[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is caused by parathyroid hyperplasia. Surgery for parathyroid hyperplasia is tricky and difficult. Long-term outcome in ZES/MEN1/HPT is not well known.
Eighty-four consecutive patients (49 F/35 M) with ZES/MEN1/HPT underwent initial parathyroidectomy (PTX) and were followed at 1- to 3-year intervals.
Age at PTX was 36 +/- 2 years. Mean follow-up was 17 +/- 1 years. Before PTX, mean Ca = 2.8 mmol/L (normal level (nl <2.5), PTH i = 243 pg/mL (nl <65), and gastrin = 6950 pg/mL (nl < 100). Sixty-one percent had nephrolithiasis. Each patient had parathyroid hyperplasia. Fifty-eight percent of patients had 4 parathyroid glands identified. Nine of 84 (11%) had 4 glands removed with immediate autograft, 40/84 (47%) 3 to 3.5 glands, whereas 35/84 (42%) <3 glands removed. Persistent/recurrent HPT occurred in 42%/48% of patients with <3 glands, 12%/44% with 3 to 3.5 glands, and 0%/55% with 4 glands removed. Hypoparathyroidism occurred in 3%, 10%, and 22%, respectively. The disease-free interval after surgery was significantly longer if >3 glands were removed. After surgery to correct the HPT, each biochemical parameter of ZES was improved and 20% of patients no longer had laboratory evidence of ZES.
HPT/MEN1/ZES is a severe form of parathyroid hyperplasia with a high rate of nephrolithiasis, persistent and recurrent HPT. Surgery to correct the hypercalcemia significantly ameliorates the ZES. Removal of less than 3.5 glands has an unacceptably high incidence of persistent HPT (42%), whereas 4-gland resection and transplant has a high rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism (22%). More than 3-gland resection has a longer disease-free interval. The surgical procedure of choice for patients with HPT/MEN1/ZES is 3.5-gland parathyroidectomy. Careful long-term follow-up is necessary as a significant proportion will develop recurrent HPT.
Annals of Surgery 04/2008; 247(3):501-10. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31815efda5 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In two-thirds of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), fasting serum gastrin (FSG) levels overlap with values seen in other conditions. In these patients, gastrin provocative tests are needed to establish the diagnosis of ZES. Whereas numerous gastrin provocative tests have been proposed, only the secretin, calcium, and meal tests are widely used today. Many studies have analyzed gastrin provocative test results in ZES, but they are limited by small patient numbers and methodologic differences. To address this issue, we report the results of a prospective National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of gastrin provocative tests in 293 patients with ZES and compare these data with those from 537 ZES and 462 non-ZES patients from the literature. In 97%-99% of gastrinoma patients, an increase in serum gastrin post secretin (Delta secretin) or post calcium (Delta calcium) occurred. In NIH ZES patients with <10-fold increase in FSG, the sensitivity/specificity of the widely used criteria were as follows: Delta secretin > or =200 pg/mL (83%/100%), Delta secretin >50% (86%/93%), Delta calcium > or =395 pg/mL (54%/100%), and Delta calcium >50% (78%/83%). A systematic analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of other possible criteria for a positive secretin or calcium test allowed us to identify a new criterion for secretin testing (Delta > or =120 pg/mL) with the highest sensitivity/specificity (94%/100%) and to confirm the commonly used criterion for calcium tests (Delta > or =395 pg/mL) (62%/100%). This analysis further showed that the secretin test was more sensitive than the calcium test (94% vs. 62%). Our results suggest that secretin stimulation should be used as the first-line provocative test because of its greater sensitivity and simplicity and lack of side effects. In ZES patients with a negative secretin test, 38%-50% have a positive calcium test. Therefore the calcium test should be considered in patients with a strong clinical suspicion of ZES but a negative secretin test. Furthermore, we found that some clinical (diarrhea, duration of medical treatment), laboratory (basal acid output), and tumoral (size, extent) characteristics correlate with the serum gastrin increase post secretin and post calcium. However, using the proposed criteria, the result of these provocative tests (that is, positive or negative) is minimally influenced by these factors, so secretin and calcium provocative tests are reliable in patients with different clinical, laboratory, and tumor characteristics. A systematic analysis of meal testing showed that 54%-77% of ZES patients have a <50% postprandial serum gastrin increase. However, 9%-20% of ZES patients had a >100% increase post meal, causing significant overlap with antral syndromes. Furthermore, we could not confirm the usefulness of meal tests for localization of duodenal gastrinomas. We conclude that the secretin test is a crucial element in the diagnosis of most ZES patients, the calcium test may be useful in selected patients, but the meal test is not helpful in the management of ZES. For secretin testing, the criterion with the highest sensitivity and specificity is an increase of > or =120 pg/mL, which should replace other criteria commonly used today.
Medicine 11/2006; 85(6):331-64. DOI:10.1097/MD.0b013e31802b518c · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of fasting serum gastrin (FSG) is essential for the diagnosis and management of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Although many studies have analyzed FSG levels in patients with gastrinoma, limited information has resulted from these studies because of their small size, different methodologies, and lack of correlations of FSG levels with clinical, laboratory, or tumor features in ZES patients. To address this issue, we report the results of a prospective National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 309 patients with ZES and compare our results with those of 2229 ZES patients in 513 small series and case reports in the literature. In the NIH and literature ZES patients, normal FSG values were uncommon (0.3%-3%), as were very high FSG levels >100-fold normal (4.9%-9%). Two-thirds of gastrinoma patients had FSG values <10-fold normal that overlap with gastrin levels seen in more common conditions, like Helicobacter pylori infection or antral G-cell hyperplasia/hyperfunction. In these patients, FSG levels are not diagnostic of ZES, and gastrin provocative tests are needed to establish the diagnosis. Most clinical variables (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 status, presence or absence of the most common symptoms, prior medical treatment) are not correlated with FSG levels, while a good correlation of FSG values was found with other clinical features (prior gastric surgery, diarrhea, duration from onset to diagnosis). Increasing basal acid output, but not maximal acid output correlated closely with increasing FSG. Numerous tumoral features correlated with the magnitude of FSG in our study, including tumor location (pancreatic > duodenal), primary size (larger > smaller) and extent (liver metastases > local disease). In conclusion, this detailed analysis of FSG in a large number of patients with ZES allowed us to identify important clinical guidelines that should contribute to improved diagnosis and management of patients with ZES.
Medicine 11/2006; 85(6):295-330. DOI:10.1097/01.md.0000236956.74128.76 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the routine use of surgical exploration for gastrinoma resection/cure in 160 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) altered survival compared with 35 ZES patients who did not undergo surgery.
The role of routine surgical exploration for resection/cure in patients with ZES has been controversial since the original description of this disease in 1955. This controversy continues today, not only because medical therapy for acid hypersecretion is so effective, but also in large part because no studies have shown an effect of tumor resection on survival.
Long-term follow-up of 160 ZES patients who underwent routine surgery for gastrinoma/resection/cure was compared with 35 patients who had similar disease but did not undergo surgery for a variety of reasons. All patients had preoperative CT, MRI, ultrasound; if unclear, angiography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy since 1994 to determine resectability. At surgery, all had the same standard ZES operation. All patients were evaluated yearly with imaging studies and disease activity studies.
The 35 nonsurgical patients did not differ from the 160 operated in clinical, laboratory, or tumor imaging results. The 2 groups did not differ in follow-up time since initial evaluation (range, 11.8-12 years). At surgery, 94% had a tumor removed, 51% were cured immediately, and 41% at last follow-up. Significantly more unoperated patients developed liver metastases (29% vs. 5%, P = 0.0002), died of any cause (54 vs. 21%, P = 0.0002), or died a disease-related death (23 vs. 1%, P < 0.00001). Survival plots showed operated patients had a better disease-related survival (P = 0.0012); however, there was no difference in non-disease-related survival. Fifteen-year disease-related survival was 98% for operated and 74% for unoperated (P = 0.0002).
