[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent form of skeletal disease, represents a leading cause of disability following middle age. OA is characterized by the loss of articular cartilage; however, the details of its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated a genetic association between the cartilage extracellular matrix protein asporin and OA (Kizawa, H., Kou, I., Iida, A., Sudo, A., Miyamoto, Y., Fukuda, A., Mabuchi, A., Kotani, A., Kawakami, A., Yamamoto, S., Uchida, A., Nakamura, K., Notoya, K., Nakamura, Y., and Ikegawa, S. (2005) Nat. Genet. 37, 138-144). Furthermore, we showed that asporin binds to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a key cytokine in OA pathogenesis, and inhibits TGF-beta-induced chondrogenesis. To date, functional data for asporin have come primarily from mouse cell culture models of developing cartilage rather than from human articular cartilage cells, in which OA occurs. Here, we describe mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in human articular cartilage. Asporin blocks chondrogenesis and inhibits TGF-beta1-induced expression of matrix genes and the resulting chondrocyte phenotypes. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of asporin increases the expression of cartilage marker genes and TGF-beta1; in turn, TGF-beta1 stimulates asporin expression in articular cartilage cells, suggesting that asporin and TGF-beta1 form a regulatory feedback loop. Asporin inhibits TGF-beta/Smad signaling upstream of TGF-beta type I receptor activation in vivo by co-localizing with TGF-beta1 on the cell surface and blocking its interaction with the TGF-beta type II receptor. Our results provide a basis for elucidating the role of asporin in the molecular pathogenesis of OA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a very common bone and joint disease characterized by breakdown of cartilage in the joint. We recently found that an aspartic-acid repeat polymorphism of the asporin gene (ASPN) on chromosome 9 is associated with susceptibility to OA in Japanese. We provide here a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map within a 33.4-kb genomic region containing ASPN. A total of 19 SNPs were isolated from the region by systematic screening using 48 Japanese patients with OA: 7 SNPs in the 5' flanking region, 8 in introns, and 4 in the 3' untranslated region. Nine SNPs were novel. This high-resolution SNP map will be a useful resource for analyzing genes associated with OA and other bone and joint diseases.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2006; 51(2):151-4. DOI:10.1007/s10038-005-0337-6 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is caused by degeneration of intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine. One of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, LDD has strong genetic determinants. Using a case-control association study, we identified a functional SNP (1184T --> C, resulting in the amino acid substitution I395T) in CILP, which encodes the cartilage intermediate layer protein, that acts as a modulator of LDD susceptibility. CILP was expressed abundantly in intervertebral discs, and its expression increased as disc degeneration progressed. CILP colocalized with TGF-beta1 in clustering chondrocytes and their territorial matrices in intervertebral discs. CILP inhibited TGF-beta1-mediated induction of cartilage matrix genes through direct interaction with TGF-beta1 and inhibition of TGF-beta1 signaling. The susceptibility-associated 1184C allele showed increased binding and inhibition of TGF-beta1. Therefore, we conclude that the extracellular matrix protein CILP regulates TGF-beta signaling and that this regulation has a crucial role in the etiology and pathogenesis of LDD. Our study also adds to the list of connective tissue diseases that are associated with TGF-beta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of human arthritis. We investigated the potential role of asporin, an extracellular matrix component expressed abundantly in the articular cartilage of individuals with osteoarthritis, in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Here we report a significant association between a polymorphism in the aspartic acid (D) repeat of the gene encoding asporin (ASPN) and osteoarthritis. In two independent populations of individuals with knee osteoarthritis, the D14 allele of ASPN is over-represented relative to the common D13 allele, and its frequency increases with disease severity. The D14 allele is also over-represented in individuals with hip osteoarthritis. Asporin suppresses TGF-beta-mediated expression of the genes aggrecan (AGC1) and type II collagen (COL2A1) and reduced proteoglycan accumulation in an in vitro model of chondrogenesis. The effect on TGF-beta activity is allele-specific, with the D14 allele resulting in greater inhibition than other alleles. In vitro binding assays showed a direct interaction between asporin and TGF-beta. Taken together, these findings provide another functional link between extracellular matrix proteins, TGF-beta activity and disease, suggesting new therapeutic strategies for osteoarthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility genes for seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SNSA) other than HLA-B27 remain unclarified. Sex hormones are implicated in the pathogenesis of SNSA. Cytochrome P450c17a (CYP17) is a key regulator of androgen biosynthesis, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'-untranslated region of the CYP17 gene (CYP17), -34C > T, is associated with variety of diseases. We have investigated the association between the CYP17 SNP and SNSA in Japanese males. Genomic DNA was extracted from 149 Japanese male SNSA patients and 380 controls. The CYP17 SNP was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Allelic and genotypic frequencies of the SNP were compared between SNSA patients and controls, and within SNSA patients. We also computed haplotype frequencies using an expectation-maximization algorithm, analyzed the difference between SNSA and control groups, and examined the potential association of other known SNPs in the CYP17 gene. The frequency of the -34T allele was significantly increased in HLA-B27-negative SNSA, but not in total or HLA-B27-positive SNSA when compared to controls. The T allele was more prevalent in HLA-B27-negative SNSA than in HLA-B27-positive SNSA, and the T/T genotype was over-represented in HLA-B27-negative SNSA. Haplotype analysis did not demonstrate more significant association. The CYP17 SNP is associated with SNSA in HLA-B27-negative Japanese males.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 10/2004; 130A(2):169-71. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.30259 · 2.16 Impact Factor