Janick Selves

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France

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Publications (138)563.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite tremendous efforts from scientists and clinicians worldwide, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a deadly disease due to the lack of early diagnostic tools and reliable therapeutic approaches. Consequently, a majority of patients (80%) display an advanced disease that results in a low resection rate leading to an overall median survival of less than 6 months. Accordingly, robust markers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, or markers indicative of survival and/or metastatic disease are desperately needed to help alleviate the dismal prognosis of this cancer. In addition, the discovery of new therapeutic targets is mandatory to design effective treatments. In this review, we will highlight the translational studies demonstrating that microRNAs may soon translate into clinical applications as long-awaited screening tools and therapeutic targets for PDAC.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 08/2014; 20(32):11199-11209.
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation of the KRAS oncogene is present in 75% to 95% of pancreatic cancer tissues. This study aimed to evaluate whether endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), combined with analysis of the KRAS mutation, improves the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in cases of inconclusive or doubtful cytopathologic analysis. We prospectively included 186 patients with a pancreatic mass (103 men; mean age: 62 y). Cytopathology and KRAS mutations, using TaqMan MGB allelic discrimination, were performed on EUS-FNA material. A final diagnosis was obtained from EUS-FNA analysis and/or a subsequent biopsy if necessary, and/or surgery, and follow-up: these were pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n=104), other malignant pancreatic tumors (n=22), and benign lesions (n=60, including 35 cases of chronic pancreatitis). Inconclusive or doubtful (low-grade dysplasia or atypia) cytopathology was found in 68 cases. Of these, 29 patients who had adenocarcinoma were subsequently diagnosed, including 19 cases with a former KRAS mutation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of cytopathology alone to diagnose adenocarcinoma were 73%, 100%, 100%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. When KRAS mutation analysis was combined with pathology, these values reached 88%, 99%, 99%, 89%, and 93%, respectively. The performance of EUS-FNA to diagnose malignancy was similarly improved after the KRAS-mutation assay (negative predictive value increased from 67% to 88%; accuracy increased from 85% to 94%). EUS-FNA plus KRAS-mutation analysis, using allelic discrimination, is accurate and improves the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma when pathology is inconclusive or doubtful.
    Journal of clinical gastroenterology 05/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It remains presently unclear whether disease progression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), from early, to invasive and metastatic forms, is associated to a gradual increase in genetic instability and to a scheme of sequentially occurring Copy Number Alterations (CNAs). In this work we set to determine the existence of such links between CRC progression and genetic instability and searched for associations with patient outcome. To this aim we analyzed a set of 162 Chromosomal Instable (CIN) CRCs comprising 131 primary carcinomas evenly distributed through stage 1 to 4, 31 metastases and 14 adenomas by array-CGH. CNA profiles were established according to disease stage and compared. We, also, asked whether the level of genomic instability was correlated to disease outcome in stage 2 and 3 CRCs. Two metrics of chromosomal instability were used; (i) Global Genomic Index (GGI), corresponding to the fraction of the genome involved in CNA, (ii) number of breakpoints (nbBP). Stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 tumors did not differ significantly at the level of their CNA profiles precluding the conventional definition of a progression scheme based on increasing levels of genetic instability. Combining GGI and nbBP,we classified genomic profiles into 5 groups presenting distinct patterns of chromosomal instability and defined two risk classes of tumors, showing strong differences in outcome and hazard risk (RFS: p = 0.012, HR = 3; OS: p < 0.001, HR = 9.7). While tumors of the high risk group were characterized by frequent fractional CNAs, low risk tumors presented predominantly whole chromosomal arm CNAs. Searching for CNAs correlating with negative outcome we found that losses at 16p13.3 and 19q13.3 observed in 10% (7/72) of stage 2-3 tumors showed strong association with early relapse (p < 0.001) and death (p < 0.007, p < 0.016). Both events showed frequent co-occurrence (p < 1x10-8) and could, therefore, mark for stage 2-3 CRC susceptible to negative outcome. Our data show that CRC disease progression from stage 1 to stage 4 is not paralleled by increased levels of genetic instability. However, they suggest that stage 2-3 CRC with elevated genetic instability and particularly profiles with fractional CNA represent a subset of aggressive tumors.
    BMC Cancer 02/2014; 14(1):121. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sporadic early onset colorectal carcinoma (EOCRC) which has by definition no identified hereditary predisposition is a growing problem that remains poorly understood. Molecular analysis could improve identification of distinct sub-types of colorectal cancers (CRC) with therapeutic implications and thus can help establish that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct entity. From 954 patients resected for CRC at our institution, 98 patients were selected. Patients aged 45-60 years were excluded to help define "young" and "old" groups. Thirty-nine cases of sporadic EOCRC (patients≤45 years with microsatellite stable tumors) were compared to both microsatellite stable tumors from older patients (36 cases, patients>60 years) and to groups of patients with microsatellite instability. Each group was tested for TP53, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and the presence of a methylator phenotype. Gene expression profiles were also used for pathway analysis. Compared to microsatellite stable CRC from old patients, sporadic EOCRC were characterized by distal location, frequent synchronous metastases and infrequent synchronous adenomas but did not have specific morphological characteristics. A familial history of CRC was more common in sporadic EOCRC patients despite a lack of identified hereditary conditions (p = 0.013). Genetic studies also showed the absence of BRAF mutations (p = 0.022) and the methylator phenotype (p = 0.005) in sporadic EOCRC compared to older patients. Gene expression analysis implicated key pathways such as Wnt/beta catenin, MAP Kinase, growth factor signaling (EGFR, HGF, PDGF) and the TNFR1 pathway in sporadic EOCRC. Wnt/beta catenin signaling activation was confirmed by aberrant nuclear beta catenin immunostaining (p = 0.01). This study strongly suggests that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct clinico-molecular entity presenting as a distal and aggressive disease associated with chromosome instability. Furthermore, several signaling pathways including the TNFR1 pathway have been identified as potential biomarkers for both the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e103159. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction To assess the benefits in terms of curative resection and survival of pelvic exenterations for specific extraluminal pelvic recurrences from rectal cancer in the era of total mesorectal excision. Patient and method We conducted a single-centre review of patients with extra luminal pelvic recurrence from colorectal cancer between March 2004 to November 2010. Twenty seven pelvic exenterations (13 posterior (PPE) and 14 total (TPE)) were performed. Independent predicative factors were analysed : age, sex, local control on first surgery, pelvic sidewall excision, initial UICC staging, sphincter preserving resection at first surgery, tumour presentation on CT and MR imaging (pelvis sidewall involvement, number of fixation sites, ureteral involvement), local disease free interval LDFI, previous symptoms, post operative treatment. Results no operative mortality was noted in this series. Overall morbidity rate was 74%. 22% of the patients developed severe complications. Complete surgical clearance (R0) was obtained in 63% of the patients. The rate of R0 resections was lower in TPE (57%) than PPE (69%). Three years OS and DFS were respectively 76% and 59%. Curative resection (R0) was the only independent prognostic factor for OS (p=0,0016) and DFS (p<0,0001). Conclusion pelvic exenterations for extraluminal pelvic recurrences from rectal cancer afford a high R0 resection rate with acceptable morbidity.
    The American Journal of Surgery. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCAs) are benign liver lesions that can be characterized histologically by the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate and at the molecular level by the overexpression of acute phase inflammatory response genes. Recurrent somatic mutations of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signal transducer (IL6ST) locus, encoding the critical component of the IL-6 signal transduction machinery gp130, are present in 60% of IHCAs and in a subset (2%) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCs). By screening of 256 human hepatic adenoma specimens (the largest genetic analysis of IL6ST performed to date in this setting), we identified 24 distinct somatic IL6ST mutations among 66 mutant adenomas. The functional analysis of nine different gp130 mutants expressed in hepatic cancer cell lines consistently revealed the constitutive and IL-6-independent activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that the signaling activity of mutant gp130 in IHCA remains responsive to suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a physiological gp130 inhibitor. Specifically, cells expressing a double mutant variant of gp130 with a disrupted SOCS3-binding site at residue 759 (Y186/Y759F) displayed a hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as compared with cells expressing the endogenous IHCA-associated Y186 gp130 mutant. Notably, we identified that constitutive signaling via gp130 in IHCA requires the Janus kinase family member JAK1, but not JAK2 or tyrosine kinase 2. In support of this notion, AG490, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively blocks JAK2, had no effect on gp130 activity. In stark contrast, we showed that ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat patients with myelofibrosis, dramatically impaired JAK1-STAT signaling downstream of all IHCA-associated gp130 mutants. In conclusion, our findings provide a rationale for the use of JAK1 inhibitors for the treatment of HCAs expressing mutant gp130 as well as a subset of HCCs that bear similar mutations.
    Oncoimmunology. 12/2013; 2(12):e27090.
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    ABSTRACT: Point mutations of the Kras oncogene induce in cancerous cells an uncontrolled increase of cell proliferation and invasiveness. Mutation of Kras appears early during the process of the pancreatic carcinogenesis and is the most frequent genetic alteration in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (75 to 95 % of cases) as well as in precancerous lesions such as PanIN and IMPN. These latter lesions and tumour microenvironment are reproduced in transgenic models developed in mice. These models are induced on the basis of Kras mutation (Pdx1-Cre ; Kras(G12D) mice) associated or not to the inactivation of tumour suppressor genes (TP53, DPC4, INK4A). Kras mutation assay is easily performed in human biological samples, especially in the cellular material sampled in pancreatic masses under endoscopic ultrasound by fine needle aspiration biopsy. In the near future, searching for Kras mutation could be useful in clinical practice either for positive diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in case of unconclusive/doubtful cytopathological analysis or for the differential diagnosis with chronic pancreatitis especially in its pseudotumoural form.
    Medecine sciences: M/S 11/2013; 29(11):991-7. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with colorectal tumors with microsatellite instability MSI) have better prognoses than patients with tumors without MSI, but have a poor response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. A dominant-negative form of HSP110 HSP110DE9) expressed by cancer cells with MSI, via exon skipping caused by somatic deletions in the T17 intron repeat, sensitizes the cells to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. We investigated whether HSP110 T17 could be used to identify patients with colorectal cancer who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. We characterized the interaction between HSP110 and HSP110DE9 using surface plasmon resonance. Using PCR and fragment analysis, we examined how the size of somatic allelic deletions in HSP110 T17 affected the HSP110 protein expressed by tumor cells. We screened a 329 consecutive patients with stage II-III colorectal tumors with MSI who underwent surgical resection, at tertiary medical centers, for HSP110 T17. HSP110 and HSP110DE9 interacted in a 1:1 ratio. Tumor cells with large deletions in T17 had increased ratios of HSP110DE9:HSP110, due to the loss of expression of full-length HSP110. Deletions in HSP110 T17 were mostly bi-allelic in primary tumor samples with MSI. Patients with stage II-III cancer who received chemotherapy and had large HSP110 T17 deletions ≥5 bp; 18/77 patients, 23.4%) had longer times of relapse-free survival than patients with small or no deletions ≤4 bp; 59/77 patients, 76.6%) in multivariate analysis hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.012-0.8; P=.03). We found a significant interaction between chemotherapy and T17 deletion P=.009). About 25% of patients with stage II-III colorectal tumors with MSI have an excellent response to chemotherapy, due to large, bi-allelic deletions in the T17 intron repeat of HSP110 in tumor DNA.
    Gastroenterology 10/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colon cancer (CC) pathological staging fails to accurately predict recurrence, and to date, no gene expression signature has proven reliable for prognosis stratification in clinical practice, perhaps because CC is a heterogeneous disease. The aim of this study was to establish a comprehensive molecular classification of CC based on mRNA expression profile analyses. Fresh-frozen primary tumor samples from a large multicenter cohort of 750 patients with stage I to IV CC who underwent surgery between 1987 and 2007 in seven centers were characterized for common DNA alterations, including BRAF, KRAS, and TP53 mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype, mismatch repair status, and chromosomal instability status, and were screened with whole genome and transcriptome arrays. 566 samples fulfilled RNA quality requirements. Unsupervised consensus hierarchical clustering applied to gene expression data from a discovery subset of 443 CC samples identified six molecular subtypes. These subtypes were associated with distinct clinicopathological characteristics, molecular alterations, specific enrichments of supervised gene expression signatures (stem cell phenotype-like, normal-like, serrated CC phenotype-like), and deregulated signaling pathways. Based on their main biological characteristics, we distinguished a deficient mismatch repair subtype, a KRAS mutant subtype, a cancer stem cell subtype, and three chromosomal instability subtypes, including one associated with down-regulated immune pathways, one with up-regulation of the Wnt pathway, and one displaying a normal-like gene expression profile. The classification was validated in the remaining 123 samples plus an independent set of 1,058 CC samples, including eight public datasets. Furthermore, prognosis was analyzed in the subset of stage II-III CC samples. The subtypes C4 and C6, but not the subtypes C1, C2, C3, and C5, were independently associated with shorter relapse-free survival, even after adjusting for age, sex, stage, and the emerging prognostic classifier Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay recurrence score (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.0097). However, a limitation of this study is that information on tumor grade and number of nodes examined was not available. We describe the first, to our knowledge, robust transcriptome-based classification of CC that improves the current disease stratification based on clinicopathological variables and common DNA markers. The biological relevance of these subtypes is illustrated by significant differences in prognosis. This analysis provides possibilities for improving prognostic models and therapeutic strategies. In conclusion, we report a new classification of CC into six molecular subtypes that arise through distinct biological pathways. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    PLoS Medicine 05/2013; 10(5):e1001453. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor protein p53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is involved in cell stress response. Its expression is lost at the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 1b (PanIN1b)/PanIN2 stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis. Our objective was to determine whether TP53INP1 loss of expression contributes to pancreatic cancer formation in a conditional KrasG12D mouse model. We generated Kras-INP1KO mice using LSL-Kras(G12D/+);Pdx1-Cre(+/-) mice (Kras mice) and TP53INP1(-/-) mice. Analysis of pancreases during ageing shows that in the presence of activated Kras, TP53INP1 loss of expression accelerated PanIN formation and increased pancreatic injury and the number of high-grade lesions as compared with what occurs in Kras mice. Moreover, cystic lesions resembling intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) were observed as early as 2 months of age. Remarkably, TP53INP1 is down-regulated in human IPMN. Activation of the small GTPase Rac1 shows that more oxidative stress is generated in Kras-INP1KO than in Kras mice pancreas despite elevated levels of the Nrf2 antioxidant regulator. We firmly establish the link between Kras-INP1KO pancreatic phenotype and oxidative stress with rescue of the phenotype by the antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine. Our data provide in vivo functional demonstration that TP53INP1 deficiency accelerates progression of pancreatic cancer, underlining its role in the occurrence of IPMN and highlighting the importance of TP53INP1 in the control of oxidative status during development of pancreatic cancer.
    American Journal Of Pathology 04/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 07/2012; 11(13):2578-80. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) is usually performed when a percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) is contraindicated. TJLB is an invasive procedure and the patient's tolerance may be variable. To compare patient tolerance and quality of the biopsy sample between PLB and TJLB. A total of 143 patients underwent a liver biopsy; of these, 75 underwent TJLB and 68 underwent PLB. To evaluate patient tolerance, we used a visual analog scale that scored the intensity of the symptoms. The length of the biopsy sample and the total number of portal tracts per biopsy were also determined for assessment of biopsy quality. The biopsy sample length was similar in both groups (18.88±8.83 mm on PLB vs. 18.26±10.30 mm on TJLB). No differences were found in the number of portal tracts between the two groups (10.43±8.25 on TJLB vs. 12±10.09 on PLB). Fewer complications were observed in the TJLB group compared with the PLB group (P=0.002).Further, higher degree of pain was reported by patients who underwent PLB compared with patients who underwent TJLB (3.18±3.17 vs. 1.19±2.07); as such, there was a greater need for analgesics on PLB. TJLB and PLB techniques provide similar quality of tissue samples; however, TJLB is less painful and therefore better tolerated by patients.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 06/2012; 24(10):1209-13. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recommended strategies to screen for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer are not applied in daily practice and most of Lynch cases remain undiagnosed. We investigated in routine conditions a strategy that uses simplified clinical criteria plus detection of MisMatch Repair deficiency in tumours to identify Lynch carriers. Colorectal cancer patients that met at least one of three clinical criteria were included: (1) colorectal cancer before 50 years, (2) personal history of colorectal or endometrial cancer, (3) first-degree relative history of colorectal or endometrial cancer. All tumours underwent an MisMatch Repair test combining microsatellite instability analysis and MisMatch Repair immunohistochemistry. Patients with an MisMatch Repair-deficient tumour were offered germline testing. Of the 307 patients fulfilling the clinical criteria, 46 (15%) had a MisMatch Repair-deficient tumour. Amongst them 27 were identified as Lynch carriers (20 with germline mutation: 12 MLH1, 7 MSH2, 1 MSH6; 7 highly suspected cases despite failure of genetic testing). The simplified clinical criteria selected a population whose MisMatch Repair-deficient status was highly predictive (59%) of Lynch syndrome. This bio-clinical strategy based on simplified clinical criteria combined with an MisMatch Repair test efficiently detected LS cases and is easy to use in clinical practice, outside expert centres.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 04/2012; 44(6):515-22. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are necessary for cancer cell survival. We identified a mutant of HSP110 (HSP110ΔE9) in colorectal cancer showing microsatellite instability (MSI CRC), generated from an aberrantly spliced mRNA and lacking the HSP110 substrate-binding domain. This mutant was expressed at variable levels in almost all MSI CRC cell lines and primary tumors tested. HSP110ΔE9 impaired both the normal cellular localization of HSP110 and its interaction with other HSPs, thus abrogating the chaperone activity and antiapoptotic function of HSP110 in a dominant-negative manner. HSP110ΔE9 overexpression caused the sensitization of cells to anticancer agents such as oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil, which are routinely prescribed in the adjuvant treatment of people with CRC. The survival and response to chemotherapy of subjects with MSI CRCs was associated with the tumor expression level of HSP110ΔE9. HSP110 may thus constitute a major determinant for both prognosis and treatment response in CRC.
    Nature medicine 09/2011; 17(10):1283-9. · 27.14 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2011; 155A(6):1500-2. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Blood 03/2011; 117(13):3695-6. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Despite significant progresses in the last decades, the origin of this cancer remains unclear and no efficient therapy exists. PDAC does not arise de novo: three remarkable different types of pancreatic lesions can evolve towards pancreatic cancer. These precursor lesions include: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) that are microscopic lesions of the pancreas, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMN) and Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms (MCN) that are both macroscopic lesions. However, the cellular origin of these lesions is still a matter of debate. Classically, neoplasm initiation or progression is driven by several genetic and epigenetic alterations. The aim of this review is to assemble the current information on genetic mutations and epigenetic disorders that affect genes during pancreatic carcinogenesis. We will further discuss the interest of the genetic and epigenetic alterations for the diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC. Large genetic alterations (chromosomal deletion/amplification) and single point mutations are well described for carcinogenesis inducers. Mutations classically occur within key regions of the genome. Consequences are various and include activation of mitogenic pathways or silencing of apoptotic processes. Alterations of K-RAS, P16 and DPC4 genes are frequently observed in PDAC samples and have been described to arise gradually during carcinogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic process involved in imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Alteration of DNA methylation patterns leads to deregulation of gene expression, in the absence of mutation. Both genetic and epigenetic events influence genes and non-coding RNA expression, with dramatic effects on proliferation, survival and invasion. Besides improvement in our fundamental understanding of PDAC development, highlighting the molecular alterations that occur in pancreatic carcinogenesis could provide new clinical tools for early diagnosis of PDAC and the molecular basis for the development of new effective therapies.
    Current Genomics 03/2011; 12(1):15-24. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease is to a great extent determined by the presence and degree of portal hypertension (PHT). Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) has been shown to be an accurate prognostic index in patients with cirrhosis. Transient elastography is a non-invasive procedure that assesses liver fibrosis through the measurement of liver stiffness (LS). In several reports, LS was found to be correlated with HVPG. LS could therefore be useful to identify patients with significant PHT. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess and to compare the prognostic performances of LS and HVPG in patients with chronic liver disease. One hundred patients with chronic liver disease underwent LS and HVPG measurements on the same day. Patients were thereafter followed-up for 2 years or until they experienced a complication related to their liver disease. Within the two-year follow-up, 41 patients developed, at least, one liver disease related complication. The performances of HVPG and LS for predicting the occurrence of these complications were not significantly different: AUROC 0.815 [0.727-0.903] and 0.837 [0.754-0.920], respectively. When considering only complications related to PHT, both methods were found to be similarly accurate: AUROC 0.830 [0.751-0.910] and 0.845 [0.767-0.823], for HVPG and LS, respectively. When patients were divided in two groups according to a LS value below or above 21.1kPa, actuarial rates of remaining free of any complication at 2 years were 85.4% vs. 29.5%, respectively. When only PHT related complications were considered, these rates were 100% vs. 47.5%, respectively. The performances of LS and HVPG were also similar in the subgroup of 65 patients with cirrhosis. LS proved as effective as HVPG in predicting clinical decompensation and PHT related complications in patients with chronic liver disease. Therefore, LS could be a valuable clinical tool to avoid invasive procedures.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2011; 55(5):1017-24. · 9.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
563.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse
      • Service d'Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologie
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2012–2013
    • Cancer Research Center of Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Toulouse
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2007–2010
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2004–2010
    • Institut Claudius Regaud
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2009
    • Muséum de Toulouse
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008–2009
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1996
    • Telecommunications for Space and Aeronautics
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France