Young-Gun Yoo

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (7)38.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is primarily involved in the adapting of cells to changes in oxygen levels, which is essential for normal vascular function. Recently, physiological roles for retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORalpha) have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we have investigated the potential roles of RORalpha in the hypoxia signaling pathway in connection with activation of HIF-1alpha. Under hypoxic conditions, expression of RORalpha was induced. When RORalpha was introduced exogenously, protein level as well as transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha was enhanced. Putative ligands of RORalpha, such as melatonin and cholesterol sulfate, induced transcriptional activity for HIF-1alpha, which was abolished by RNA interference against RORalpha. RORalpha was physically associated with HIF-1alpha through DNA binding domain, which was required to the RORalpha-induced stabilization and transcriptional activation of HIF-1alpha. Finally, either infection with adenovirus encoding RORalpha or treatment with ROR ligands enhanced the formation of capillary tubes by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Our results provide a new insight for the function of RORalpha in amplification of hypoxia signaling and suggest a potential application of RORalpha ligands for the therapy of hypoxia-associated vascular diseases.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2008; 28(10):1796-802. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    Young-Gun Yoo, Gu Kong, Mi-Ock Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) correlates well with tumor metastases; however, the associated molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we explored the possibility of cross-talk between MTA1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a key regulator of angiogenic factors. We observed that the expression of MTA1 was strongly induced under hypoxia in breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. When MTA1 was overexpressed, the transcriptional activity and stability of HIF-1alpha protein were enhanced. MTA1 and HIF-1alpha are physically associated in vivo and they were localized completely in the nucleus when coexpressed. MTA1 induced the deacetylation of HIF-1alpha by increasing the expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). MTA1 counteracted to the action of acetyltransferase, ARD1, and it did not stabilize the HIF-1alpha mutant that lacks the acetylation site, K532R. These results indicate that acetylation is the major target of MTA1/HDAC1 function. Collectively, our data provide evidence of a positive cross-talk between HIF-1alpha and MTA1, which is mediated by HDAC1 recruitment, and indicate a close connection between MTA1-associated metastasis and HIF-1-induced tumor angiogenesis.
    The EMBO Journal 04/2006; 25(6):1231-41. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nur77, an orphan nuclear receptor, has been implicated in apoptosis of a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes. The small heterodimer partner (SHP) binds and inhibits the function of many nuclear receptors. Here, we investigated cross-talk between Nur77 and SHP during anti-Fas antibody (CH11)-mediated apoptosis of hepatic cells. Expression of SHP decreased, whereas antisense SHP enhanced, the transcriptional activity of Nur77 in HepG2 cells. SHP and Nur77 were physically associated in vivo and colocalized in the nucleus. SHP decreased the transactivation function of the N-terminal domain of Nur77 that recruits coactivators. Nur77 and SHP competitively bound to cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and the expression of coactivators, such as cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and activating signal cointegrator-2, recovered the decreased function of Nur77 caused by SHP. Finally, SHP was differentially expressed in hepatoma cell lines in that it was not detected in the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)/CH11-sensitive SNU354, whereas it was significantly expressed in the IFNgamma/CH11-resistant HepG2. Interestingly, a stable SNU354 cell line that expressed SHP became resistant to the IFNgamma/CH11-induced apoptosis. Together, our results suggest that SHP plays a key role in the regulation of Nur77 activation and thereby in Nur77-mediated apoptosis in the liver.