These results demonstrate that routine surgical exploration increases survival in patients with ZES by increasing disease-related survival and decreasing the development of advanced disease. Routine surgical exploration should be performed in ZES patients.
Annals of Surgery 10/2006; 244(3):410-9. DOI:10.1097/01.sla.0000234802.44320.a5 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients frequently develop Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES). Although esophageal reflux symptoms are common in these patients, little is known about long-term occurrence of severe peptic esophageal disease including strictures and Barrett's esophagus (BE).
The objective of the study was to prospectively analyze the frequency of severe peptic esophageal disease in ZES patients with and without MEN1.
The study was conducted at a tertiary care research center.
Two hundred ninety-five patients (80 = MEN1/ZES, 215 = sporadic ZES) participated in a prospective study.
Assessment of MEN1, acid hypersecretion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy/biopsies, and tumor status were measured initially and at each follow-up. Esophageal manometry was performed in 89 patients. Frequency and type of esophageal disease were correlated with clinical/laboratory/tumoral features of ZES/MEN1.
In MEN1/ZES patients, esophageal stricture was 3-fold higher, BE 5-fold higher, and dysplasia 8-fold higher, and one patient died of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophageal symptoms were more frequent or severe in MEN1/ZES, but known risk factors for severe esophageal disease and ZES-specific features did not differ between MEN1/ZES and sporadic ZES. In MEN1/ZES, the onset of ZES was 10 yr earlier, and H2-antagonists were used longer and at lower doses. MEN1/ZES patients with esophageal disease differed from those without in that ZES diagnosis was delayed longer, esophageal symptoms were more frequent or severe, hiatal hernias were more frequent, esophagitis or pyloric scarring was more common, basal acid output was higher, and hyperparathyroidism was underdiagnosed.
This study shows that MEN1/ZES patients have a higher incidence of severe esophageal disease including the premalignant condition BE and identifies factors important for their pathogenesis that need to be incorporated into their long-term treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrinomas producing Zollinger-Ellison syndrome are the most frequent symptomatic, malignant pancreatic endocrine tumor syndrome. Recently, a number of important studies have examined their molecular pathogenesis and natural history and provided important guidelines for their treatment. Each of these areas is briefly reviewed in this article.
Current Gastroenterology Reports 06/2005; 7(2):114-21. DOI:10.1007/s11894-005-0049-2
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite general awareness of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) by most physicians and more than 3000 articles written about it since 1955, the diagnosis of ZES is still delayed for a mean of 5 years. Recent studies show it is being delayed even more with the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors. A number of tumor markers, in addition to assessing serum gastrin, such as chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, and subunits of chorionic gonadotropin, have been proposed for use in either the diagnosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors, such as gastrinomas, or for assessment of tumor extent and growth. In this article important recent insights into the diagnosis of ZES as well as the clinical usefulness of assessing tumor markers for diagnosis and determination of disease extent and growth are discussed. Approximately 25% of ZES cases are due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). A number of important studies in this group of patients are also reviewed. Finally, almost every patient with ZES has marked gastric acid hypersecretion, and its current treatment as well as the long-term possible side effects are reviewed briefly.
Current Gastroenterology Reports 01/2005; 6(6):454-63. DOI:10.1007/s11894-004-0067-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric carcinoid tumors occur in 15% to 50% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN-1/ZES) but are thought to be benign. We report 5 patients with MEN-1/ZES with symptomatic, aggressive gastric carcinoid tumors that required surgical procedures.
This was a retrospective chart review.
Each patient had MEN-1/ZES. Each patient had innumerable gastric carcinoid tumors with symptoms. The fasting gastrin level was 47,000 pg/mL (normal, <200 pg/mL); the basal acid output was 79 mEq/hr (n = 3), and the age at surgical exploration was 47 +/- 6 years, with a duration of MEN-1 of 21 +/- 3 years and of ZES of 15 +/- 2 years. All patients had elevated 5-HIAA or serotonin levels. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy showed increased stomach uptake in 4 patients (80%). Four patients had a total gastrectomy; 4 patients had lymph node metastases removed, and 3 patients had liver metastases resected. One patient who did not have a total gastrectomy had liver carcinoid metastases.
These results demonstrate that gastric carcinoid tumors in patients with longstanding MEN-1/ZES may be symptomatic, aggressive, and metastasize to the liver. With increased long-term medical treatment and life expectancy, these tumors will become an important determinant of survival.
Surgery 01/2005; 136(6):1267-74. DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2004.06.057 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasm type 1 (MEN1) is associated with parathyroid, pancreatic, and pituitary tumors. Although most patients present with hyperparathyroidism, the diagnosis can be difficult, because a significant proportion present with other endocrinopathies or may lack a family history, and other MEN1 manifestations may be mild. Recently, multiple cutaneous lesions (angiofibromas and collagenomas) were reported to be frequent in MEN1 patients, and it was proposed that their discovery suggested the diagnosis of MEN1. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the frequency and sensitivity/specificity of various cutaneous criteria for MEN1 in 110 consecutive patients with gastrinomas with or without MEN1. All patients had hormonal and functional studies to determine MEN1 status (48 with MEN1, 62 without MEN1), dermatological evaluation, and tumor imaging studies. Angiofibromas and collagenomas were more frequent in MEN1 patients (64% vs. 8% and 62% vs. 5%; P < 0.00001) and were multiple in 77-81% of the MEN1 patients. Lipomas occurred in 17%. The presence of these skin lesions did not correlate with age, disease duration, or other MEN1 features. Angiofibromas or collagenomas (single or multiple) had 50-65% sensitivity for MEN1 and 92-100% specificity. The combination criterion of multiple angiofibromas (more than three) and any collagenomas had the highest sensitivity (75%) and specificity (95%). This criterion has greater sensitivity than pituitary or adrenal disease and is comparable to hyperparathyroidism in some studies of patients with MEN1 with gastrinoma. This criterion should have sufficient sensitivity/specificity to be clinically useful.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been reproducible among families. We examined two large kindreds with MEN1 variants, and we compared these to past reports. The two kindreds were followed up for 20-30 yr with MEN1 tumors in 30 members. Results in cases from two kindreds were that 93% showed parathyroid adenoma, 40% pituitary tumor (always prolactinoma), and 27% enteropancreatic endocrine tumor. The latter included 10% insulinoma, 7% nonfunctioning islet tumor, but only 10% gastrinoma. Compared with prior large series, this lower prevalence of gastrinoma (10% vs. 42%, P < 0.01) and higher prevalence of prolactinoma (40% vs. 22%, P < 0.01) define this variant. Many possible biases of retrospective analyses were excluded as possible explanations. Previously sequenced DNA showed no characteristic MEN1 mutation in these two kindreds and in a third, reported previously; the lack of any shared MEN1 mutation also excluded common ancestry for MEN1 among the three kindreds. The causes for differences between this variant and typical MEN1 are unknown. In conclusion, this variant shows more frequent prolactinoma and less frequent gastrinoma than typical MEN1; the variant is reproducible among kindreds. MEN1 carriers in such families should have periodic monitoring adjusted for the expected penetrance of tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether routine use of duodenotomy (DUODX) alters cure rate, survival, or development of liver metastases in 143 patients (162 operations) with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) without MEN1.
DUODX has been shown to increase the detection of duodenal gastrinomas, but it is unknown if it alters rate of cure, liver metastases, or survival. Data from our prospective studies of surgery in ZES allow us to address this issue because DUODX was not performed before 1987, whereas it was routinely done after 1987.
All patients with sporadic ZES (non-MEN1) undergoing surgery for possible cure without a prior DUODX from November 1980 to June 2003 were included. Patients had preoperative computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound; if unclear, angiography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy since 1994. At surgery, all had the same standard ZES operation and were assessed immediately postoperatively, at 3 to 6 months, and yearly for cure (fasting gastrin, secretin test. and imaging studies).
A DUODX was performed in 79 patients (94 operations), and no DUODX was performed in 64 patients (68 operations), with 10 patients having both (no DUODX, then a DUODX later). Gastrinoma was found in 98% with DUODX compared with 76% with no DUODX (P < 0.00001). Duodenal gastrinomas were found more frequently with DUODX (62% vs. 18%; P < 0.00001), whereas pancreatic, lymph node, and other primary gastrinomas occurred similarly. Six of the 10 patients with 2 operations had a duodenal tumor found with DUODX during a second operation that was missed in the first operation without DUODX. Both the immediate postoperative cure rate (65% vs. 44%; P = 0.010) and long-term cure rate at last follow-up (8.8 +/- 0.4 years; range, 0.1 to 21.5) (52% vs. 26%; P = 0.0012) were significantly greater with a DUODX than without. In patients without pancreatic tumors or liver metastases at surgery, both the rate of developing liver metastases (6% vs. 9.5%) and the disease-related death rate (0% vs. 2%) were low and not significantly different in patients with or without a DUODX.
These results demonstrate that routine use of DUODX increases the short-term and long-term cure rate due to the detection of more duodenal gastrinomas. The rate of development of hepatic metastases and/or disease-related mortality in patients without pancreatic tumors is low, and no effect of DUODX on these parameters was seen. Duodenotomy (DUODX) should be routinely performed during all operations for cure of sporadic ZES.
Annals of Surgery 05/2004; 239(5):617-25; discussion 626. DOI:10.1097/01.sla.0000124290.05524.5e · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that tumor growth, rather than hormone overproduction, is the leading cause of death among patients with gastrinomas and other malignant gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. No patient/laboratory characteristics accurately predict which tumors will exhibit aggressive growth. Furthermore, little is known regarding the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. X-chromosome loss of heterozygosity (LOH) occurs in some nonendocrine tumors, and its presence can be associated with aggressive growth/decreased survival. Data on X-chromosome LOH in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors are conflicting. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine whether X-chromosome LOH occurred in gastrinomas and, if so, whether it was correlated with tumor growth, tumor behavior, and/or prognosis.
X chromosome allelotyping was performed using 12 microsatellite markers spaced throughout the chromosome using DNA from leukocytes and microdissected gastrinoma specimens from 16 female patients. The presence of X-chromosome LOH was analyzed for correlations with clinical and laboratory tumor characteristics as well as tumor growth characteristics.
Nine gastrinoma specimens (56%) had X-chromosome LOH, ranging from 6% to 23% at the 12 different loci studied. X-chromosome LOH was significantly associated with aggressive postoperative tumor growth, increased primary tumor size, and pancreatic primaries. In 6 tumor specimens, LOH occurred on Xp22.1-22.3 over a 28.4-centimorgan region.
X-chromosome LOH was common in gastrinoma specimens from female patients, and its presence was found to be a potentially useful molecular/genetic prognostic factor for aggressive growth.
Cancer 04/2004; 100(7):1379-87. DOI:10.1002/cncr.20104 · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, an increased incidence of some nonendocrine tumors are reported in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). There are rare reports of meningiomas and other central nervous system tumors in these patients, but it is unknown if they are more frequent or if allelic loss of the MEN1 gene is important in their pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to address these two latter questions.
Results from a prospective study of 74 MEN 1 patients with suspected/proven pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) were analyzed, as well as molecular studies performed on a resected meningioma. All patients had serial brain imaging studies (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and octreoscanning since 1994) and yearly studies evaluating MEN 1 involvement with a mean follow-up of 7.2 years. Results were compared with 185 patients with sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
Six patients (8%) had meningiomas. Meningiomas were single and found late in the MEN 1 course (mean age = 51 years). Magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography were more sensitive than octreoscanning. Their diagnosis averaged 18 years after the onset of hyperparathyroidism, 10-15 years after pituitary disease or PETs. Meningiomas were 11 times more frequent in patients with PETs with MEN 1 than without MEN 1 (P = 0.017). No clinical, laboratory, or MEN 1 feature distinguished patients with meningiomas. Meningiomas were asymptomatic and 60% showed no growth. A resected meningioma showed loss of heterozygosity at 11q13 and 1p, including at p73 and ARHI/NOEY2 locus, but not at the neurofibromatosis 2 gene locus.
These results show meningiomas are not an infrequent occurrence in MEN 1, and loss of the function of the MEN1 gene product plays a role in their pathogenesis in these patients.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2004; 10(3):869-80. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-0938-3 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have established that gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic endocrine tumours) resemble a number of other tumours in overexpressing somatostatin receptors that can bind octreotide or lanreotide with high affinity (i.e. possess sst2/sst5 receptors). Recent studies report that radiolabelled somatostatin analogues can be used to image these tumours (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy) and may be useful for peptide-directed radionuclide therapy. In this paper the evidence is reviewed that has led to establishing somatostatin receptor scintigraphy as the initial imaging modality of choice in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumours. This conclusion is based on an understanding of the results with conventional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging, angiography) available prior to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and the results of studies demonstrating the sensitivity and specificity of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Most important in this regard are the results of studies that have assessed the use of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy on clinical management. Each of these areas is reviewed in this paper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), the most common functional pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) syndrome is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). ZES has been well studied in its sporadic form (that is, without MEN1); however, there are limited data on patients with MEN1 and ZES (MEN1/ZES), and the long-term natural history is largely unknown. To address this issue we report the results of a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 107 MEN1/ZES patients and compare our results with those of 1009 MEN1/ZES patients in 278 case reports and small series in the literature. Patients were clinically, radiologically, and biochemically evaluated yearly for all MEN1 manifestations (mean follow-up, 10 yr; range, 0.1-31 yr). Compared with patients from the literature, the NIH MEN1/ZES patients more frequently had pituitary (60%) and adrenal (45%) disease and carcinoid tumors (30%), but had equal frequency of hyperparathyroidism (94%), thyroid disease (6%), or lipomas (5%). Twenty-five percent of both the NIH and the literature patients lacked a family history of MEN1; ZES was the initial clinical manifestation of MEN1 in 40%. ZES onset preceded the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism in 45%. However, ZES was rarely (8%) the only initial manifestation of MEN1 if careful testing was done. ZES occurred before age 40 years in 50%-60% of the current patients, in contrast to older studies. The diagnosis of ZES is delayed 3-5 years from its onset and is delayed as long as in sporadic ZES cases. Pituitary disease and carcinoid tumors (gastric > bronchial, thymic) are more frequent than generally reported, whereas a second functional PET is uncommon. In patients with MEN1/ZES without a family history of MEN1, the MEN1 manifestations are not as severe. This study shows that MEN1/ZES patients differ in many aspects from those commonly reported in older studies involving few MEN1/ZES patients. In this study we have identified a number of important clinical and laboratory features of MEN1/ZES that were not previously appreciated, which should contribute to earlier diagnosis and improve both short- and long-term management.
Medicine 02/2004; 83(1):43-83. DOI:10.1097/01.md.0000112297.72510.32 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperparathyroidism in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by multiglandular disease and a propensity for recurrence after parathyroidectomy (PTx). This study analyzes outcomes of a cohort of MEN1 patients undergoing initial PTx at one institution.
Between April 1960 and September 2002, 92 patients with MEN1 underwent initial PTx. Outcomes were analyzed based on extent of parathyroid resection.
Fourteen percent had 2.5 or fewer glands resected, 69% had subtotal PTx, and 17% had total PTx (88% with immediate autotransplantation). The initial surgical cure rate was 98%. Excluding 6 patients lost to follow-up, 33% have developed recurrent hyperparathyroidism (in 46% after < or =2.5 PTx, in 33% after subtotal, and in 23% after total PTx). Median recurrence-free survival was not statistically significantly different between subtotal versus total PTx, but it was longer for subtotal and total PTx compared with lesser resection (16.5 vs 7.0 years, respectively, P=.03). The incidence of severe hypoparathyroidism was 46% after total versus 26% after subtotal PTx.
Subtotal and total PTx result in durable control of MEN1-associated hyperparathyroidism and have longer recurrence-free intervals compared with lesser resection. The high incidence of severe hypoparathyroidism after total PTx suggests that subtotal PTx is the initial operation of choice in this setting.
Surgery 01/2004; 134(6):858-64; discussion 864-5. DOI:10.1016/S0039-6060(03)00406-9 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary duodenal gastrinomas are now recognized as a common etiology for patients with sporadic Zollinger Ellison Syndrome (ZES); however, the clinical and pathologic features of this condition and long-term outcome after operation are not well characterized.
Between November 1982 and September 2000, 63 patients diagnosed with sporadic ZES underwent resection of a primary duodenal gastrinoma and regional nodal metastases with curative intent. Data from a prospectively maintained database were reviewed for clinical and pathologic parameters relating to primary tumor size, location, frequency of lymph node metastases, and disease-specific and disease-free survival.
There were 41 males and 22 females (mean age, 48.6 years). The majority of duodenal gastrinomas were in the first or second portions of the duodenum (83%). Tumor size ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 cm with 62% measuring less than 1.0 cm. Sixty percent of individuals had regional lymph node metastases identified primarily in proximity to the primary tumor. At a median 10-year follow-up, the overall disease-specific and disease-free survivals were 100% and 60%, respectively. Actuarial 10-year disease-free survival was significantly higher for patients without lymph node metastases versus those with lymph node metastases (78% versus 48%, P = 0.0137).
Duodenal gastrinomas in patients with sporadic ZES are frequently small, most commonly located in the proximal duodenum, and associated with regional lymph node metastases in 60%. Disease-free survival is lower for patients with regional lymph node metastases suggesting that a more systematic lymphadenectomy to extirpate occult disease may be indicated in this group.
Annals of Surgery 08/2003; 238(1):42-8. DOI:10.1097/01.SLA.0000074963.87688.31 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND
Assessment of tumor burden changes is essential for the management of patients with neuroendocrine gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a tumor marker for such tumors; however, to the authors' knowledge, there is little information on whether serial assessments can assess changes in tumor burden. In this prospective study of patients with gastrinomas, serial changes in serum CgA levels were compared with changes in levels of the specific tumor marker gastrin to determine whether they reflected changes in tumor burden.METHODS
In 72 consecutive patients, the mean CgA and gastrin levels from three determinations were measured on each visit. Changes in markers were correlated with changes in tumor burden determined by imaging. By assessing daily changes, significance changes in CgA and gastrin levels were determined.RESULTSDuring 103 follow-up visits (mean, 9.6 months), an increased tumor size occurred in 25% of patients, no change occurred in 62% of patients, and a decrease occurred in 13% of patients. In patients who had increasing tumor size, CgA levels increased numerically in 77% of patients, gastrin levels increased in 54% of patients, and the increases were significant in 60–80% of patients. In patients who had tumor stabilization, CgA levels in 63% of patients and gastrin levels in 73% of patients did not show a significant change. Decreased tumor size postresection showed a significant decrease in CgA and gastrin levels in all patients. The sensitivity of CgA and gastrin was as follows: sensitivity for detecting an increase, 62% for CgA and 31% for gastrin; sensitivity for detecting no change, 42% for CgA and 75% for gastrin; and sensitivity for detecting a decrease in tumor size, 85% for CgA and 85% for gastrin. The specificity varied from 53% to 99% for CgA and from 49% to 93% for gastrin.CONCLUSIONS
In patients with gastrinomas, serum CgA and gastrin levels varied considerably from day to day, and this must be taken into consideration. Both markers had low sensitivity and specificity for detecting tumor increases and stabilization. For large tumor decreases postresection, both markers had high sensitivity and specificity. The current results suggest that these markers do not have sufficient sensitivity to replace serial imaging studies for detecting important smaller changes in tumor burden in patients with gastrinomas. Cancer 2003;98:249–61. Published 2003 by the American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11473
Cancer 07/2003; 98(2):249 - 261. DOI:10.1002/cncr.11473 · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the results of a prospective study of 176 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) (138 sporadic, 38 MEN1) undergoing 207 operations over a 17-year period.
The existence of lymph node (LN) primary gastrinoma causing ZES is controversial.
Three groups of patients were compared: LN only resected, cured, and no relapse (likely LN primary); same criteria but relapse (unlikely LN primary); and duodenal primary and LN metastases (Duo-LN).
Forty-five (26%) had only LN(s) as the initial tumor found. Twenty-six of the 45 (58%) fit the definition of a likely LN primary because they were apparently cured postresection. At 10.4 +/- 1.2 years, 69% of the 26 patients with likely LN primary tumors have remained cured and have LN primaries. In the 8 of 26 with recurrent ZES, it occurred at 5 +/- 1 years, and 3 had duodenal gastrinoma that had been missed. Ten percent (13/138) of all patients with sporadic ZES and 0% (0/38) with ZES and MEN1 remained cured with only a LN tumor removed. In patients with sporadic gastrinomas no clinical, laboratory, or radiographic localization feature differed among patients with likely LN primary (n = 16) and those with unlikely LN primary (n = 6) or those with Duo-LN (n = 37). In the likely LN primary group, the largest LN was 2.2 +/- 0.2 cm, the number of LNs removed was 1.3 +/- 0.1 (25% > or =1 LN), and 78% were in the gastrinoma triangle, which also did not differ from the other 2 groups. Disease-free survival was similar in the likely LN primary group, patients with Duo-LN, and those with pancreatic primaries.
These results support the conclusion that primary LN gastrinomas occur and are not rare (approximately 10% of sporadic cases). These results suggest that a proportion (25%) of these tumors are either multiple or malignant. Because no clinical, laboratory, or tumoral characteristic distinguishes patients with LN primary tumors, all patients with ZES undergoing surgery should have an extensive exploration to exclude duodenal or pancreatic tumors and routine removal of lymph nodes in the gastrinoma triangle.
Annals of Surgery 05/2003; 237(5):650-7; discussion 657-9. DOI:10.1097/01.SLA.0000064375.51939.48 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known of the natural history of thymic carcinoids in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This is important because in 1993 they were identified as a frequent cause of death, yet only small retrospective studies and case reports exist. We report results of a prospective study of 85 patients with MEN1 evaluated for pancreatic endocrine tumors and followed over a mean of 8 yr with serial chest computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest x-ray, and, since 1994, octreoscans [somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS)]. Seven patients (8%) developed thymic carcinoids. Patients with and without carcinoids did not differ in clinical, laboratory, or MEN1 tumor features, except for male gender and the presence of a gastric carcinoid. All thymic tumors were hormonally inactive. Four thymic carcinoids lacked 11q loss of heterozygosity, although it was found in three pancreatic endocrine tumors. Computed tomography and/or MRI were more sensitive than SRS or chest x-ray in detecting tumors initially or with recurrence. All patients underwent resection of the thymic carcinoid, and in all patients followed more than 1 yr, the tumor recurred. Bone metastases developed in two patients and were detected early only on MRI, not SRS. This study provides information on early thymic carcinoids and allows modifications of existing guidelines to be recommended for their diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment.