status or comorbidity score. However, African Americans were younger than whites (median 40 years versus 47 years, P=0.003) and were more likely to be in remission at HCT (74% versus 57%, P=0.011), to have an HLA-mismatched donor (36% versus 14%, P<0.001), to have positive donor or recipient CMV serostatus (90% versus 69%, P<0.001) and to have received a cord blood transplant (21% versus 6%, P<0.001). In univariate analysis, African Americans had worse overall survival (OS) (HR 1.41, P=0.026) compared with whites, with no significant differences in acute or chronic GvHD, non-CMV infection or relapse. However, after adjusting for several transplant and disease-related factors in multivariate analysis, the OS difference between African Americans and whites became nonsignificant (HR 1.27, P=0.18). These results suggest that race in and of itself does not lead to worse survival post HCT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 23 March 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.44.
Bone marrow transplantation 03/2015; 50(6). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.44 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) despite current prophylaxis. Methotrexate (MTX) with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) is the current standard, however, has several toxicities. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is frequently used in reduced-intensity HCT, but data in myeloablative transplants is limited. We thus retrospectively identified 241 patients who underwent myeloablative HCT from an HLA-identical sibling donor; 174 patients received cyclosporine (CSA) + MMF and 67 received CSA +MTX. Patients receiving MMF+CSA had rapid neutrophil (median 11 versus 19 days with MTX+CSA), and platelet recovery (median 19 versus 25 days), lower incidence of severe mucositis by OMAS (19% versus 53%), and shorter length of hospital stay (median 25 versus 36 days) (p<0.001 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences in incidence of grade 2-4 (MMF+CSA 37% versus MTX+CSA 39%) or 3-4 acute GVHD (17% versus 12%), chronic GVHD (46% versus 56%), relapse (28% versus 27%), non-relapse mortality (20% versus 27%) or overall survival (47% versus 44%) (p=NS for all). However, in multivariable analysis, the use of MMF+CSA was associated with an increased risk of severe grade 3-4 acute GVHD (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.2-7.15, p=0.019). There were no differences between the two regimens in multivariable analyses for other survival outcomes. This analysis demonstrates that the use of MMF in myeloablative sibling donor transplantation is well tolerated. However, there may be an increased risk of severe GVHD with MMF+CSA compared to MTX+CSA. Further studies evaluating optimal dosing strategies are needed.
American Journal of Hematology 02/2015; 90(2). DOI:10.1002/ajh.23882 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Mutational inactivation in cancer of key apoptotic pathway components, such as TP53/p53, undermines cytotoxic therapies that aim to increase apoptosis. Accordingly, TP53 mutations are reproducibly associated with poor treatment outcomes. Moreover, cytotoxic treatments destroy normal stem cells with intact p53 systems, a problem especially for myeloid neoplasms, as these cells reverse the low blood counts that cause morbidity and death. Preclinical studies suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor decitabine produce p53-independent cell-cycle exits by reversing aberrant epigenetic repression of proliferation-terminating (MYC-antagonizing) differentiation genes in cancer cells.
METHODS. In this clinical trial, patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 25) received reduced decitabine dosages (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/day compared with the FDA-approved 20–45 mg/m2/day dosage, a 75%–90% reduction) to avoid cytotoxicity. These well-tolerated doses were frequently administered 1–3 days per week, instead of pulse cycled for 3 to 5 days over a 4- to 6-week period, to increase the probability that cancer S-phase entries would coincide with drug exposure, which is required for S-phase–dependent DNMT1 depletion.
RESULTS. The median subject age was 73 years (range, 46–85 years), 9 subjects had relapsed disease or were refractory to 5-azacytidine and/or lenalidomide, and 3 had received intensive chemoradiation to treat other cancers. Adverse events were related to neutropenia present at baseline: neutropenic fever (13 of 25 subjects) and septic death (1 of 25 subjects). Blood count improvements meeting the International Working Group criteria for response occurred in 11 of 25 (44%) subjects and were highly durable. Treatment-induced freedom from transfusion lasted a median of 1,025 days (range, 186–1,152 days; 3 ongoing), and 20% of subjects were treated for more than 3 years. Mutations and/or deletions of key apoptosis genes were frequent (present in 55% of responders and in 36% of nonresponders). Noncytotoxic DNMT1 depletion was confirmed by serial BM γ-H2AX (DNA repair/damage marker) and DNMT1 analyses. MYC master oncoprotein levels were markedly decreased.
CONCLUSION. Decitabine regimens can be redesigned to minimize cytotoxicity and increase exposure time for DNMT1 depletion, to safely and effectively circumvent mutational apoptotic defects.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01165996.
FUNDING. NIH (R01CA138858, CA043703); Department of Defense (PR081404); Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) (UL1RR024989); and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (Translational Research Program).
The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2015; DOI:10.1172/JCI78789 · 13.22 Impact Factor