[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dental implants have today deeply changed the dental field. In fact, after almost 50 years, the permanent placement of a titanium screw with an attached tooth have, step by step, changed the society's standard toward a permanently replacement of missed or severely damaged teeth. In fact, the host of benefits born from dental implants have affected both patients and dental professionals. The aim of the present study is to report the outcomes of an implant therapy protocol supporting fixed prostheses implanted soon after extractions and loaded with flapless guided surgery by a 3D software planning.
37 patients, requiring rehabilitation of booth dental arches with a one-to-one technique, were enrolled in a follow-up study plan which established clinical and radiological examinations on the day after surgery, seven months and one year later. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), in combination with autogenous bone, organic bone material and organic bone substitutes, was used before implant-prosthetic rehabilitation with an its prompt loading just before the implant insertion phase.
Definitive restorations were delivered at 6-12 months after surgical procedure. One year after loading there were no dropouts and no failure of the definitive prosthesis. Furthermore, the feedback from patients resulted positive.
Patients resulted satisfied both aesthetically and functionally regarding these types of prosthetic reconstructions made at the time.
La Clinica terapeutica 05/2015; 166(3):e146-52. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dental composite resins are biomaterials commonly used to aesthetically restore the structure and function of teeth impaired by caries, erosion, or fracture. Residual monomers released from resin restorations as a result of incomplete polymerization processes interact with living oral tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a common dental composite material (Enamel Plus-HFO), in subjects with average 13 filled teeth with the same material, compared to a control group (subjects having neither amalgam nor composite resin fillings). Genotoxicity assessment of composite materials was carried out in vitro in human peripheral blood leukocytes using sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic tests. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses confirmed the absence of a relationship between SCE/cell, high frequency of SCE(HFC) or CA frequencies and exposure to dental composite materials. These results indicate that composite resins used for dental restorations differ extensively in vivo in their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and in their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 04/2015; 29(1):229-33. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is the most frequent cause of tooth loss among adults. It is defined as a plaque-induced inflammation of the periodontal tissues that results in a loss of support of the affected teeth. This process is characterized by destruction of the periodontal attachment apparatus, increased bone resorption with loss of crestal alveolar bone, apical migration of the epithelial attachment, and formation of periodontal pockets. Although the presence of periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is a prerequisite, the progression of periodontal disease is dependent on the host response to pathogenic bacteria that colonize the tooth surface. Nowadays, a growing body of literature has accumulated to investigate the association between bone diseases, periodontal pathogens and periodontal diseases. The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that present either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role and the activation of mechanisms of controlling this and the related disease, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review focuses on the evidence and significance of bone host cell invasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis in the pathogenesis of bone disorders, as well as the different lines of evidence supporting the role of cytokines in bone diseases.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 04/2015; 29(2):273-81. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed dentition analysis forms a critical aspect of early orthodontic treatment. In fact an accurate space analysis is one of the important criteria in determining whether the treatment plan may involve serial extraction, guidance of eruption, space maintenance, space regaining or just periodic observation of the patients. The aim of the present study was to calculate linear regression equations in mixed dentition space analysis, measuring 230 dental casts mesiodistal tooth widths, obtained from southern Italian patients (118 females, 112 males, mean age 15±3 years). Students t-test or Wilcoxon test for independent and paired samples were used to determine right/left side and male/female differences. On the basis of the sum of the mesiodistal diameters of the 4 mandibular incisors as predictors for the sum of the widths of the canines and premolars in the mandibular mixed dentition, a new linear regression equation was found: y = 0.613x+7.294 (r= 0.701) for both genders in a southern Italian population. To better estimate the size of leeway space, a new regression equation was found to calculate the mesiodistal size of the second premolar using the sum of the four mandibular incisors, canine and first premolar as a predictor. The equation is y = 0.241x+1.224 (r= 0.732). In conclusion, new regression equations were derived for a southern Italian population.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 04/2015; 29(2):515-20. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure has gained popularity with predictable results, and is a safe, acceptable technique for bone augmentation, providing a base for dental implant treatment. Faint radiopaque lesions at the base of the maxillary sinus are frequent diagnoses on radiographs and must be identified during dental implant planning. The use of autografts, xenografts, allografts, and alloplasts or a combination between them has been demonstrated to be effective for increasing bone height and bone volume in maxillary sinus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of subjects with considerable sinus membrane pathology (test group) undergoing maxillary sinus floor augmentation using Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) as a filling material, in association with the Bio-Oss and Sint-Oss and simultaneous implant placement in a one-stage surgical procedure. All patients reported no pain to percussion, no sign of tissue suffering to the soft peri-implant tissues, the presence of an optimal primary stability of the inserted implants, and the increase in the peri-implant bone density. No complications were encountered during follow-up periods in these patients, including no negative evolution in the sinusitis and all implants are functioning successfully. In conclusion, the use of PRF and Piezosurgery reduced the healing time, favoring optimal bone regeneration and allowing sinus membrane integrity to be maintained during surgical procedures, according to evidence-based dentistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an uncommon autoimmune intraepithelial blistering disease. In most cases, the oral lesions were the first manifestation of the pathology. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a 4-month history of oral ulcerations. The patient reported that the lesions caused considerable discomfort and affected her normal oral function. On intraoral examination, ulcers were observed on the cheek and palatal mucosa and ventral surface of the tongue. No skin lesions were seen on extra oral examination. A diagnosis of PV was made after evaluating the biopsy samples. The main complication of PV is the reduced quality of life related to soreness or pain, particularly in ulcerative/erosive lesions. The presence of lesions among gingival tissues makes oral hygiene procedures very difficult, but plaque control and rigorous oral hygiene are a fundamental requisite for the treatment of any oromucosal disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontics has evolved from a simplistic model to a more complex interplay between infection and host response. Genetic factors have been a new addition to the list of risk factors for periodontal diseases. The processes leading to destruction and regeneration of the destroyed tissues are of great interest to both researchers and clinicians.
The selective susceptibility of subjects for periodontitis has remained an enigma and wide varieties of risk factors have been implicated for the manifestation and progression of periodontitis. Emerging pathway models suggest that gene-environment interactions are etiologically important in disease pathogenesis. The current practical utility of genetic knowledge in periodontitis is limited.
Allelic variants at multiple gene loci probably influence periodontitis susceptibility. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key modulator of host responses to microbial infection and a major modulator of extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption, and polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster have been associated with an increased risk of developing severe adult periodontitis.
The aim of this study was to test if polymorphisms of genes of IL-1α+4845 and IL-1β +3954 were linked with periodontitis, in a case-control study population, delimited to a specific geographic area, in association with microbiological findings.
The polymorphisms observed in IL-1α+4845 and IL-1β+3954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was significantly different among the study groups (healthy controls, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis with p<0.05, d.f.=1.
We found a significant correlation between the severe form of periodontitis and the presence of composite genotype (p < 0.05, d.f.=1, calculated among healthy vs. severe). Furthermore a statistically significant association between the presence of bacteria and periodontitis was detected (p<0.05, d.f.=1). In the current investigation findings were concordant with literature observations.
International journal of medical sciences 05/2014; 11(7):674-9. DOI:10.7150/ijms.6962 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to analyze the clinical symptoms, ethologic factors, and prosthetic rehabilitation in a case of Combination Syndrome (CS). The treatment of CS can be conventional or surgical, with or without the bone reconstruction of maxilla. The correct prosthetic treatment helps this kind of patients to restore the physiologic occlusion plane to allow a correct masticatory and aesthetic function. Management of this kind of patients can be a challenge for a dental practitioner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells are defined as clonogenic cells capable of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. A population of these cells has been identified in human Dental Follicle (DF). Dental Follicle Stem Cells (DFSCs) were found in pediatric unerupted wisdom teeth and have been shown to differentiate, under particular conditions, into various cell types of the mesenchymal tissues.
The aim of this study was to investigate if cells isolated from DF show stem features, differentiate toward osteoblastic phenotype and express osteoblastic markers.
We studied the immunophenotype of DFSCs by flow cytometric analysis, the osteoblastic markers of differentiated DFSCs were assayed by histochemical methods and real-time PCR.
We demonstrated that DFSCs expressed a heterogeneous assortment of makers associated with stemness. Moreover DFSCs differentiated into osteoblast-like cells, producing mineralized matrix nodules and expressed the typical osteoblastic markers, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Collagen I (Coll I).
This study suggests that DFSCs may provide a cell source for tissue engineering of bone.
International journal of medical sciences 08/2012; 9(6):480-7. DOI:10.7150/ijms.4583 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral sex is usually considered a lower-risk sexual activity when compared with sex, but it is frequently the cause of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In particular, STI transferred through oral sex might have no visible symptoms, depending on the type of infection.
The aim of this study is to review the literature about the role of oral sex in the transmission of nonviral STI.
State-of-the-art information in the area of STI in relation to sexual function and self-care, this last important for development of STI prevention products such as vaginal microbicides. Sexual behaviors assessed focusing on receiving oral sex and giving oral sex.
A search of the main electronic databases including registers of clinical controlled trials was performed in addition to a hand search of the most relevant Journals. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, literature review of research articles, and public health department Internet Web sites, for the period of 1945-2011. In addition to searching the Clinical Trials Registry at the US National Institutes of Health, we also used the meta Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
STI affect the mucous membranes both directly and indirectly producing characteristic diagnostic signs and lesions. Daily dental clinical activity needs an appropriate knowledge of any kind of oral lesions-related STI. The reader is offered a practical approach with clinically relevant recommendations that may prove useful in his/her daily practice when dealing with STI.
These data provide a foundation for understanding diverse STI. We advise physicians to be receptive to discuss sexuality issues and provide patients with adequate therapy.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 02/2012; 9(2):372-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02515.x · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, a high sloping forehead, facial asymmetry, blepharophimosis, sparse hair and eyebrows, low-set ears and mental retardation. Symptoms vary between patients, but other characteristics include a soft high-pitched voice, dental and craniofacial abnormalities, partial webbing of the fingers and toes, palate deformations, genital abnormalities, eczema, hyperactivity, preference for concrete over abstract thinking, language difficulties and an aversion to crowds.
We describe the craniofacial and dental characteristics of a 12-year-old Caucasian Italian boy with both the typical and less common findings of Dubowitz syndrome.
Diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome is mainly based on the facial phenotype. Possible conditions for differential diagnosis include Bloom syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome. As there are few reports of this syndrome in the literature, we hope this case report will enable health professionals to recognize the phenotypic alterations of this syndrome, and allow early referral for the necessary multidisciplinary treatments.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 01/2011; 5:38. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-5-38
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Techniques of bone reconstructive surgery are largely based on conventional, non-cell-based therapies that rely on the use of durable materials from outside the patient's body. In contrast to conventional materials, bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences towards the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve bone tissue function. Bone tissue engineering has led to great expectations for clinical surgery or various diseases that cannot be solved with traditional devices. For example, critical-sized defects in bone, whether induced by primary tumor resection, trauma, or selective surgery have in many cases presented insurmountable challenges to the current gold standard treatment for bone repair. The primary purpose of bone tissue engineering is to apply engineering principles to incite and promote the natural healing process of bone which does not occur in critical-sized defects. The total market for bone tissue regeneration and repair was valued at $1.1 billion in 2007 and is projected to increase to nearly $1.6 billion by 2014.
Usually, temporary biomimetic scaffolds are utilized for accommodating cell growth and bone tissue genesis. The scaffold has to promote biological processes such as the production of extra-cellular matrix and vascularisation, furthermore the scaffold has to withstand the mechanical loads acting on it and to transfer them to the natural tissues located in the vicinity. The design of a scaffold for the guided regeneration of a bony tissue requires a multidisciplinary approach. Finite element method and mechanobiology can be used in an integrated approach to find the optimal parameters governing bone scaffold performance.
In this paper, a review of the studies that through a combined use of finite element method and mechano-regulation algorithms described the possible patterns of tissue differentiation in biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is given. Firstly, the generalities of the finite element method of structural analysis are outlined; second, the issues related to the generation of a finite element model of a given anatomical site or of a bone scaffold are discussed; thirdly, the principles on which mechanobiology is based, the principal theories as well as the main applications of mechano-regulation models in bone tissue engineering are described; finally, the limitations of the mechanobiological models and the future perspectives are indicated.
International journal of biological sciences 01/2011; 7(1):112-32. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In some pathological conditions, gingivitis caused by plaque accumulation can be more severe, with the result of an overgrowth. Nevertheless, the overgrowth involves the gingival margin with extension to the inter-dental papilla. The lesion may involve the inter-proximal spaces, and become so extensive that the teeth are displaced and their crowns covered. Severe overgrowth may lead to impairment in aesthetic and masticatory functions, requiring surgical excision of the excessive tissue. Aim of this study is to describe an operative protocol for the surgical treatment of localized gingival overgrowth analyzing the surgical technique, times and follow-up.
A total of 20 patients were enrolled and underwent initial, non surgical, periodontal treatment and training sessions on home oral hygiene training. The treatment plan involved radical exeresis of the mass followed by positioning of an autograft of connective tissue and keratinized gingiva.
During 10 years of follow-up, all the grafts appeared well vascularized, aesthetically satisfactory, and without relapse.
Periodontal examinations, surgical procedures, and dental hygiene with follow-up are an essential part of the treatment protocol. However, additional effort is needed from the patient. Hopefully, the final treatment result makes it all worthwhile.
Head & Face Medicine 08/2010; 6(1):19. DOI:10.1186/1746-160X-6-19 · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the current report is to illustrate an alternative technique for the treatment of oroantral fistula (OAF), using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft.
