M F Timmerman

VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (127)315.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy and safety of a newly designed multi-level manual toothbrush (Profit-Haije-Brush) compared with a control flat-trimmed manual reference toothbrush from the American Dental Association (ADA). For this study, 36 healthy subjects without previous experience in the use of the Profit-Haije-Brush (PHB) were selected. Subjects were given a period of 2 weeks to become familiar with both types of brushes and were instructed to use them on alternate days for 2 min twice daily. Prior to their visit, subjects refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 48 h. Prebrushing plaque and gingival abrasion scores were assessed. Subsequently, two randomly chosen contra-lateral quadrants were brushed with one of both brushes and the other two quadrants with the alternate brush. Subjects were supervised during their 2-min brushing exercise. After brushing, plaque and gingival abrasion were re-assessed. A questionnaire was filled out to investigate the subjects' attitudes towards both brushes. The overall mean prebrushing PI was 2.47 for the PHB and 2.44 for the ADA. The reduction in PI was 1.32 and 1.23 respectively (P < 0.05). With regard to gingival abrasion the overall mean prebrushing scores were 4.57 (PHB) and 5.34 (ADA). Post-brushing scores were 13.49 and 13.77 for the PHB and ADA respectively. Statistically, the multi-level PHB was significantly more efficacious than the flat-trimmed ADA. However, the difference is clinically considered small and the amount of remaining plaque was not significantly different between brushes. No greater potential to cause gingival abrasion to the oral tissues was observed.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 11/2010; 8(4):280-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2010.00475.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the inhibition of plaque growth by an experimental mouthrinse (BioXyl) based on hydrogen peroxide/glycerol. It was a double-blind, randomized study involving 40 volunteers in good general health. At the start of the trial, all participants received a dental prophylaxis to remove all plaque deposits. During the next 3 days subjects refrained from any mechanical oral hygiene procedure, except for the allocated mouthrinse being either the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2); 0.013% H(2)O(2)/0.004% glycerol) or the placebo without H(2)O(2). At the third day of appointment, plaque levels were assessed at six sites per tooth. The test group had a mean overall plaque score of 2.66 and the placebo group of 2.70. The difference in plaque scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The results of this pilot study showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the H(2)O(2)/glycerol group and the placebo group with respect to plaque inhibition within this study design.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 11/2009; 7(4):294-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00367.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare a tapered filament toothbrush (TFTB) to a control toothbrush (ADA) in their potential to cause gingival abrasion and improve the gingival condition following a period of experimental gingivitis. Thirty-two subjects refrained from brushing mandibular teeth for 21 days. During a subsequent 4-week treatment phase, the left or right side of the mouth was brushed with either the TFTB or ADA as randomly allocated. Gingival abrasion, plaque and gingival bleeding were assessed. During the treatment phase gingival abrasion showed a trend to be lower with the TFTB than the ADA, which was significant at the 2-week assessment. The mean plaque scores changed from 2.98 (day 21) to 1.59 for the TFTB and from 3.00 (day 21) to 1.31 for the ADA. The mean bleeding scores changed from 1.86 (day 21) to 1.35 for the TFTB and from 1.85 (day 21) to 1.20 for the ADA. Plaque and bleeding scores were significantly lower with the ADA. Both toothbrushes improved gingival health and effectively removed plaque. Although there was a tendency towards fewer sites with gingival abrasion with the TFTB brush, it was less effective than the ADA in the removal of plaque biofilm and reduction of bleeding. Subjects considered the TFTB to be more pleasant to use.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 09/2008; 6(3):174-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2008.00284.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine whether the quantity of bacteria in saliva and the degree of periodontal infection influence the speed of de novo plaque formation in periodontitis patients, 23 patients rinsed with 10 ml sterile saline. All teeth were then supragingivally and professionally cleaned, after which the patients were not allowed to undertake any form of oral hygiene for 24 hours. After this period, the rinsing procedure was repeated and the amount of de novo plaque was assessed. Three months after the initial periodontal therapy was completed the experiment was repeated. Both before and after treatment, the periodontal parameters were evaluated. The results showed that the quantity of the de novo plaque in healthy areas was less than in infected areas. In order to determine the influence of the quantity of bacteria in the saliva, only the areas which were already healthy before the treatment and the same areas after treatment were inspected. It was concluded that the degree of periodontal infection was the most important parameter for the degree of de novo plaque formation, but that the number of bacteria in the saliva also played a role.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 08/2008; 115(7):378-83.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of two soft manual toothbrushes with different filament and brush head designs in relation to gingival abrasion and plaque removing efficacy to the in relation flat trimmed manual reference toothbrush of the American Dental Association (ADA). The study had a randomized single use cross-over model (n = 76) with three sessions whereby all brushes were used by each subject. Subjects were asked to abstain from all oral hygiene procedures for 48 h. They brushed according to split-mouth design. Pre- and post-brushing plaque and gingival abrasion were assessed. The Sensodyne Sensitive (SENS) was more abrasive than the ADA (P < 0.001) while the Oral-B Sensitive Advantage (OBSA) was less abrasive than the SENS (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the OBSA and the ADA (P = 0.319). All three brushes showed statistically significant reductions (49-56%) in plaque versus baseline. Compared to the ADA and the SENS, the OBSA had a smaller percentage of plaque removal (56% versus 49%, P <or= 0.001; and 50% versus 52%, P = 0.028). The present study which compared two soft toothbrushes showed that the OBSA caused less gingival abrasion compared to the SENS-brush with a marginal loss (2%) of efficacy.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 08/2008; 6(3):166-73. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2008.00298.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Om vast te stellen of de hoeveelheid bacteriën in het speeksel en de mate van parodontale ontsteking bij parodontitispatiënten bepalend zijn voor de snelheid van de novo plaquevorming werd door 23 patiënten met 10 ml steriel fysiologisch zout gespoeld. Vervolgens werden alle gebitselementen supragingivaal professioneel gereinigd, waarna de patiënten 24 uur geen enkele vorm van mondhygiëne mochten uitvoeren. Hierna werd er door de patiënten opnieuw gespoeld en werd de hoeveelheid de novo plaque opnieuw bepaald. Na 3 maanden werd deze behandeling herhaald. Zowel voor als na de behandeling werden de parodontale parameters geëvalueerd. Uit de resultaten bleek dat de hoeveelheid de novo plaque bij gezonde plekken minder was dan bij ontstoken plekken. Om de invloed van de aantallen bacteriën in het speeksel te bepalen, werd alleen gekeken naar de plaatsen die voor behandeling al gezond waren en dezelfde plaatsen na behandeling. Geconcludeerd werd dat de mate van parodontale ontsteking de belangrijkste parameter was voor de mate van de novo plaquevorming, maar dat de aantallen bacteriën in het speeksel eveneens een rol speelden.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 01/2008; 115(7):378-383.
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    ABSTRACT: Inconclusive evidence exists in the literature with regard to the additional (beneficial) mechanical effect of a dentifrice on plaque removal. A previous split-mouth study found that a dentifrice did not contribute to plaque removal. Because of limitations of the split-mouth model, a crossover design was used to evaluate whether a commercially available dentifrice had an additional effect on mechanical plaque removal during manual toothbrushing. Thirty-six subjects were given a manual toothbrush and a standard dentifrice. After a 48-hour plaque accumulation, subjects brushed under supervision with or without a dentifrice (total time of 2 minutes) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. Plaque reductions were 50% with and 56% without the use of dentifrice. This 6% difference was statistically significant (P = 0.034). Explorative analysis showed that brushing without a dentifrice was more effective in removing plaque on the approximal surfaces. The use of a dentifrice did not contribute to mechanical plaque removal during manual toothbrushing. It seemed that the mechanical action provided by the toothbrush was the main factor in the plaque-removing process.
    Journal of Periodontology 07/2007; 78(6):1011-6. DOI:10.1902/jop.2007.060339 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study transmission of Porphyromonas gingivalis in a population living in a remote area in Southern Java, Indonesia. Subgingival plaque samples from 167 subjects with varying degrees of periodontal breakdown were obtained and cultured for the presence of P. gingivalis. After extraction and purification of bacterial DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to genotype the bacterial isolates. Computer-assisted analysis of the bacterial DNA profiles was used to study distribution of P. gingivalis genotypes within family units. One hundred and five of the 167 (63%) subjects were culture positive for P. gingivalis. In total, 371 P. gingivalis isolates were obtained from the 105 subjects. Of the 105 subjects, 30 were siblings representing 13 families. In six of the 13 families (46%), identical P. gingivalis genotypes were found among siblings. In the study group of 105 subjects, 13 married couples were identified of which both spouses were culture positive for P. gingivalis. None of the 13 couples shared an identical P. gingivalis genotype. Twenty P. gingivalis-positive subjects had spouses that were culture negative for P. gingivalis. In this study population, vertical transmission of P. gingivalis has occurred within family units, most likely from parents to children. Transmission of P. gingivalis between spouses could not be established.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 07/2007; 34(6):480-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2007.01081.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is widely accepted as the most effective product in the control of supragingival plaque. It is available in different delivery devices. The aim of this study was to test whether 0.12% CHX spray was as effective as 0.2% CHX spray and 0.2% CHX mouthwash in a 3-day "de novo" plaque formation model. Ninety volunteers were enrolled into a single-blind, randomized, three-group parallel study. They received a thorough dental prophylaxis prior to the test period. Subjects were divided randomly into three equal groups. They were requested to refrain from all forms of mechanical oral hygiene and instructed to use only their assigned product during the 3-day experimental period. After 3 days, the plaque growth was assessed using the Quigley and Hein plaque index (Q&H PI) at six sites per tooth. After 3 days, the CHX mouthwash group had a mean Q&H PI of 1.17 compared to 1.41 for the 0.2% CHX spray and 1.49 for the 0.12% CHX spray. The difference between the mouthwash and the two sprays was statistically significant, whereas the two sprays did not differ significantly from each other. Within the limitations of this 3-day "de novo" plaque formation study, the two sprays were not as effective as the mouthwash in plaque inhibition. No significant difference was found between the two sprays. To achieve the same effectiveness as a mouthwash, a higher dose (number of puffs) of CHX spray may be necessary.
    Journal of Periodontology 06/2007; 78(5):899-904. DOI:10.1902/jop.2007.060089 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the relationship between vitamin C and the severity of periodontitis. The study population consisted of subjects from the Malabar/Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. In 2002, clinical measurements were performed in 128 subjects, including evaluation of plaque, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and attachment loss. In 2005, 123 out of 128 subjects could be retrieved who were present at the examination of 2002. Blood samples were taken to measure plasma vitamin C levels. Information about the subject's dietary habit was obtained by means of a personal interview guided by a questionnaire. Plasma levels of vitamin C ranged from 0.02 to 34.45 mg/l with a mean of 7.90 mg/l (+/-5.35). The correlation coefficient between plasma vitamin C level and periodontal attachment loss was -0.199 (p<0.05); stepwise linear regression revealed that vitamin C levels explained 3.9% of the variance in periodontal attachment loss. Subjects with vitamin C deficiency (14.7% of the study population) had more attachment loss compared with those with depletion or normal plasma vitamin C values. The negative association between plasma vitamin C levels and periodontal attachment loss suggests that vitamin C deficiency may contribute to the severity of periodontal breakdown.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 05/2007; 34(4):299-304. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2007.01053.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining an adequate low level of plaque through daily tooth brushing is often not feasible. Effective chemotherapeutic agents as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control would therefore be valuable. Chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash has proved to be an effective inhibitor of plaque accumulation. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of application of 0.12% CHX dentifrice gel on de novo plaque accumulation. The study was designed as a single blind, randomized three-arm parallel clinical trial. At the beginning of the test period all volunteers received a thorough professional oral prophylaxis. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three regimens. During a 3-day non-brushing period, subjects abstained from all forms of mechanical oral hygiene. One regimen (test group) used 0.12% chlorhexidine dentifrice gel (CHX-DGel, Perio.Aid) applied in a fluoride gel tray, the benchmark control group used a regular dentifrice applied in a fluoride gel tray (RegD, Everclean HEMA). The positive control group rinsed with a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash (CHX-MW, Perio.Aid). The Quigley and Hein plaque index (PI) from all subjects was assessed after 3 days of de novo plaque accumulation. Subsequently, all subjects received a questionnaire to evaluate their attitude, appreciation and perception towards the products used employing a Visual Analogue Scale scores. After the experimental period, habitual oral hygiene procedures were resumed. Ninety-six systemically healthy subjects completed the study. After 3 days, the full-mouth PI for the CHX-DGel regimen was 1.87 compared with 1.93 for the RegD regimen and 1.55 for the CHX-MW regimen. The two dentifrices (CHX-DGel and RegD) were significantly less effective as the CHX-MW (P=0.0006). No significant difference between scores of the dentifrices was found. Within the limitations of the present 3-day non-brushing study design, it can be concluded that application of 0.12% CHX dentifrice gel is not significantly different from application of regular dentifrice on plaque accumulation. Use of a 0.12% CHX mouthwash is significantly more effective. CHX-DGel appears a poor alternative for a dentifrice. It is not an effective inhibitor of plaque growth and does not possess fluoride.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 03/2007; 5(1):45-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2007.00227.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional effect of a newly developed battery-operated brush Oral-B CrossAction Power with a hybrid brush head design (CAPB). The brush combines an oscillating/rotating part, a PowerHead(R), with a non-moving part with CrissCross bristles. It was compared with a manual control toothbrush Butler GUM 311 (CTB). Thirty subjects were requested not to brush their teeth 48 h prior to the examination, when plaque removal efficacy was assessed by scoring plaque before and after brushing. Plaque was assessed according to the Silness & Loë Index at six sites per tooth. Subjects were brushed by a dentist using one of the four randomly chosen procedures of brushing in each quadrant. The CAPB was used with three different modes of brushing each in different randomly chosen quadrants, with the manual toothbrush being used in the remaining quadrant as a control. The baseline plaque levels ranged from 1.69 to 1.74 and the end levels ranged from 0.39 to 0.45. In terms of percentage, the results with the four procedures run from 75% to 79%. These differences between the battery brush and manual brush irrespective of the brushing mode used were not statistically significant. The results of this Professional Brushing Study show that the CrossAction Power toothbrush was as effective as a regular manual toothbrush.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 12/2006; 4(4):204-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2006.00213.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inconclusive evidence exists in the literature with regard to the additional effect of the use of dentifrice on plaque removal. The present study was undertaken to test whether the use of dentifrice during toothbrushing contributes to the instant cleaning efficacy of the brushing procedure. Three groups of patients, 40 subjects each, were randomly assigned to one of three dentifrices that differed with respect to the relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) value. After a 48-hour plaque accumulation, subjects brushed under supervision in a split-mouth order with or without the use of dentifrice (total time=2 minutes). Plaque reductions varied between 51% and 58% for the three dentifrices. The overall analysis showed a mean difference of 3% in plaque reduction in favor of brushing without dentifrice (P=0.017). The type of dentifrice did not influence this observed difference (P=0.506). Also, the order of the brushing procedure (starting the brushing procedure with or without dentifrice) had no interaction with the effect of dentifrice on the brushing (P=0.187). The use of dentifrice does not contribute to the instant mechanical plaque removal during manual toothbrushing. A higher dentifrice abrasivity does not seem to contribute to increased plaque removal with a manual toothbrush. It appears that the mechanical action provided by the use of a toothbrush is the main factor in the plaque-removing process.
    Journal of Periodontology 10/2006; 77(9):1522-7. DOI:10.1902/jop.2006.050188 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the probing force exerted when using two manual periodontal probes with different handle diameters in hands of different dental professionals. For this study two periodontal probes with handle diameters of 54 and 92 mm were used. The 11 subjects responsible for the measurements were periodontists, postgraduate periodontal students and dental hygienists. Per measurement session, 20 measurements were performed by each subject. Each probe was used 10 times. After the first baseline measurement session, a second session was performed 1 week later and a last third session another 3 weeks later. Orders for using each probe were randomized for each subject and each session. The mean overall force with the thin probe was 55.2 g and with the thick probe 59.4 g. The difference of 4.2 g between the two probe types was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.041). The present study showed that the diameter of the probe handle also had an effect on the force exerted with a periodontal probe. However, the clinical relevance of this difference may be minor, when considering the interindividual variance of forces exerted when probing.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 09/2006; 4(3):140-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2006.00187.x · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • M F Timmerman, G A Van der Weijden
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    ABSTRACT: This retrospective study compared the marginal bone level of teeth with root canal fillings with contra-lateral teeth without. Of 286 consecutive patients (> or =35 years), referred to practice for periodontology in the Netherlands, 67 full sets of radiographs contained > or =1 endodontically treated tooth and its contra-lateral tooth without root canal treatment. Bone level at the mesial and distal of these teeth was scored from the CEJ. In multi-rooted teeth, the presence of interradicular radiolucency was assessed. The presence of posts, and periapical radiolucencies was assessed. Analysis for differences between treated teeth and contra-laterals was controlled for tooth surface, presence of a post and tooth type. The mean distance from the root filling to the apex was 2.6 mm. Periapical radiolucencies were found in 14%. The mean bone level was at 4.3 mm for endodontically treated teeth and at 3.7 mm for contra-laterals. Significantly more bone loss (0.6 mm) was found at the endodontically treated teeth. No difference was found between mesial and distal, teeth without and with posts and different tooth types. The presence of interradicular radiolucency was more frequent in endodontically treated teeth (OR 2.1, p(McNemar test)=0.039). In periodontitis patients, teeth with endodontic treatment had more bone loss as compared with untreated contralaterals.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 09/2006; 33(9):620-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00958.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on Western Java, Indonesia, were selected. Baseline examination was carried out in 1987 and follow-up examinations in 1994 and 2002. In 2002, 128 subjects could be retrieved from the original group of 255. Baseline examination included evaluation of plaque, bleeding on probing, calculus, pocket depth, attachment loss and presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, spirochetes and motile microorganisms. The mean attachment loss increased from 0.33 mm in 1987 to 0.72 mm in 1994 and 1.97 mm in 2002. Analysis identified the amount of subgingival calculus and subgingival presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans as risk factors, and age as a risk determinant, for the onset of disease. Regarding disease progression, the number of sites with a probing depth > or = 5 mm and the number of sites with recession were identified as risk predictors and male gender as a risk determinant. Screening of these parameters early in life could be helpful in the prevention of onset and progression of periodontal diseases.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 08/2006; 33(8):540-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00953.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been known for some time that tooth brushing can have unwanted effects on the gingiva and hard dental tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate two factors that may be of influence on the incidence of gingival abrasion during tooth brushing. The first factor being the possible influence of feedback through oral sensory perception and the second the possible abrasive effects of dentifrice. From the sensory feedback experiment it became clear that a significantly greater number of abrasions occurred when the test subjects would brush their own teeth than when they would have their teeth brushed by a dental hygienist. From the dentifrice experiment it became clear that the use of dentifrice has no significant effect on the occurrence of gingival lesions.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 08/2006; 113(7):268-72.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the plaque-inhibitory effect of a 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) rinse when preceded by ordinary toothbrushing with a 1.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-containing dentifrice to the effect of the same rinse when used alone, or when preceded by rinsing with an SLS-containing slurry. The study was an examiner blinded, randomized three-arm, parallel design. It used a 4-day plaque accumulation model to compare three different oral hygiene regimens, which were performed under supervision. One hundred and twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to one of each group. At the beginning of each test period, they received a thorough dental prophylaxis. The experiment was performed in one randomly assigned (upper or lower) jaw, called the study jaw. The opposite jaw, referred to as the dentifrice jaw, served only to introduce the influence of toothbrushing with a dentifrice on the anti-plaque efficacy of the CHX in the study jaw of the same mouth. At the end of the 4-day test period, plaque and gingival bleeding were scored in the study jaw. In all the regimens, the oral hygiene procedure was finalized by rinsing with a CHX 0.2% solution for 1 min. The study jaw was not brushed during the experiment. Regimen A (positive control) consisted of rinsing with CHX alone. In regimen B, rinsing with CHX was preceded by rinsing with an SLS-containing slurry, while in regimen C rinsing with CHX was preceded by toothbrushing with an SLS-containing dentifrice in the dentifrice jaw. No other oral hygiene measures were allowed. After 4 days of undisturbed plaque accumulation, the amount of plaque and level of gingival health were evaluated. The overall plaque index for regimens A, B and C was 1.17, 1.62, and 1.14, respectively. There was no significant difference in plaque accumulation between the CHX alone regimen (A) and the SLS-dentifrice-CHX regimen (C). Regimen B differed significantly from regimens A and C. The overall bleeding index for regimens A, B and C was 0.24, 0.18, and 0.20, respectively. There was no significant difference between the three regimens. The present study shows that the anti-plaque efficacy of a 0.2% CHX rinse was not reduced when preceded by everyday toothbrushing with a SLS-containing dentifrice. However, when preceded by rinsing with an SLS-containing slurry, the anti-plaque efficacy of a 0.2% CHX rinse was reduced.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 06/2006; 33(5):340-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00910.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to test in periodontal maintenance patients whether the systems for pressure control that have been commercially developed contribute to more reproducible probing depth measurements as compared with a manual probe. In 12 patients duplicate measurements were made at day 0 and 1 week later. In each patient four teeth with the deepest pockets were measured at six sites. In total 288 sites were available for comparisons. The Florida Probe (FP) (159 N/cm(2)), the Jonker Probe (JP) (153 N/cm(2)), the Brodontic probe (BP) (255 N/cm(2)) and the manual probe (MP) were used in a randomized scheme. Mean probing measurements showed for the FP and the JP lower recordings than for the BP and manual probe. The FP, the BP and the MP showed no differences between the duplicate measurements, except for the JP where the second measurement was deeper. Correlation coefficients between measurements at day 0 and 1 week show for the BP and the MP are 0.90 and 0.89, respectively, while for the FP and the JP they are 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. The BP and the MP appear to be reliable tools for reproducible pocket depth measurements in periodontal maintenance patients.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 05/2006; 33(4):276-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00900.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    M F Timmerman, G A van der Weijden
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents a selected overview of the literature concerning risk factors for periodontitis. That in some individuals gingivitis develops into periodontitis is still a matter of extensive research. Cross-sectional studies of clinical and microbiological factors can be meaningful. Longitudinal studies of the natural history allow analysis of potential factors and conditions that may have an impact on the disease process. At present, several possible risk factors for the initiation and progression of periodontitis have been identified: age, gender, plaque, calculus, existing attachment loss. A consistent finding appears to be genetic predisposition for the development of the disease. In terms of microbiology, several micro-organisms have been identified. The results of the Java Project on natural development of Periodontal Disease clearly pinpoint Actinobacillus actinimycetemcomitans as being associated with the onset of disease. The presence of subgingival calculus was found to be associated with onset and dental plaque with progression of disease. Consistent with literature males are more susceptible to disease. The presence of pockets > or = 5 mm appear to be a useful tool, since it was found to be a prognostic factor for disease progression.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 02/2006; 4(1):2-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2006.00168.x · 0.68 Impact Factor