    Molecular Endocrinology 05/2005; 19(4):950-63. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis by inducing the expression of a broad range of genes in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is an important regulator of HIF-1alpha. Under hypoxic conditions, Nur77 protein and transcripts were induced in a time-dependent manner. When Nur77 was exogenously introduced, it enhanced the transcriptional activity of HIF-1, whereas the dominant negative Nur77 mutant abolished the function of HIF-1. The HIF-1alpha protein was greatly increased and completely localized in the nucleus when coexpressed with Nur77. The N-terminal transactivation domain of Nur77 was required and sufficient for the activation of HIF-1alpha. The association of HIF-1alpha with von Hippel-Lindau protein was not affected, whereas that with mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) was greatly reduced in the presence of Nur77. Further we found that the expression of MDM2 was repressed at transcription level in the presence of Nur77 as well as under hypoxic conditions. Finally, PD98059 decreased Nur77-induced HIF-1alpha stability and recovered MDM2 expression, indicating that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway is critical in the Nur77-induced activation of HIF-1alpha. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for Nur77 in the stabilization of HIF-1alpha and suggest a potential role for Nur77 in tumor progression and metastasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(51):53365-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Young-Gun Yoo, Sayeon Cho, Sun Park, Mi-Ock Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) of the hepatitis B virus is strongly implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis during hepatocarcinogenesis. Previously, we reported that HBx enhances activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a potent transactivator that induces angiogenic factors. Here, we delineate the structural region of HBx that potentiates HIF-1alpha. The carboxy-terminus of HBx increased the stability of HIF-1alpha protein, probably through inhibiting interaction with von Hippel-Lindau protein. Further, the carboxy-terminus of HBx enhanced the transactivation function of HIF-1alpha by enhancing its association with CREB binding protein (CBP). Finally, we demonstrated the physical association of HBx with the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM domain, the inhibitory domain, and the carboxy-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha in vivo.
    FEBS Letters 12/2004; 577(1-2):121-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    Young-Gun Yoo, Mi-Ock Lee
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    ABSTRACT: FasL expressed in tumor cells plays an important role in the escape from immune surveillance by inducing apoptosis in T-cells bearing Fas. Since the Fas/FasL signaling pathway requires transcriptional induction of the FasL gene, elucidation of the precise mechanisms underlying regulation of FasL gene expression may provide useful molecular insights on tumor progression. We and others (Shin, E. C., Shin, J. S., Park, J. H., Kim, H., and Kim, S. J. (1999) Int. J. Cancer 82, 587-591; Lee, M. O., Kang, H. J., Cho, H., Shin, E. C., Park, J. H., and Kim, S. J. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 288, 1162-1168) have previously reported that hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in the induction of FasL expression in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatoma. In the present study, we analyzed the potential cis- and trans-acting factors that regulate FasL promoter. We found that HBx induced activity of the reporter containing FasL promoter through binding site for Egr but not through NFAT or SP-1, which are known as strong activators of the FasL promoter in T-cells. Transient expression of antisense Egr-2 and antisense Egr-3 abolished expression of FasL, which further confirmed the role of Egr in the HBx-mediated FasL expression. Also we observed that HBx increased the transcriptional activity of Egr-2 and Egr-3 by enhancing expression as well as the transactivation function of these proteins. HBx interacted with Egr-2 and Egr-3 in vivo and enhanced binding of Egr to the co-activator, cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein, which may explain the molecular mechanism by which HBx induced the transactivation function of Egr. Finally, we found that the carboxyl terminus of HBx was necessary and sufficient for FasL induction as well as activation of Egr. Taken together, our results show a novel mechanism by which HBx induces FasL gene expression that is mediated by enhancing transcriptional activity of Egr-2 and Egr-3.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2004; 279(35):36242-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) of the hepatitis B virus was strongly implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis during hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we explored the possibility of cross-talk between HBx and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a potent transcriptional inducer of angiogenic factors. First, we showed that stability of HIF-1alpha protein was increased by HBx in HBx-inducible Chang liver cells as well as in transient HBx expression system of non-hepatic cells. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that the HBx-induced HIF-1alpha was partially translocated into the nucleus in majority of cells while additional CoCl2-induced hypoxic condition caused complete nuclear translocation. Second, HBx induced both phosphorylation of HIF-1alpha and activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which were synergistically enhanced in the presence of CoCl2. Furthermore, HBx enhanced transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha in the reporter genes encoding hypoxia response element or VEGF promoter. Either treatment of MEK inhibitor PD98059 or coexpression of dominant-negative MAPK mutants abolished the HBx-induced transcriptional activity and protein stability as well as nuclear translocation of HIF-1alpha, suggesting that HBx activates HIF-1alpha through MAPK pathway. Third, the association of HIF-1alpha with von Hippel-Lindau was decreased but the association with CREB-binding protein was enhanced in the presence of HBx, suggesting the molecular mechanism by which HBx enhances the protein stability and transactivation function of HIF-1alpha. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor was increased in the liver of HBx-transgenic mice, suggesting that the cross-talk between HIF-1alpha and HBx may lead to transcriptional activation of HIF-1alpha target genes, which play a critical role in hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2003; 278(40):39076-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor