M F Timmerman

Academisch Centrum Tandheelkunde Amsterdam, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (141)361.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Various laser systems are currently available for intra-oral use. Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminium Garnet lasers(Nd:YAG) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue treatment in the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a water-cooled Nd:YAG laser during a maintenance care programme as an adjunct to supragingival and subgingival debridement (scaling and root planing, SRP) with hand and ultrasonic instruments results in clinical improvement compared with SRP alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was an examiner-blind, randomized and controlled clinical trial using a split-mouth design. Thirty subjects were selected, originally diagnosed with moderate to severe generalized periodontitis, following a periodontal maintenance care programme (PMC). Immediately after SRP in two randomly assigned contra-lateral quadrants, all pockets ≥5 mm were additionally treated with a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 4W, 250-μsec pulse). Clinical assessments [probing pocket depth PPD, bleeding on pocket probing (BOPP)] were performed pre-treatment and at 6 months. Based on these assessments, the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) was calculated. RESULTS: At 6 months, the clinical parameters had significantly improved for both regimens. No statistically significant differences between treatment modalities were observed for PPD and BOPP scores at any time. PISA scores supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In residual pockets ≥5 mm, treated in a PMC, the adjunctive use of an Nd:YAG laser does not provide a clinically significant additional advantage.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 08/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy and safety of a newly designed multi-level manual toothbrush (Profit-Haije-Brush) compared with a control flat-trimmed manual reference toothbrush from the American Dental Association (ADA). For this study, 36 healthy subjects without previous experience in the use of the Profit-Haije-Brush (PHB) were selected. Subjects were given a period of 2 weeks to become familiar with both types of brushes and were instructed to use them on alternate days for 2 min twice daily. Prior to their visit, subjects refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 48 h. Prebrushing plaque and gingival abrasion scores were assessed. Subsequently, two randomly chosen contra-lateral quadrants were brushed with one of both brushes and the other two quadrants with the alternate brush. Subjects were supervised during their 2-min brushing exercise. After brushing, plaque and gingival abrasion were re-assessed. A questionnaire was filled out to investigate the subjects' attitudes towards both brushes. The overall mean prebrushing PI was 2.47 for the PHB and 2.44 for the ADA. The reduction in PI was 1.32 and 1.23 respectively (P < 0.05). With regard to gingival abrasion the overall mean prebrushing scores were 4.57 (PHB) and 5.34 (ADA). Post-brushing scores were 13.49 and 13.77 for the PHB and ADA respectively. Statistically, the multi-level PHB was significantly more efficacious than the flat-trimmed ADA. However, the difference is clinically considered small and the amount of remaining plaque was not significantly different between brushes. No greater potential to cause gingival abrasion to the oral tissues was observed.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 11/2010; 8(4):280-5. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test in vitro temperature changes in the pulp chamber during ultrasonic instrumentation in relation to different ultrasonic units, tip form, the amount of coolant applied and the time of instrumentation. Methods: The different systems tested were: EMS PM-400, EMS PM-600, Satelec P-max, Drr Vector, and Dentsply Cavitron. For each system various tips were tested. For each scaler and tip combination, thermal sequences were obtained for full water coolant supply. Furthermore the amount of water coolant needed to maintain the pulp chamber temperature was established. Finally the thermal changes without the use of water coolant during instrumentation were assessed. Results: At full water coolant setting all units showed a decrease in temperature ranging -1.0 to -6.5C. Without coolant all units showed a temperature increase between 4.9 and 10.4C. Magnetostrictive units needed approximately double the amount of water coolant compared to piezoelectric units in order to maintain the pulp chamber temperature Conclusion: The Drr Vector in combination with the water/polish suspension showed a slight increase of temperature in the pulp chamber. With use of full amount of water coolant supply, pulp chamber temperature dropped for all scaler systems with water coolant alone.
    IADR General Session 2010; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to test the effectiveness and safety of a newly designed multi-level manual toothbrush (Profit-Haije-Brush) compared with a control flat-trimmed manual toothbrush (ADA). Methods: For this single blind, two-group parallel study 36 healthy subjects without previous experience in the use of the Profit-Haije-Brush (PHB) were selected. Subjects were given a period of 2 weeks to become familiar with both types of brushes and were instructed to use them on alternate days for two minutes twice daily. Prior to their visit subjects refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 48 hrs. Pre-brushing plaque (TMQ&H) and gingival abrasion scores (GAS) were assessed. Subsequently, subjects brushed two randomly chosen contra-lateral quadrants with one of both brushes for one minute and the other two quadrants with the alternate brush for another minute. Subjects were supervised during their 2-minute brushing exercise. After brushing, plaque and gingival abrasion were re-assessed. Finally, a questionnaire was filled out to investigate the subjects' attitudes towards both brushes. Results: 35 subjects completed the protocol. The overall mean pre-brushing plaque score was 2.47 for the PHB and 2.44 for the ADA. The reduction in plaque scores was 1.32 and 1.23 respectively (p< 0.05). With regard to gingival abrasion scores the overall mean pre-brushing score was 4.57 for the PHB and 5.34 for the ADA. Post-brushing scores were 13.49 for the PHB and 13.77 for the ADA. Results of the questionnaire showed that subjects preferred the ADA over the PHB. Conclusions: The multi-level PHB-brush was significantly more effective than the flat-trimmed ADA-brush. However the difference is considered to be small. No greater potential to cause gingival abrasion to the oral tissues was observed even though the subjects considered the filaments of the PHB as being too stiff.
    IADR General Session 2010; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the inhibition of plaque growth by an experimental mouthrinse (BioXyl) based on hydrogen peroxide/glycerol. It was a double-blind, randomized study involving 40 volunteers in good general health. At the start of the trial, all participants received a dental prophylaxis to remove all plaque deposits. During the next 3 days subjects refrained from any mechanical oral hygiene procedure, except for the allocated mouthrinse being either the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2); 0.013% H(2)O(2)/0.004% glycerol) or the placebo without H(2)O(2). At the third day of appointment, plaque levels were assessed at six sites per tooth. The test group had a mean overall plaque score of 2.66 and the placebo group of 2.70. The difference in plaque scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The results of this pilot study showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the H(2)O(2)/glycerol group and the placebo group with respect to plaque inhibition within this study design.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 11/2009; 7(4):294-8. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This retrospective study described the pattern of bone loss around teeth with endodontic posts in periodontitis patients, and compared it with contra-lateral teeth without posts. Material and From full-mouth radiographic surveys of 146 periodontitis patients (> or =35 years), 194 roots with endodontic posts and contra-laterals without posts were selected. Upper molars, pre-molars with two posts and roots of lower molars with two posts were excluded. Technical parameters of the post space preparation, endodontic and restorative status were evaluated. The level of alveolar bone measured in millimetre from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ)/restoration margin and the pattern of bone loss (angular/horizontal) were evaluated on both mesial and distal aspects of roots with posts and contra-laterals, but not on the furcal areas of lower molars. The distance from the bone level to the CEJ/restoration margin was similar for teeth with posts and contra-laterals. However, teeth with posts had more angular defects mesially (18.8%versus 7.3%) as compared with their contra-laterals without posts. The defects around teeth with posts appeared to be typical in the sense that their apical level approximated the tip of the endodontic post. In periodontitis patients, teeth restored by an endodontic post had angular bony defects on the mesial aspect more frequently in comparison with their contra-laterals.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 10/2009; 36(11):940-9. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although implants with a roughened surface are widely used today, little is known about the long-term effect of a roughened surface compared with the conventional machined surface on clinical and radiographic parameters. The purpose of this study is to investigate the long-term differences between moderately rough (tioblasted) titanium implants and minimally rough machined/turned surfaces with respect to marginal bone resorption and the peri-implant soft tissues in the same patient. In 20 fully edentulous patients, with severely resorbed mandibles, a total of 80 Astra Tech dental implants were placed in the mandible to support a bar construction with a full overdenture. In each patient two minimally rough-surfaced (turned) and two moderately rough-surfaced (tioblast) implants were placed alternately. Clinical evaluation was carried out at base line (prosthetic installation), 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 12 years. Radiographic evaluation using standardized individual filmholders was carried out at base line (prosthetic installation), 6 months, 1, 5 and 12 years. In two patients, during the abutment surgery, one turned implant showed insufficient osseointegration and was replaced. One implant showed an abutment fracture after 9 years and was kept as a sleeper. From base line up to 12 years, no implant was lost. No significant differences were found between both implant surfaces concerning the clinical parameters such as plaque, calculus, bleeding and probing pocket depth. The mean (SD) marginal bone changes up to 12 years varied between -0.11 and +0.01 mm for the turned and -0.2 and +0.01 mm for the tioblast implants. No significant difference in marginal bone loss was found between both implant surfaces. We conclude that after 12 years of follow-up, no differences could be found between the turned and the tioblasted implants, both for soft and for hard tissue parameters.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 09/2009; 20(11):1231-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated "in vitro" the consistency of the water coolant supply for five ultrasonic scaler systems in relation to the tip type and different coolant settings. The systems were: EMS PM-400, EMS PM-600, Satelec P-max, Dürr Vector and Dentsply Cavitron. For each system, three units were used and on each unit various tips were tested. The tips were run unloaded for 1 min. at full and medium water supply setting. At full water coolant setting, the PM-400, PM-600 and Cavitron supplied on average >45 ml/min. of water coolant (51.5, 46.3 and 46.9 ml/min., respectively). The P-max supplied 25 ml/min. and the Vector supplied 4.9 ml/min. At medium setting, the PM-400 and PM-600 supplied approximately 50% of the volume given at the full coolant setting (25.0 and 26.3 ml/min., respectively). The Cavitron supplied approximately 40% at medium setting (18.2 ml/min.) and the P-max supplied approximately 25% (5.7 ml/min.). The coolant control system of the different units did not provide a reliable indication of the water flow. Also, some perio tips gave less water coolant as compared with other tips of the same brand. Consequently, a change of tips during treatment may require adjustment of the water coolant supply.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 02/2009; 36(2):127-31. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to test the accuracy and precision with which the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) can be assessed using three commercially available periodontal probes with different tip endings in both deciduous and permanent teeth. An "in vitro" model was developed, consisting of 70 extracted permanent and 30 deciduous human teeth mounted in plaster with an artificial gingiva made of silicone rubber. The probes tested were the Merritt-B probe, the ball-ended CPITN probe and the Vivacare TPS beveled-ball probe. With each probe, duplicate CEJ assessments were carried out at six sites per tooth by four examiners. Upon completion, the distance between the CEJ and the artificial gingival margin was determined using a stereomicroscope. The mean difference between the microscopic assessment and the mean clinical probe measurements in permanent teeth was -0.05 mm with the Merritt-B, 0.11 mm for the CPITN and 0.19 mm with the TPS probe. In deciduous teeth, the differences were -0.02, 0.35 and 0.63 mm, respectively. In both permanent and deciduous teeth, only the Merritt-B did not differ from the microscopic assessment. Results showed that the use of the Meritt-B probe offered the most accurate location of the CEJ in both permanent and deciduous teeth.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 02/2009; 36(3):212-8. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Van der Weijden F, Slot DE, Rosema M, Timmerman M. ITT in respect to GCP: a matter of diligence. J Clin Periodontol 2008; 35: 681–682. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X. 2008.01252.x.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 09/2008; 35(8):681-2. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare a tapered filament toothbrush (TFTB) to a control toothbrush (ADA) in their potential to cause gingival abrasion and improve the gingival condition following a period of experimental gingivitis. Thirty-two subjects refrained from brushing mandibular teeth for 21 days. During a subsequent 4-week treatment phase, the left or right side of the mouth was brushed with either the TFTB or ADA as randomly allocated. Gingival abrasion, plaque and gingival bleeding were assessed. During the treatment phase gingival abrasion showed a trend to be lower with the TFTB than the ADA, which was significant at the 2-week assessment. The mean plaque scores changed from 2.98 (day 21) to 1.59 for the TFTB and from 3.00 (day 21) to 1.31 for the ADA. The mean bleeding scores changed from 1.86 (day 21) to 1.35 for the TFTB and from 1.85 (day 21) to 1.20 for the ADA. Plaque and bleeding scores were significantly lower with the ADA. Both toothbrushes improved gingival health and effectively removed plaque. Although there was a tendency towards fewer sites with gingival abrasion with the TFTB brush, it was less effective than the ADA in the removal of plaque biofilm and reduction of bleeding. Subjects considered the TFTB to be more pleasant to use.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 09/2008; 6(3):174-82. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oscillating/rotating/pulsating powered toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis prevention over a 9-month period. The study had an examiner-masked, randomized, three-group parallel design. A total of 122 subjects >or= 18 years of age in good general health and with at least five teeth per quadrant and no pockets >or= 5 mm were included. A 3-week preexperimental period of extensive oral home care, including rinses, was started to improve gingival health. Professional oral hygiene instruction with a manual brush was provided. At baseline, subjects were assigned to one of three regimens: twice daily brushing with a manual toothbrush, a manual toothbrush and the use of floss, or a powered toothbrush. Subjects were professionally instructed in their regimen and given a prophylaxis. Two weeks later, oral hygiene reinforcement was provided. Gingival bleeding, plaque, staining, and gingival abrasion were assessed during the preexperimental period and at baseline, 10 weeks, and 6 and 9 months. There was a significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis from the preexperimental period to baseline. At 10 weeks and 6 and 9 months, the level of plaque was statistically significantly lower with the powered toothbrush versus the other two regimens (P <or= 0.002). At 10 weeks and 6 months, the level of bleeding in the powered toothbrush group was statistically significantly lower versus manual brushing alone (P <or= 0.024). The powered toothbrush maintained lower plaque levels for 9 months following the 3-week treatment phase better than the manual toothbrush with or without floss. The powered toothbrush showed significant benefits in preventing gingival bleeding versus manual brushing alone. All regimens were safe for oral tissues.
    Journal of Periodontology 08/2008; 79(8):1386-94. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine whether the quantity of bacteria in saliva and the degree of periodontal infection influence the speed of de novo plaque formation in periodontitis patients, 23 patients rinsed with 10 ml sterile saline. All teeth were then supragingivally and professionally cleaned, after which the patients were not allowed to undertake any form of oral hygiene for 24 hours. After this period, the rinsing procedure was repeated and the amount of de novo plaque was assessed. Three months after the initial periodontal therapy was completed the experiment was repeated. Both before and after treatment, the periodontal parameters were evaluated. The results showed that the quantity of the de novo plaque in healthy areas was less than in infected areas. In order to determine the influence of the quantity of bacteria in the saliva, only the areas which were already healthy before the treatment and the same areas after treatment were inspected. It was concluded that the degree of periodontal infection was the most important parameter for the degree of de novo plaque formation, but that the number of bacteria in the saliva also played a role.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 08/2008; 115(7):378-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of an experimental toothbrush with a slow-release system of chlorhexidine (CHX) and determine its ability to inhibit plaque, bleeding, staining and oral tissue abnormalities during 6 weeks of use. One hundred and fifty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: the Test Brush group with a template slow-delivery system of CHX (Ttb), the Control Brush group without CHX (Ctb) and the Control Brush group without CHX but rinsing post-brushing with a 0.2% CHX mouthrinse (Ctb+R). At baseline as well as at 3 and 6 weeks, all clinical parameters were assessed. Following the baseline assessment, a supragingival prophylaxis was provided. One hundred and forty subjects completed the study. The Ctb+R group had lower plaque and bleeding scores than the Ttb and the Ctb group and significantly (p=0.0001) higher stain scores. There were no significant differences in plaque, bleeding and stain scores between the Ttb and the Ctb group. No differences were detected in oral tissue changes, except for discoloration of the tongue. In the present study, no beneficial effect could be demonstrated for the experimental CHX-releasing toothbrush. The use of a 0.2% CHX mouthrinse (in combination with brushing) remains the gold standard for additional chemical plaque control.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 08/2008; 35(7):584-90. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of two soft manual toothbrushes with different filament and brush head designs in relation to gingival abrasion and plaque removing efficacy to the in relation flat trimmed manual reference toothbrush of the American Dental Association (ADA). The study had a randomized single use cross-over model (n = 76) with three sessions whereby all brushes were used by each subject. Subjects were asked to abstain from all oral hygiene procedures for 48 h. They brushed according to split-mouth design. Pre- and post-brushing plaque and gingival abrasion were assessed. The Sensodyne Sensitive (SENS) was more abrasive than the ADA (P < 0.001) while the Oral-B Sensitive Advantage (OBSA) was less abrasive than the SENS (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the OBSA and the ADA (P = 0.319). All three brushes showed statistically significant reductions (49-56%) in plaque versus baseline. Compared to the ADA and the SENS, the OBSA had a smaller percentage of plaque removal (56% versus 49%, P <or= 0.001; and 50% versus 52%, P = 0.028). The present study which compared two soft toothbrushes showed that the OBSA caused less gingival abrasion compared to the SENS-brush with a marginal loss (2%) of efficacy.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 08/2008; 6(3):166-73. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to test whether a slim Ultrasonic Tip reaches a more apical position when penetrating a periodontal pocket compared with the working blade of a conventional Gracey Curette in both untreated periodontitis and periodontal maintenance patients. Twenty untreated and 15 periodontal maintenance patients were selected based on the presence of at least one site a pocket of > or =5 mm in each quadrant. Recordings were made at the four approximal sites of four experimental teeth in each patient. First, the probing pocket depth was measured with the Jonker Probe. Second in randomized order, the penetration depth was assessed with an EMS PS Ultrasonic Tip and a Gracey Curette. In the periodontitis group, the Ultrasonic Tip penetrated significantly deeper than the Jonker Probe and the Gracey Curette. In the maintenance group, no differences were observed. Comparing the penetration of the instruments between groups, as related to the Jonker Probe measurements, only in the periodontitis group did the Ultrasonic Tip reach a significantly more apical level. The results of the present study show that in untreated periodontitis patients, the Ultrasonic Tip penetrated the pocket deeper than the pressure-controlled probe and the Gracey Curette.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2008; 35(1):31-6. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Om vast te stellen of de hoeveelheid bacteriën in het speeksel en de mate van parodontale ontsteking bij parodontitispatiënten bepalend zijn voor de snelheid van de novo plaquevorming werd door 23 patiënten met 10 ml steriel fysiologisch zout gespoeld. Vervolgens werden alle gebitselementen supragingivaal professioneel gereinigd, waarna de patiënten 24 uur geen enkele vorm van mondhygiëne mochten uitvoeren. Hierna werd er door de patiënten opnieuw gespoeld en werd de hoeveelheid de novo plaque opnieuw bepaald. Na 3 maanden werd deze behandeling herhaald. Zowel voor als na de behandeling werden de parodontale parameters geëvalueerd. Uit de resultaten bleek dat de hoeveelheid de novo plaque bij gezonde plekken minder was dan bij ontstoken plekken. Om de invloed van de aantallen bacteriën in het speeksel te bepalen, werd alleen gekeken naar de plaatsen die voor behandeling al gezond waren en dezelfde plaatsen na behandeling. Geconcludeerd werd dat de mate van parodontale ontsteking de belangrijkste parameter was voor de mate van de novo plaquevorming, maar dat de aantallen bacteriën in het speeksel eveneens een rol speelden.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 01/2008; 115(7):378-383.
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    ABSTRACT: To study transmission of Porphyromonas gingivalis in a population living in a remote area in Southern Java, Indonesia. Subgingival plaque samples from 167 subjects with varying degrees of periodontal breakdown were obtained and cultured for the presence of P. gingivalis. After extraction and purification of bacterial DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to genotype the bacterial isolates. Computer-assisted analysis of the bacterial DNA profiles was used to study distribution of P. gingivalis genotypes within family units. One hundred and five of the 167 (63%) subjects were culture positive for P. gingivalis. In total, 371 P. gingivalis isolates were obtained from the 105 subjects. Of the 105 subjects, 30 were siblings representing 13 families. In six of the 13 families (46%), identical P. gingivalis genotypes were found among siblings. In the study group of 105 subjects, 13 married couples were identified of which both spouses were culture positive for P. gingivalis. None of the 13 couples shared an identical P. gingivalis genotype. Twenty P. gingivalis-positive subjects had spouses that were culture negative for P. gingivalis. In this study population, vertical transmission of P. gingivalis has occurred within family units, most likely from parents to children. Transmission of P. gingivalis between spouses could not be established.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 07/2007; 34(6):480-4. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inconclusive evidence exists in the literature with regard to the additional (beneficial) mechanical effect of a dentifrice on plaque removal. A previous split-mouth study found that a dentifrice did not contribute to plaque removal. Because of limitations of the split-mouth model, a crossover design was used to evaluate whether a commercially available dentifrice had an additional effect on mechanical plaque removal during manual toothbrushing. Thirty-six subjects were given a manual toothbrush and a standard dentifrice. After a 48-hour plaque accumulation, subjects brushed under supervision with or without a dentifrice (total time of 2 minutes) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. Plaque reductions were 50% with and 56% without the use of dentifrice. This 6% difference was statistically significant (P = 0.034). Explorative analysis showed that brushing without a dentifrice was more effective in removing plaque on the approximal surfaces. The use of a dentifrice did not contribute to mechanical plaque removal during manual toothbrushing. It seemed that the mechanical action provided by the toothbrush was the main factor in the plaque-removing process.
    Journal of Periodontology 07/2007; 78(6):1011-6. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is widely accepted as the most effective product in the control of supragingival plaque. It is available in different delivery devices. The aim of this study was to test whether 0.12% CHX spray was as effective as 0.2% CHX spray and 0.2% CHX mouthwash in a 3-day "de novo" plaque formation model. Ninety volunteers were enrolled into a single-blind, randomized, three-group parallel study. They received a thorough dental prophylaxis prior to the test period. Subjects were divided randomly into three equal groups. They were requested to refrain from all forms of mechanical oral hygiene and instructed to use only their assigned product during the 3-day experimental period. After 3 days, the plaque growth was assessed using the Quigley and Hein plaque index (Q&H PI) at six sites per tooth. After 3 days, the CHX mouthwash group had a mean Q&H PI of 1.17 compared to 1.41 for the 0.2% CHX spray and 1.49 for the 0.12% CHX spray. The difference between the mouthwash and the two sprays was statistically significant, whereas the two sprays did not differ significantly from each other. Within the limitations of this 3-day "de novo" plaque formation study, the two sprays were not as effective as the mouthwash in plaque inhibition. No significant difference was found between the two sprays. To achieve the same effectiveness as a mouthwash, a higher dose (number of puffs) of CHX spray may be necessary.
    Journal of Periodontology 06/2007; 78(5):899-904. · 2.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
361.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2012
    • Academisch Centrum Tandheelkunde Amsterdam
      • Field of Periodontology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Academic Center for Dentistry
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Universitas Padjadjaran
      • Department of Periodontology
      Bandung, East Java, Indonesia
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands