[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the arterial wall leading to coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Along with the discovery of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes, a role for DPP4 in atherosclerosis is emerging. However, until now the expression and role of other DPPs such as DPP8 and DPP9 in atherosclerosis is completely unknown. In the present study, we first investigated DPP expression in human atherosclerotic plaques. DPP4 could only be observed in endothelial cells of plaque neovessels in half of the specimens. In contrast, DPP8 and DPP9 were abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of plaques. We then focused on DPP expression and function in macrophage differentiation, activation and apoptosis. DPP8/9 was responsible for most of the DPP activity in macrophages. During monocyte to macrophage differentiation, DPP9 was upregulated both in pro-inflammatory M1 (3.7 ± 0.3-fold increase) and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages (3.7 ± 0.4-fold increase) whereas DPP8 expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of DPP8/9 activity with compound 1G244 reduced activation of M1 macrophages (IL-6 88 ± 16 vs. 146 ± 19 pg/ml; TNFα 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 1.9 ng/ml in treated vs. untreated cells), but not of M2 macrophages. Likewise, DPP9 silencing reduced TNFα and IL-6 secretion, pointing to a DPP9-mediated effect of the inhibitor. DPP8/9 inhibition also enhanced macrophage apoptosis (15 ± 4 vs. 7 ± 3 % in untreated cells). Because pro-inflammatory macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis, plaque rupture and subsequent infarction, DPP9 inhibition might provide interesting therapeutic prospects in reducing atherosclerosis and/or in the prevention of plaque rupture.
Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 05/2013; 108(3):350. · 7.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV, DPP4) is a serine protease that releases N-terminal dipeptides. It is a validated drug target for type 2 diabetes and DPPIV inhibitors are currently evaluated for other therapeutic applications. Various assays are used for DPPIV activity measurements in biological samples. Highly sensitive methods are needed to measure also very low activities in inhibited samples.
Here, the three most extensively used substrates to quantify DPPIV activity are compared using in-house methods. A luminescent kit was also included. In addition, one of the in-house fluorometric assays was elaborated for use in biological samples containing reversible DPPIV inhibitors to estimate residual DPPIV activity which is usually underestimated due to sample dilution.
The in-house methods showed a good precision, linearity and specificity. Both fluorometric substrates had a 10-fold higher sensitivity compared to the colorimetric assay. The luminescent kit was found to be the most sensitive.
All three in-house methods can be used to measure DPPIV activity in non-inhibited biological samples. The more sensitive fluorometric assays are recommended when sample volumes are limited or when using inhibited samples. The elaborated fluorometric method can be used to estimate the residual in vivo DPPIV activity in inhibitor treated subjects.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2011; 413(3-4):456-62. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP(1-32)) may be truncated into BNP(3-32) by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) and that BNP(3-32) has reduced biological activities compared with BNP(1-32). We investigated if DPP4 contributes to the cardiorenal alterations and to the attenuated response to BNP seen in heart failure.
Haemodynamic and renal assessment was performed in 12 pigs at baseline, 4 weeks after pacing-induced heart failure, and during BNP infusion. They were randomized to either placebo or treatment with a DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin. After 4 weeks of pacing, heart rate was reduced compared with baseline in the sitagliptin group (60 ± 2 vs. 95 ± 16 b.p.m., P < 0.01), and an increase in stroke volume was observed in the sitagliptin group compared with placebo (+24 ± 6% vs. -17 ± 7%, P < 0.01). Glomerular filtration rate declined at week 4 compared with baseline in the placebo group (1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3 mL/kg/min, P < 0.01) but remained preserved in the sitagliptin group [1.8 ± 0.2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3 mL/kg/min, P = NS (non-significant)]. In the sitagliptin group, BNP infusion improved end-systolic elastance (68 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 4 mmHg/kg/mL, P < 0.05), ventricular-arterial coupling, and mechanical efficiency. Compared with controls (n = 6), myocardial gene expression of BNP, interleukin-6, Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger, and calmodulin was up-regulated in the placebo group, but not in the sitagliptin group.
In pacing-induced heart failure, DPP4 inhibition preserves the glomerular filtration rate, modulates stroke volume and heart rate, and potentiates the positive inotropic effect of exogenous BNP at no energy expense.
European Journal of Heart Failure 11/2011; 14(1):14-21. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between the pro-inflammatory state of schizophrenia and increased tryptophan degradation into kynurenine has been reported. However, the relationship between metabolites from subdivisions of the kynurenine pathway, kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine, remains unknown. The present study tested the relationship between these kynurenine metabolites in the plasma of medication-naïve (n=35) or medication-free (n=18) patients with schizophrenia at admission and following 6-week antipsychotic treatment compared to healthy controls (n=48). The plasma concentrations of kynurenic acid (nmol/l) were lower (difference=-8.44 (-13.22 to -3.65); p=0.001) and of 3-hydroxykynurenine (nmol/l) were higher (difference=11.24 (8.11-14.37); p<0.001) in the patients compared with the healthy controls. The kynurenic acid/kynurenine (difference=-2.75 (-5.115 to -0.336); p=0.026) and kynurenic acid/3-hydroxykynurenine (difference=-1.08 (-1.431 to -0.729); p<0.001) ratios were also lower in the patients. After the 6-week treatment, the patients' plasma kynurenic acid levels (difference=3.85 (-0.23 to 7.94); p=0.064) showed a trend towards an increase, whereas plasma 3-hydroxykynurenine levels (difference=22.41 (19.76-25.07); p<0.001) decreased. As a consequence, the kynurenic acid/3-hydroxykynurenine ratio (difference=-4.41 (-5.51 to -3.3); p<0.001) increased. Higher initial plasma kynurenic acid levels on admission or increased kynurenic acid/kynurenine ratio after treatment were associated with reduction of clinical symptoms scores upon discharge although higher kynurenic acid/kynurenine on admission may induce higher positive symptoms score. In contrast, higher 3-hydroxykynurenine is associated with lower positive symptoms score. These results indicate that there is an imbalance in the kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia. The 6-week antipsychotic treatment may partially reverse the imbalance in kynurenine metabolism and that in turn induces clinical response.
Brain Behavior and Immunity 05/2011; 25(8):1576-81. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)/CD26 is by far the most extensively studied member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine proteases. The discovery of the related enzymes DPP8 and DPP9 necessitates a (re-)evaluation of the DPPIV-like enzymatic activity in cells and organs. In this study, we aimed (1) to investigate the expression of the individual dipeptidyl peptidases in different types of endothelial cells (ECs) and (2) to reconsider published data in relation to our findings. Examination of DPP expression in rat primary ECs of aortic, endocardial and cardiac microvascular origin revealed the presence of DPPIV-like activity in all cell lysates. More than half of this activity could be attributed to DPP8/9. Western blot analysis revealed an abundance of the DPP8 protein as compared to DPP9. The expression of DPPIV and DPP8 was significantly higher in the cardiac microvascular endothelium than in the other ECs, suggesting a more pronounced role of these DPPs in the microvasculature. In situ, DPP activity in ventricular microvasculature was completely inhibited by sitagliptin, indicating that DPPIV is the predominant DPPIV-like enzyme in this organ. By contrast, immunohistochemical studies indicated DPP9 as the predominant DPP in human carotid artery ECs. In conclusion, our results support a highly regulated expression of individual DPPs in ECs, with a spatial heterogeneity in the cardiovascular tree.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-stroke inflammation may induce upregulation of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway for tryptophan (TRP) oxidation, resulting in neuroprotective (kynurenic acid, KA) and neurotoxic metabolites (3-hydroxyanthranillic acid, 3-HAA). We investigated whether activity of the kynurenine pathway in acute ischemic stroke is related to initial stroke severity, long-term stroke outcome and the ischemia-induced inflammatory response. Plasma concentrations of TRP and its metabolites were measured in 149 stroke patients at admission, at 24 h, at 72 h and at day 7 after stroke onset. We evaluated the relation between the KYN/TRP ratio, the KA/3-HAA ratio and stroke severity, outcome and inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR)). KYN/TRP but not KA/3-HAA correlated with the NIHSS score and with the infarct volume. Patients with poor outcome had higher mean KYN/TRP ratios than patients with more favourable outcome. The KYN/TRP ratio at admission correlated with CRP levels, ESR and NLR. The activity of the kynurenine pathway for tryptophan degradation in acute ischemic stroke correlates with stroke severity and long-term stroke outcome. Tryptophan oxidation is related to the stroke-induced inflammatory response.
Neurochemical Research 09/2010; 35(9):1315-22. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dipeptidyl peptidases (DPP) 8 and 9 belong to the DPP4 activity and/or structure homologues (DASH). Recently, a DPP9-like protein was purified from bovine testes. The aim of the present study was to prove its identity and to investigate the characteristics of this natural enzyme. We report the identification and N-terminal sequence analysis by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, of the purified bovine enzyme as DPP9. The tryptic peptides after in-gel digestion covered 41% and 38% of the short and full-length variants of bovine DPP9, respectively. Using Asp-N digestion combined with a very recently described mass spectrometric method using DITC glass beads, the N-terminal peptide (XTGALTSERG) was isolated. It corresponds to the N-terminus of the short form of bovine DPP9. There was no evidence for glycosylation of purified bovine DPP9. The purified DPP9 was activated and stabilized by DTT. Bovine DPP9 lost its activity almost completely after alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide. Also alkylation with iodoacetamide inhibited DPP9, albeit only 70%. Other properties of bovine DPP9 are reported, including functional stability and sensitivity towards metal ions. Our results indicate that the short form of DPP9 can be isolated from bovine testes and that it behaves as a stable enzyme suitable for further functional and biochemical characterization as well as for inhibitor screening and characterization.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2009; 1804(4):781-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The T cell activation Ag CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV) combines co-stimulatory and enzymatic properties. Catalytically, it functions as an exopeptidase, modulating biological activity of key chemokines and peptides. Here we investigated the effect of organ-specific inhibition of DPP IV catalytic activity on ischemia/reperfusion injury after extended ischemia in the mouse model of orthotopic single lung transplantation. C57BL/6 mice were syngeneically, transplanted, grafts were perfused and stored in Perfadex with (treated) or without (control) a DPP IV enzymatic activity inhibitor (AB192). Transplantation was performed after 18h cold ischemia time; following 2-h reperfusion, grafts were analyzed for oxygenation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, histomorphology, and immunohistochemistry was performed for leukocyte Ag 6, myeloperoxidase, hemoxygenase 1, vasoactive intestinal protein (VIP), and real-time PCR for VIP. Treatment with the DPP IV inhibitor AB192 resulted in significant improvement of gas exchange, less lipid oxidation, preservation of parenchymal ultrastructure, reduced neutrophil infiltration, reduced myeloperoxidase expression, increased hemoxygenase 1 expression, pronounced expression of VIP in alveolar macrophages and increased mRNA expression of VIP. Inhibition of intragraft DPP IV catalytic activity with AB192 strikingly ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury after extended ischemia. Furthermore, preservation of endogenous intragraft VIP levels correlate with maintaining lung function and structural integrity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic inhibition of serum CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP IV) enzymatic activity abrogated acute rejection of pulmonary allografts, whereas organ-specific inhibition ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion injury in syngeneic transplants. Here, we analyze the effect of allograft-specific inhibitor preconditioning on acute rejection in the presence of cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy.
Orthotopic left single lung transplantation (Tx) in rats (LBNF1 to LEWIS). Control (n=5) grafts were flushed with Perfadex alone, whereas treated (n=5) transplants were perfused with Perfadex and AB192, a specific inhibitor of CD26/DPP IV enzymatic activity. All recipients were treated with 2.5 mg of cyclosporine A/kg per day subcutaneously after Tx. Recipients were sacrificed at day 5 after Tx, and oxygenation capacity was measured. In addition, staining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at explantation (VIP) and at day 5 (VIP, PCNA) was performed with determination of protein levels for PCNA and mRNA for VIP.
Grafts from treated versus controls showed significantly increased oxygenation capacity (P<.008), correlating with significantly less acute rejection (P<.02). PCNA staining and protein expression were significantly lower in perivascular and bronchial epithelial cells (P=.001) in treated versus controls. There was significantly higher staining for VIP at the time of Tx in alveolar macrophages in treated versus controls (P=.001), which was seen up to day 5 post-Tx in both macrophages and respiratory epithelium (P=.001) with elevated mRNA expression for VIP in treated animals.
Perfusion with a specific inhibitor of CD26/DPP IV enzymatic activity was associated with sustained preservation of pulmonary VIP levels, correlating with an amelioration of the acute rejection cascade.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzymatic activity inhibition of CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV) attenuated short-term post-Tx (transplantation) ischemia-reperfusion injury after 18-hr-ischemia. Here, we investigated the effect of intragraft CD26/DPP IV catalytic inhibition on primary graft dysfunction during 7 day post-Tx, following extended ischemia.
A syngeneic rat (LEW [Lewis abstract]) orthotopic lung Tx model was used, grafts exposed to 18 hr cold ischemia before Tx. Controls were flushed and preserved in Perfadex, and harvested after 1 day (CON1) or 7 day (CON7) post-Tx. Investigational groups IN1, IN3, and IN7 grafts were perfused with and stored in Perfadex + inhibitor (AB192) and harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days post-Tx, respectively. Blood gas analysis, peak airway pressure (PAwP), wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and staining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were analyzed.
IN1 versus CON1 showed preserved histology, increased pO2 (P<0.01), lowered PAwP (P<0.01), less edema (P<0.05) and decreased TBARS (P<0.05). Survival was better for IN7 versus CON7 (P<0.01). The course of AB192-perfused grafts from 1 to 7 days displayed improved values for pO2 (P<0.01), PAwP (P<0.01), edema (P<0.05), TBARS (P<0.05), and myeloperoxidase (P<0.05). Compared with controls, VIP was preserved during 18 hr ischemia in alveolar macrophages (P=0.0001) and respiratory epithelial cells (P=0.001).
Perfusion with an inhibitor of CD26/DPP IV enzymatic activity significantly reduced the incidence and severity of pulmonary primary graft dysfunction and enabled recovery after extended ischemia. This is the first report that CD26/DPPIV inhibitor treatment increases local pulmonary VIP levels, which correlate with preserved ventilatory function and pulmonary structural integrity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokine imbalances especially between T helper type (Th) 1 and Th2 and tryptophan breakdown were reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The hyperactive inflammatory response system could induce enhanced tryptophan breakdown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cytokine changes, tryptophan breakdown parameter changes and clinical parameters in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with normal controls. In the plasma of schizophrenic patients, Th1-specific interferon-gamma was significantly higher (F = 7.485, p = 0.007) and Th2-specific interleukin (IL)-4 was significantly lower (F = 126.327, p < 0.0001). The Th1-related cytokine IL-2 was lower (F = 5.409, p = 0.021) but tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and Th2-related IL-6 were higher (F = 95.004, p < 0.0001 and F = 408.176, p < 0.0001, respectively) in the plasma of schizophrenic patients. After 6 weeks of treatment, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced (t = -3.762, p < 0.0001 and z = -2.668, p = 0.008). At the time of admission, plasma tryptophan concentrations were lower (F = 6.339, p = 0.012) in schizophrenic patients and were negatively correlated with the total positive symptoms score (r(2) = -0.343, p = 0.004). After 6 weeks of medication, both plasma tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations were increased (t = -2.937, p = 0.005 and t = -3.214, p = 0.002, respectively). The findings of this study indicate a hyperactive pro-inflammatory response inducing a change in tryptophan metabolism that might be related to the development of positive symptoms in schizophrenia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mRNA expression pattern of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 8 and DPP9, two DPP4 homologs, was studied previously and showed a broad tissue distribution. In this study, protein expression and activity of DPP8 and DPP9 were investigated in male reproductive tissues of different mammals. Based on specific DPP activities and inhibition profiles, the proline-selective DPP activity in the bovine and rat testis could predominantly be attributed to DPP8/9 and not to DPP4. This is in contrast to the epididymis, where most of the activity was caused by DPP4. Bovine sperm preparations had very low or undetectable DPP8/9 activity. After characterization of polyclonal antibodies specific for DPP8 or DPP9, we could localize both enzymes in seminiferous tubules of the testis. A specific staining for DPP9 was found associated with spermatozoids embedded in the epithelium, just before their release into the lumen, and in spermatids. DPP8 was localized in spermatozoids in an earlier stage of maturation. These findings help to provide insight into the physiological role of DPP4-like enzymes in the male reproductive system. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 03/2009; 57(6):531-41. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has emerged as a reliable biomarker in patients with congestive heart failure. The mature, biologically active B-type natriuretic peptide, BNP(1-32), is cleaved by corin from the 108 amino acid proBNP. However, in vivo as well as in vitro data demonstrated that this BNP(1-32) might be an ideal substrate for the endogenous aminopeptidase, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV). DPP IV removes the two amino terminal amino acids (Ser Pro) from BNP(1-32) to produce BNP(3-32), which has been detected in plasma of patients with congestive heart failure. The biological effects of BNP(3-32) remain undetermined. In cultured human cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, equimolar concentrations of BNP(1-32) and BNP(3-32) both exert similar biological effects, as evidenced by their cGMP (cyclic guanylate monophosphate) generating capacity. However, in a canine model, intravenous BNP(3-32) infusion resulted in less natriuresis, diuresis, and vasodilation compared to intravenous infusion of BNP(1-32). The clinical relevance of these observations might be important for patients in whom the plasma BNP concentrations, measured by commercially available immunoassays, are high. Further studies exploring whether DPP IV inhibitors increase the bioavailability of BNP(1-32), delay the progression of heart failure, and increase the efficacy of exogenous administration of BNP(1-32) in decompensated heart failure are needed.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/2009; 47(3):248-52. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors represent a novel class of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents. The complete pharmacological profile of these protease inhibitors remains unclear. In order to gain deeper insight into the in vivo effects caused by DPP4 inhibition, two different DPP4 inhibitors (vildagliptin and AB192) were analyzed using differential peptide display. Wistar rats were treated with the DPP4 inhibitors (0.3mgkg(-1); 1mgkg(-1) or 3mgkg(-1) body weight) and DPP4 activity was measured before and at the end of the experiment. One hour after compound administration, blood plasma samples were collected to generate peptide displays and to subsequently identify differentially regulated peptides. A dose-dependent decrease in blood plasma DPP4 activity was measured for both inhibitors. DPP4 inhibition influenced collagen metabolism leading to depletion of collagen derived peptides (e.g. collagen alpha 1 (III) 521-554) and accumulation of related N-terminally extended collagen derived peptides (e.g. collagen alpha 1 (III) 519-554). Furthermore, the intact amyloid rat BRI (1-23) peptide was detected in plasma following in vivo DPP4 inhibition. DPP4 catalyzed cleavage kinetics of the BRI peptide were determined in vitro. The k(cat) and K(m) for cleavage by DPP4 were 5.2s(-1) and 14microM, respectively, resulting in a specificity constant k(cat)/K(m) of 0.36 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1). Our results demonstrate that differential peptide analysis can be applied to monitor action of DPP4 inhibition in blood plasma. For the first time effects on basal collagen metabolism following DPP4 inhibition in vivo were demonstrated and the BRI amyloid peptide was identified as a novel DPP4 substrate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carboxypeptidase M (EC 184.108.40.206) belongs to the family of the carboxypeptidases. These enzymes remove C-terminal amino acids from peptides and proteins and exert roles in the physiological processes of blood coagulation/fibrinolysis, inflammation, food digestion and pro-hormone and neuropeptide processing. Among the carboxypeptidases CPM is of particular importance because of its constitutive expression in an active form at the surface of specialized cells and tissues in the human body. Despite the fact that the function(s) of this enzyme is not fully understood several suggestions have been made since its discovery more than two decades ago. Based on potential substrates and its presence, often on the boundary between the host and environment, a role in inflammation was proposed. This review describes how recent discoveries affected the insights in the cellular and physiological functions of CPM. A critical analysis of the potential endogenous peptide and protein substrates is provided. The distribution of CPM on different cell types and tissues and its expression in states of disease are discussed. There is evidence that CPM functions not only as a protease but also as a binding partner in cell-surface protein-protein interactions.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2008; 399(1-2):24-39. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Immunotherapy with interferon-α (IFN-α) is associated with psychiatric side-effects, including depression. One of the putative pathways underlying these psychiatric side-effects involves tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Cytokines including IFN-α induce the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which converts TRP to kynurenine (KYN), leading to a shortage of serotonin (5-HT). In addition, the production of neurotoxic metabolites of KYN such as 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid (QA) might increase and contribute to IFN-α-induced psychopathology. In contrast, other catabolites of KYN, such as kynurenic acid (KA), are thought to have neuroprotective properties.Methods: In a group of 24 patients treated with standard IFN-α for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), combined psychiatric and laboratory assessments were performed at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks, and at 6 months.Results: No psychopathology was observed, despite an increase in neurotoxic challenge as reflected in indices for the balance between neurotoxic and neuroprotective metabolites of KYN.Conclusions: The present hypothesis that a shift in the balance between neurotoxic and neuroprotective metabolites of KYN underlies the neuropsychiatric side-effects of IFN-α-based immunotherapy, is neither supported nor rejected.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To obtain selective and potent inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9, we synthesized a series of substituted isoindolines as modified analogs of allo-Ile-isoindoline, the reference DPP8/9 inhibitor. The influence of phenyl substituents and different P2 residues on the inhibitors' affinity toward other DPPs and more specifically, their potential to discriminate between DPP8 and DPP9 will be discussed. Within this series compound 8j was shown to be a potent and selective inhibitor of DPP8/9 with low activity toward DPP II.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptide derivatives bearing various P2 residues and pyrrolidine derivatives as P1 mimics were evaluated in order to identify lead structures for the development of DPP8 and DPP9 inhibitors. Structure-activity-relationship data obtained in this way led to the preparation of a series of alpha-aminoacyl ((2S, 4S)-4-azido-2-cyanopyrrolidines). These compounds were shown to be nanomolar DPP8/9 inhibitors with modest overall selectivity toward DPP IV and DPP II.