M C Hung

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (129)791.57 Total impact

  • EJC Supplements 11/2006; 4(12):56-56. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(06)70182-3 · 9.39 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 11/2006; 4(12):179-179. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(06)70596-1 · 9.39 Impact Factor
  • Mickey C-T Hu, M C Hung
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    ABSTRACT: IkappaB kinase plays a central role in regulating NF-kappaB, is a key signaling molecule involved in controlling cell proliferation, survival, antiapoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Alternative pathways can also regulate NF-kappaB in an IkappaB kinase-independent manner. Emerging evidence indicates that IKK phosphorylates and inactivates forkhead box, class O (FOXO)-3a and promotes cell growth and tumorigenesis. Moreover, IKK and NF-kappaB play an important role in linking inflammation and tumorigenesis, and facilitate tumor maintenance and invasion. Thus, IKK and NF-kappaB are promising targets for drug discovery, and agents targeting the IKK/NF-kappaB and FOXO pathways may become therapeutic intervention for those patients with IKK/NF-kappaB-overexpressing cancers in the future.
    Future Oncology 03/2005; 1(1):67-78. DOI:10.1517/14796694.1.1.67 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 09/2004; 2(8):180. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(04)80602-5 · 9.39 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 09/2004; 2(8):125-125. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(04)80426-9 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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    E M Tsai, S C Wang, J N Lee, M C Hung
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    ABSTRACT: It has been a common belief that estrogen regulates cellular responses through binding to its receptor, the estrogen receptor (ER). In the nucleus, estrogen modulates the expression of estrogen-responsive genes through the action of the ER at the transcriptional level. In the cytoplasm, the ER-dependent signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in the activation of Akt and the downstream molecules. It is not clear, however, whether estrogen can modulate cytoplasmic signaling in an ER-independent manner. Human breast cancer cell lines without detectable ERs such as MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 were treated in estrogen-depleted medium followed by a brief treatment with estrogen. The activation of Akt was evaluated by a phosphoserine antibody. Our results showed that estrogen stimulated Akt activation, as indicated by phosphorylation at Ser(473) of the oncoprotein, in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Activation of Akt by estrogen in these cells was time and dose dependent and could be blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and Src kinase but not by estrogen antagonists. Our results provide evidence as well as the mechanism of the receptor-independent function of estrogen, in which the antiapoptotic factor Akt is activated.
    Cancer Research 01/2002; 61(23):8390-2. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the HER2/neu oncogene (also known as c-erbB2) is a frequent molecular event in multiple human cancers, including breast and ovarian cancer. Patients with cancer that overexpress HER2/neu are associated with unfavorable prognosis, shorter relapse time, and low survival rate. Treatments that target HER2/neu expression in cancer cells have been shown to be useful strategies to significantly reverse the malignancy induced by HER2/neu overexpression. The humanized anti-HER2/neu antibody, trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA) has proven to be effective in clinical trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer. In addition, tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as emodin can also target the HER2/neu oncogenic activity. Emodin treatment inhibits HER2/neu tyrosine kinase activity and preferentially suppresses the transformation of HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Emodin also sensitizes HER2/neu-overexpressing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and paclitaxel. Alternatively, HER2/neu overexpression can be repressed by attenuating the promoter activity of the HER2/neu gene. We have identified a number of potent transcriptional regulators, including the ets family member PEA3 and the adenovirus type 5 E1A, which are able to repress HER2/neu gene expression. Expression of these transcriptional regulators resulted in downregulation of HER2/neu promoter activity and reversed the transformed phenotype of the cancer cells in vitro. In vivo studies show that these HER2/neu repressors can act therapeutically as tumor suppressor genes for tumors that overexpress HER2/neu. These preclinical studies clearly indicate that transcriptional repressors that downregulate HER2/neu can be effective regimens for cancer treatment in a gene therapy format. More importantly, the tumor-free survival rate of treated animals is dramatically increased under nontoxic doses compared with untreated animals. A phase I clinical trial using E1A-liposome in breast and ovarian patients has recently been completed. Following treatment, we observed downregulation of the HER2/neu protein accompanied by E1A expression in both cancer and noncancer cells. Numbers of tumor cells in the pleural effusion or ascites were found to be dramatically reduced after treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was strongly induced in the tumor cells. A phase II study has been started to further evaluate therapeutic efficacy and tumor suppression mechanisms of E1A. These studies show the clinical potential of targeting HER2/neu in cancer therapy.