Acute and chronic oroantral communications (OAC, OAF) can occur as a result of inadequate treatment. In fact surgical procedures into the maxillary posterior area can lead to inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus. Spontaneous healing can occur in defects smaller than 3 mm while larger communications should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis. The most used techniques for the treatment of OAF involve buccal flap, palatal rotation - advancement flap, Bichat fat pad. All these surgical procedures are connected with a significant risk of morbidity of the donor site, infections, avascular flap necrosis, impossibility to repeat the surgical technique after clinical failure, and patient discomfort.
We report a 65-years-old female patient who came to our attention for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex) was used in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of soft tissues and to assure the preservation of the bone graft from epithelial connection.
This surgical procedure showed a good stability of the bone grafts, with a complete resolution of the OAF, optimal management of complications, including patient discomfort, and good regeneration of soft tissues.
The principal advantage of the use of autologous bone graft with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex) to guide the bone regeneration is that it assures a predictable healing and allows a possible following implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.
International journal of medical sciences 08/2010; 7(5):267-71. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (anti-CCP) are produced locally in the inflamed synovium of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, suggesting that citrullinated proteins are located in the inflamed synovium. In scientific literature were find periodontal bacterial DNA in serum and synovial fluid of RA with PD patients. RA and adult periodontitis share common pathogenetic mechanisms and immunologic and pathological findings RA. One oral pathogen strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease (PD), Porphyromonas. gingivalis, possesses a unique microbial enzyme, peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), the human equivalent of which has been identified as a susceptibility factor for RA. Under this point of view, we speculate about the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in sera of PD with RA patients. We conducted this study to evaluate and compare the diagnostic and predictive utility of anti-CCP antibodies in patients with PD and patients with PD and RA. Anti-CCP antibody was not found in 21 sera (U/ml<10), included RA controls, while only 1 patient with chronic PD and probing depth of 7,1 mm was identified positive for anti-CCP (22.2 U/ml). Our data do not support a role for anti-CCP in diagnoses of periodontal disease.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2010; 23(2):677-81. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 980 nm diode laser for the treatment of benign facial pigmented and vascular lesions, and in oral surgery.
20 patients were treated with a 980 nm diode laser. Oral surgery: 5 patients (5 upper and lower frenulectomy). Fluence levels were 5-15 J/cm(2); pulse lengths were 20-60 ms; spot size was 1 mm. Vascular lesions: 10 patients (5 small angiomas, 5 telangiectases). Fluences were 6-10 J/cm(2); pulse lengths were 10-50 ms; spot size was 2 mm. In all cases the areas surrounding the lesions were cooled. Pigmented lesions: 5 patients (5 keratoses). All the lesions were evaluated by dermatoscopy before the treatment. Fluence levels were 7-15 J/cm(2); pulse lengths were 20-50 ms; spot size was 1 mm. All the patients were followed at 1, 4 and 8 weeks after the procedure.
Healing in oral surgery was within 10 days. The melanoses healed completely within four weeks. All the vascular lesions healed after 15 days without any residual scarring.
The end results for the use of the 980 nm diode laser in oral and facial surgery appears to be justified on the grounds of efficacy and safety of the device, and good degree of acceptance by the patients, without compromising their health and function.
International journal of medical sciences 11/2009; 6(6):358-64. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Mycobacterium gordonae is one of the least pathogenic of the mycobacteria. This pathogen may produce caseating or non-caseating granulomas, and skin lesions showing acute or chronic inflammation with scattered histiocytes and giant cells have been seen. The mortality rate is less than 0.1%. Mycobacterium gordonae may be a marker of severe immunosuppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
We report a case of Mycobacterium gordonae infection in an 86-year-old woman and discuss the problems inherent to the identification and treatment of this emerging pathogen. Mycobacterium gordonae strain we isolated was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, and long term administration (six months) induced complete healing of the cutaneous abscesses.
Advanced laboratory diagnostic techniques have improved the isolation and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria. The diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion, as detection by conventional methods is difficult. To our knowledge, this patient is the first documented case of cutaneous infection from this pathogen in Italy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon injuries among dental traumas, being only 0.5-7% of the cases. Traumatic dental injuries occur more frequently in young patients, and vary in severity from enamel fractures to avulsions.
The magnitude of these problems is confirmed by statistical data on the prevalence of dental trauma during childhood and adolescence.
Fracture occurs often in the middle-third of the root and rarely at the apical-third. The present paper reports a clinical case of a horizontal radicular fracture located between the middle- and apical-third of a upper left-central incisors followed-up over 4 years.