    Seminars in Oncology 01/2002; 28(6 Suppl 18):21-9. DOI:10.1053/sonc.2001.29724 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HER-2/neu amplification or overexpression can make cancer cells resistant to apoptosis and promotes their growth. p53 is crucial in regulating cell growth and apoptosis, and is often mutated or deleted in many types of tumour. Moreover, many tumours with a wild-type gene for p53 do not have normal p53 function, suggesting that some oncogenic signals suppress the function of p53. In this study, we show that HER-2/neu-mediated resistance to DNA-damaging agents requires the activation of Akt, which enhances MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53. Akt physically associates with MDM2 and phosphorylates it at Ser166 and Ser186. Phosphorylation of MDM2 enhances its nuclear localization and its interaction with p300, and inhibits its interaction with p19ARF, thus increasing p53 degradation. Our study indicates that blocking the Akt pathway mediated by HER-2/neu would increase the cytotoxic effect of DNA-damaging drugs in tumour cells with wild-type p53.
    Nature Cell Biology 12/2001; 3(11):973-82. DOI:10.1038/ncb1101-973 · 20.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p202, an IFN-inducible protein, interacts with certain transcriptional activators leading to transcriptional repression. p202 expression has been associated with inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To examine a potential p202-mediated antitumor activity in pancreatic cancer, we used both ectopic and orthotopic xenograft models and demonstrated that p202 expression is associated with multiple antitumor activities that include inhibition of tumor growth, reduced tumorigenicity, prolonged survival, and remarkably, suppression of metastasis and angiogenesis. In vitro invasion assay also showed that p202-expressing pancreatic cancer cells are less invasive than those without p202 expression. That observation was supported by the findings that p202-expressing tumors showed reduced expression of angiogenic markers, such as interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and p202-expressing pancreatic cancer cells have reduced level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, a secreted protease activity important for metastasis. Importantly, we demonstrated a treatment efficacy by using p202/SN2 liposome complex in a nude mice xenograft model, suggesting a feasibility of using the p202/SN2 liposome in future preclinical gene therapy experiments. Together, our results strongly suggest that p202 expression mediates multiple antitumor activities against pancreatic cancer and may provide a scientific basis for developing a p202-based gene therapy in pancreatic cancer treatment.
    Cancer Research 11/2001; 61(19):7142-7. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DOC-2/hDab-2 was identified due to the loss of its expression in primary ovarian cancer cells. It is believed that loss of DOC-2/hDab-2 expression is one of the early events of ovarian malignancy. These results suggest a function of DOC-2/hDab-2 as a tumor suppressor. However, it is not clear how DOC-2/hDab-2 negatively regulates cancer cell growth. In this report, we demonstrate that DOC-2/hDab-2 expression in breast cancer cells resulted in sensitivity to suspension-induced cell death (anoikis). This event was associated with the down-regulation of the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) activity. Since ILK is a key factor in regulating the cellular signaling in responding to the extracellular signals through adhesion molecules like integrins, our results indicate that DOC-2/hDab-2 may prevent tumor growth and invasion by modulating the anti-apoptotic ILK pathway.
    Oncogene 11/2001; 20(47):6960-4. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1204873 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in the protection of cells from apoptosis. We have shown previously that the adenovirus type 5 E1A sensitizes cells to radiation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting NF-kappaB activity. However, the exact mechanism of inhibition is not known. In this study, we compared the activity of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) and the degradation of IkappaBalpha in E1A transfectants and parental human cancer cells after ionizing radiation treatment. We found that radiation-induced IKK activity and IkappaBalpha degradation were inhibited in the E1A transfectants. Recently, Akt has been implicated in NF-kappaB activation. To test whether Akt is regulated by E1A and is involved in radiation-induced NF-kappaB activity, we examined the phosphorylation status of Akt in the E1A transfectants and parental cells and in irradiated cells. The results indicated that radiation induced Akt phosphorylation and that E1A inhibited basal but not radiation-induced Akt phosphorylation. We additionally examined radiation-induced NF-kappaB activity in cells stably transfected with a dominant-negative, inactive Akt and in parental cancer cells treated with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. We found that dominant-negative Akt and wortmannin did not block radiation-induced NF-kappaB activity. Thus, our results suggest that inhibition of IKK activity and IkappaB degradation is the predominant mechanism for E1A-mediated inhibition of radiation-induced NF-kappaB activity and that radiation-induced Akt activation cannot be inhibited by E1A and is likely independent of radiation-induced NF-kappaB activity.
    Cancer Research 11/2001; 61(20):7413-6. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • S C Wang, M C Hung
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the HER2/neu oncogene is a frequent molecular event in multiple human cancers including breast and ovarian cancer. Patients with breast cancer that overexpress HER2/neu have a poor prognosis, shorter relapse time, and low survival rate. In this report, the biologic signaling pathway mediated by HER2/neu tyrosine kinase receptor will be discussed. The mechanisms leading to transformation and tumorigenesis of HER2/neu-overexpressing cells will also be addressed. Treatments that target HER2/neu expression in cancer cells have been shown to be useful strategies to significantly reverse the malignancy induced by HER2/neu overexpression. In this report we will summarize strategies for targeting the HER2/neu gene, including targeting the gene product p185 oncoprotein, or transcriptional downregulation through the oncogene promoter. These fundamental studies, performed by different groups, warrant the clinical potential of targeting HER2/neu in cancer therapy.
    Seminars in Oncology 11/2001; 28(5 Suppl 16):115-24. DOI:10.1053/sonc.2001.28553 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the adenovirus type 5 E1A gene is associated with antitumor activities by transcriptional repression of HER-2/neu and induction of apoptosis. Indeed, E1A gene therapy is known to induce regression of HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast and ovarian cancers in nude mice. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of intracavitary injection of E1A gene complexed with DC-Chol cationic liposome (DCC-E1A) in patients with both HER-2/neu-overexpressing and low HER-2/neu-expressing breast and ovarian cancers in a phase I clinical trial. An E1A gene complexed with DCC-E1A cationic liposome was injected once a week into the thoracic or peritoneal cavity of 18 patients with advanced cancer of the breast (n = 6) or ovary (n = 12). E1A gene expression in tumor cells was detected by immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. This E1A gene expression was accompanied by HER-2/neu downregulation, increased apoptosis, and reduced proliferation. The most common treatment-related toxicities were fever, nausea, vomiting, and/or discomfort at the injection sites. These results argue for the feasibility of intracavitary DCC-E1A administration, provide a clear proof of preclinical concept, and warrant phase II trials to determine the antitumor activity of the E1A gene.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2001; 19(14):3422-33. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HER2/neu, a receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene, promotes mitogenic growth and transformation of cancer cells. We previously identified that its oncogenic signals down-regulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1, which is defined as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor. Here, we applied the human p27 gene as a novel anticancer agent for HER2/neu-overexpressing cells under the control of a tetracycline (tet)-regulated gene expression system. Overexpression of p27 inhibits HER2/neu-activated CDK2 activity, cell proliferation, and transformation. Most significantly for clinical application, p27 expression in HER2/neu-overexpressing cells can be regulated in vivo and reduce the tumor volume in a tumor model. The findings demonstrate the applicability of employing p27 in HER2/neu-associated cancer gene therapy.
    Oncogene 07/2001; 20(28):3695-702. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1204472 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a Phase 1 study to determine the maximal tolerated dose and maximum biologically active dose of the E1A gene delivered by intratumoral injection as a lipid complex with 3 beta[N-(n',n'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol/dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (tgDCC-E1A). The E1A adenovirus gene functions as a tumor inhibitor gene by repressing oncogene transcription; modulating gene expression, resulting in cellular differentiation; and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. E1A also sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide, cisplatin, and taxol. Nine patients with recurrent and unresectable breast cancer and nine patients with head and neck cancer were enrolled. One tumor nodule in each patient was injected with tgDCC-E1A. Safety, tumor response, E1A gene transfer, and down-regulation of HER-2/neu were evaluated. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in the four dose groups (15, 30, 60, and 120 microg DNA/cm of tumor). All patients tolerated the injections, although several experienced pain and bleeding at the injection site. A maximally tolerated dose was not reached in this study. E1A gene transfer was demonstrated in 14 of 15 tumor samples tested, and down-regulation of HER-2/neu was demonstrated in two of the five patients who overexpressed HER-2/neu at baseline. HER-2/neu could not be assessed in other posttreatment tumor samples because of extensive necrosis. In one breast cancer patient, no pathological evidence of tumor was found on biopsy of the treated tumor site at week 12. In 16 patients evaluable for tumor response, 2 had minor responses, 8 had stable disease, and 6 had progressive disease. Gene therapy with an E1A gene:lipid complex appears to be safe and warrants further testing.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2001; 7(5):1237-45. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amplification or overexpression of HER-2/neu in cancer cells confers resistance to apoptosis and promotes cell growth. The cellular localization of p21Cip1/WAF1 has been proposed to be critical either in promoting cell survival or in inhibiting cell growth. Here we show that HER-2/neu-mediated cell growth requires the activation of Akt, which associates with p21Cip1/WAF1 and phosphorylates it at threonine 145, resulting in cytoplasmic localization of p21Cip1/WAF1. Furthermore, blocking the Akt pathway with a dominant-negative Akt mutant restores the nuclear localization and cell-growth-inhibiting activity of p21Cip1/WAF1. Our results indicate that HER-2/neu induces cytoplasmic localization of p21Cip1/WAF1 through activation of Akt to promote cell growth, which may have implications for the oncogenic activity of HER-2/neu and Akt.
    Nature Cell Biology 04/2001; 3(3):245-52. DOI:10.1038/35060032 · 20.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strong expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu in breast cancer has been associated with poor prognosis. Reduced expression of p27(Kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, correlates with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer. In this study, we provide a correlation between these two important prognostic markers in patients with breast cancer. Breast tumor screening using immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation of p27 correlated with HER-2/neu overexpression in studying 11 normal breast tissues and 51 primary breast carcinomas. We found HER-2/neu protein overexpression in 20 (41%) of 49 breast cancers and low p27 protein expression in 47 (92%) of 51 breast cancers. All 20 (100%) of the tumors that overexpressed HER-2/neu had low levels of p27 protein product; this correlation was statistically significant (P = 0.035). Decreasing p27 expression correlated with increasing HER-2/neu activity. Our results suggest that one function of the HER-2/neu product is to downregulate p27 expression in breast cancer. This study may be significant in selecting patients for HER-2/neu antibody therapy in the future. Mol. Carcinog. 30:169--175, 2001.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 03/2001; 30(3):169-75. DOI:10.1002/mc.1025 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A camptothecin (CPT) formulation that can be easily administered, is less toxic, and has greater antitumor effect is needed. In this study, a water-soluble CPT derivative was obtained by direct coupling of CPT to poly(L-glutamic acid) (PG) through the C20(S)-hydroxyl group. CPT was released from the resulting conjugate, PG-CPT, in phosphate-buffered saline with a zero-order kinetics in the initial 50 days. The release rates were 0.623% per day, 1.081% per day, and 1.396% per day at pH 5.3, 7.4, and 9.0, respectively. In vitro, PG-CPT was less potent in inhibiting cell growth than was free CPT in all human tumor cell lines tested. However, PG-CPT showed better antitumor activity and tolerability than did CPT in vivo. When H322 human lung tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice, PG-CPT delayed the growth of these well-established tumors with an absolute growth delay of 32 days when given as 4 doses with 4-day intervals between injections at an equivalent CPT dose of 40 mg/kg. When H322 cells were inoculated intratracheally in nude mice, 5 doses of intravenous injection of PG-CPT at an equivalent CPT dose of 10 mg/kg on days 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 after inoculation significantly prolonged the median survival of treated mice, averaging 1.8-fold that of untreated mice (p=0.01). Increasing the dose of PG-CPT to an equivalent CPT dose of 40 mg/kg per injection administered in 4 doses on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 prolonged the median survival of treated mice by 4-fold (p=0.0008). Significantly, mice with intratracheally inoculated H322 tumors were resistant to both CPT and cisplatin treatments. These studies demonstrated that PG may be used as an effective solubilizing carrier for CPT and that PG-CPT may have potential application in the treatment of lung cancer.
    International Journal of Oncology 03/2001; 18(2):331-6. DOI:10.3892/ijo.18.2.331 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Naoto T. Ueno, Dihua Yu, M C Hung
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    ABSTRACT: In the late 1980s, we have shown that the E1A gene can downregulate HER-2/neu overexpression, thus reversing the tumorigenic and metastatic phenotype. Further, E1A can function as a tumor suppressor gene by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting metastasis. At The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, we have been investigating the adenovirus type 5 E1A gene as a potential therapeutic gene in breast and ovarian cancer since 1995 by using cationic liposome as gene delivery system. In this chapter, we recount our development of E1A as a therapeutic gene.
    Breast Cancer 02/2001; 8(4):285-93. DOI:10.1007/BF02967526 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    Dihua Yu, M C Hung
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    ABSTRACT: This past decade has witnessed the remarkable advances in the understanding of the role of the erbB2 gene in cancers and the stunning progress in developing targeted therapies for erbB2-overexpressing cancers. Activation of the ErbB2 receptor signaling pathways can enhance various metastasis-associated properties that lead to an increase of cancer metastasis. Additionally, ErbB2 overexpression confers therapeutic resistance via receptor-mediated antiapoptotic signals. To limit these disastrous effects of the overexpressed ErbB2, various ErbB2-blocking strategies have been developed in the laboratories and several have been tested in clinical trials or approved as therapies for ErbB2 overexpressing cancers. In this article, we will discuss the detrimental effects of the erbB2 gene in cancers, with a focus on breast cancer. We will also outline ErbB2-targeting strategies as potential therapies for ErbB2-overexpressing cancers. Progress in understanding the molecular biology of ErbB2 and in molecular-based treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing tumors will bring great benefits to cancer patients.
    Oncogene 01/2001; 19(53):6115-21. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1203972 · 8.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
791.57 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2006
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Department of Neuro Oncology
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2002
    • Kaohsiung Medical University
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 1992–2001
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2000
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1999
    • National Yang Ming University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • National Taiwan University Hospital
      • Department of Oncology
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1998
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1996
    • Kumamoto University
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
  • 1995
    • Taipei Veterans General Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Yamaguchi University
      • Department of Biological Chemistry
      Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi-ken, Japan