[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) demands a careful assessment of abnormal findings discovered during the evaluation process to determine if there will be any potential risks to the donor or recipient. Varying degrees of elevated hepatic iron levels are not uncommonly seen in otherwise healthy individuals. We questioned whether mild expression of hemosiderin deposition presents a safety concern when considering outcomes of living donation for both the donor and the recipient. We report on three LDLT patients who were found to have low- to moderate-grade hemosiderin deposition on liver biopsy. All other aspects of their evaluation proved satisfactory, and the decision was made to proceed with donation. There were no significant complications in the donors, and all demonstrated complete normalization of liver function postoperatively, with appropriate parenchymal regeneration. The recipients also had unremarkable postoperative recovery. We conclude that these individuals can be considered as potential donors after careful evaluation.
American Journal of Transplantation 01/2014; 14(1):216-20. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular adenoma is a benign tumour associated with bleeding and malignant transformation. Obesity has been linked to hepatic tumourigenesis.
To evaluate the presentation of hepatocellular adenoma in obesity, and the impact of obesity on the clinical course.
Records of 60 consecutive patients (between 2005 and 2010) with a diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma from a single tertiary centre were analysed.
Fifty six of 60 patients were women, median age was 36years, 75% had history of contraceptive use, 18% were overweight and 55% were obese (BMI ≥30kg/m(2) ). Majority (63%) were asymptomatic; seven patients presented with bleeding. Single (28%) and multiple adenomas (72%) were encountered; size ranged from 1 to 19.7cm. Obesity was more often associated with multiple adenomas (85% vs. 48%, P=0.005), bilobar distribution (67% vs. 33%, P=0.01), lower serum albumin (P=0.007) and co-morbidities of fatty liver (P=0.006), diabetes (P=0.003), hypertension (P=0.006) and dyslipidemia (P=0.03). During median follow-up of 2.6years, there were no instances of bleeding, malignant transformation or death. Thirty four patients underwent therapeutic intervention (17 surgical resection, nine transarterial embolization and eight both interventions sequentially). The rate of complete resection of adenoma(s) was significantly lower in obese patients (8% vs. 69%, P=0.004). In the 26 patients without intervention, tumour size progression was more frequently observed in obese patients (33% vs. 0%, P=0.05). Three of 15 obese patients (20%) lost ≥5% body weight and there was no progression in the liver lesions.
Obesity and features of metabolic syndrome were frequently observed in hepatocellular adenoma. Multiple and bilobar adenomas were more frequent in obese patients. Among patients who were conservatively managed, tumour progression was more often associated with obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Splenic lesions are a common finding in veterinary medicine and typically 1/2 to 2/3 of these lesions are malignant. Due to the limited accuracy of ultrasound, unnecessary exploratory surgeries/biopsies may be performed for benign lesions and treatment may be delayed for malignant ones. Splenic lesions are rare in people. MR imaging, with its inherently high soft tissue contrast, is efficacious in imaging the human spleen. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of MRI to differentiate canine hepatic lesions. In that study 8 splenic lesions were all accurately characterized. This current study represents a further evaluation of splenic lesions. Methods: In this prospective study, 27 dogs with splenic lesions were accrued. Histopathological/cytological confirmation of lesions occurred either before or shortly after imaging. MRI clinicians were blinded to histopathology results. MR (General Electric, 1.5 Tesla) images using a variety of sequences were obtained before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium. Results: 32 lesions (9 malignant, 23 benign) were evaluated in 27 dogs. Lesions were confirmed via histopathology (n = 20) or cytology (n = 12). Benign lesions included, EMH (n = 7), hematoma/hemorrhage (n = 5), lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 9), and hemangioma (n = 2). Malignant lesions included anaplastic sarcoma (n = 3), malignant histiocytosis (n = 2), hemangiosarcoma (n = 2), plasma cell tumor (n = 1) and adenocarcinoma (n = 1). The overall accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant lesions was 88%(29/32 lesions). The overall sensitivity and specificity were 100%(95% CI, 66–100) and 87%(95% CI 66–97). Conclusions: Based upon these results, MRI is both sensitive and specific in distinguishing between malignant and benign splenic lesions.
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 01/2005; 3(1). · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraovarian cysts are common intrapelvic neoplasms, but the magnetic resonance (MR) findings of paraovarian cyst have never been reported. We investigated the spectrum of MR imaging features of paraovarian cyst.
MR images of 18 paraovarian cysts in 16 patients were reviewed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for the size and location of paraovarian cysts, single or multicystic, signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images, and visualization of the normal ovary on the affected side.
The normal ovary of the affected side was recognized in 13 lesions. Four of these 13 cysts were separated from the ipsilateral ovary. In seven cysts, the normal ovary was abutted by cysts but maintained its shape. In two cysts, the beak sign was recognized at the interface between the cyst and the ovary. Most other MR features were nonspecific.
Most paraovarian cysts were homogeneous cystic masses near the ipsilateral round ligament and the uterus. Demonstration of a normal ipsilateral ovary close to, but separated from, the adnexal cyst may be an important MR finding for the diagnosis of paraovarian cysts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MR spectroscopy (MRS) assists in lesion characterization and diagnosis when combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cancerous lesions demonstrate elevated composite choline levels arising from increased cellular proliferation. Our study investigated if MR spectroscopy of the breast would be useful for characterizing benign and malignant lesions.
Single voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) was acquired as part of an MR imaging protocol in 38 patients referred upon surgical consultation. The MR spectra were read independently in a blinded fashion without the MR images by three spectroscopists. The MRI exam was interpreted in two settings: (a) as a clinical exam with detailed histories and results from previous imaging studies such as mammography or ultrasound included and (b) as a blinded study without prior histories or imaging results.
Elevated choline levels were demonstrated by MRS in 19 of the 23 confirmed cancer patients. The sensitivity and specificity for determining malignancy from benign breast disease with MRS alone were 83 and 87%, respectively, while a blinded MRI review reported 95 and 86%, respectively.
Proton MR spectroscopy provides a noninvasive, biochemical measure of metabolism. The technique can be performed in less than 10 min as part of an MRI examination. MRI in combination with MRS may improve the specificity of breast MR and thereby, influence patient treatment options. This may be particularly true with less experienced breast MRI readers. In exams where MRI and MRS agree, the additional confidence measure provided by MRS may influence the course of treatment.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2001; 68(1):45-54. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis can characterize a wide variety of ovarian lesions. We discuss MRI strategies for identification and characterization of ovarian neoplasms and correlate MRI findings with lesion gross pathological and histopathological structure.
Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2001; 12(2):131-46.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography could be used to identify pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and to accurately identify the size and number of feeding arteries.
Eight patients suspected of having PAVM were examined with three-dimensional MR angiography at 1.5 T. Images were reviewed by a single radiologist blinded to conventional angiographic findings who evaluated each image for the size, number, and location of PAVMs, as well as for the size and number of feeding arteries. Five patients underwent conventional angiography with embolization therapy, and one patient underwent lobectomy. Two patients did not undergo either surgery or angiography.
Three-dimensional MR angiography revealed nine (90%) of 10 PAVMs that were confirmed at conventional angiography (n = 9) or examination of a surgical specimen (n = 1). The single PAVM that was not identified prospectively at MR angiography was small (3-4 mm) and peripheral. Two additional PAVMs were identified in the two patients who did not undergo surgery or angiography.
Three-dimensional MR angiography is a promising technique for use in the diagnosis of PAVM, although small (<5-mm) PAVMs may be more difficult to identify with the technique. The technique is a particularly useful means of noninvasively demonstrating the size and number of feeding arteries prior to treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian teratomas include mature cystic teratomas (dermoid cysts), immature teratomas, and monodermal teratomas (eg, struma ovarii, carcinoid tumors, neural tumors). Most mature cystic teratomas can be diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) but may have a variety of appearances, characterized by echogenic sebaceous material and calcification. At computed tomography (CT), fat attenuation within a cyst is diagnostic. At magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the sebaceous component is specifically identified with fat-saturation techniques. The US appearances of immature teratoma are nonspecific, although the tumors are typically heterogeneous, partially solid lesions, usually with scattered calcifications. At CT and MR imaging, immature teratomas characteristically have a large, irregular solid component containing coarse calcifications. Small foci of fat help identify these tumors. The US features of struma ovarii are also nonspecific, but a heterogeneous, predominantly solid mass may be seen. On T1- and T2-weighted images, the cystic spaces demonstrate both high and low signal intensity. Familiarity with the US, CT, and MR imaging features of ovarian teratomas can aid in differentiation and diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis is a common finding encountered during cross-sectional imaging examinations. This article reviews the imaging findings of hepatic steatosis as revealed by sonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Focal fatty sparing and focal hepatic steatosis are conditions that can create potential diagnostic challenges for the radiologist. The typical findings, distribution, and etiology of these focal processes are presented. In the setting of diffuse hepatic steatosis, hepatic mass lesions can be difficult to discern on both computed tomography and sonography, with reported decreased sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. In such cases, magnetic resonance imaging may be the imaging procedure of choice for the detection and characterization of both hepatic steatosis and coexistent hepatic masses. Some hepatocellular neoplasms, particularly hepatic adenoma and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma, can have intratumoral lipid. By demonstrating the lipid content of these masses, imaging can add specificity in characterizing them as hepatocellular in origin because nonhepatocellular neoplasms in general do not contain intracellular lipid.
Seminars in Liver Disease 02/2001; 21(1):71-80. · 8.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of its direct multiplanar capability, superb soft tissue contrast and ability to obtain dynamic three-dimensional angiograms using contrast agents without nephrotoxicity, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and magnetic resonance angiography are ideal techniques for evaluating renal transplants. The following pictorial essay reviews the normal MR appearance of the transplant kidney as well as parenchymal, vascular, and peritransplant complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MR imaging has many advantages over other modalities in the detection and staging of renal neoplasms, because of its intrinsic high soft tissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, and the availability of a non-nephrotoxic, renally excreted contrast agent. The ongoing refinement of breath-hold imaging sequences will probably broaden the use of MR techniques in imaging renal neoplasms.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America 12/2000; 8(4):813-36. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most commonly encountered adrenal mass is the non-hyperfunctioning adrenal adenoma. Chemical-shift MR imaging can detect and characterize these adrenal masses as benign but cannot distinguish between hypersecreting and nonhypersecreting adrenal adenomas. Because of its direct multiplanar capability and superb soft tissue contrast, MR imaging can detect and potentially characterize other adrenal neoplasms.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America 12/2000; 8(4):769-86. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: iver transplantation has become a common treatment for end-stage liver disease. Even with improve- ments in surgical techniques and immunosup- pression therapy, there are still a number of significant complications that can develop af- ter liver transplantation. Sonography is used as the initial imaging technique for the detection of complications after liver transplantation. However, current MR imaging techniques, in- cluding contrast-enhanced MR angiography and MR cholangiography, may provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the transplanted liver and reveal abnormalities of vascular structures, bile ducts, and liver parenchyma and depict extrahepatic tissues. We describe the imaging findings found after liver trans- plantation, including common expected post- operative findings and various hepatobiliary complications; we also discuss the role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of complications after liver transplantation. The MR imaging tech- niques we describe are similar to those de- scribed in referenced articles (1, 2).
American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2000; 175(4):1145-9. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of artifactual signal intensity loss within the aortic arch and proximal branch vessels on fat-saturated contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) arteriograms of the thoracic aorta and to hypothesize about the cause of the loss of signal intensity.
Between January and June 1998, 105 consecutive MR arteriograms of the thoracic aorta were acquired in 103 patients at 1.5 T. Imaging included an arterial phase three-dimensional (3D) fat-saturated contrast-enhanced gradient-echo (GRE) sequence followed by a delayed two-dimensional (2D) transverse fat-saturated GRE sequence. All MR images were reviewed by two radiologists who were blinded to patient history and results of imaging studies and who evaluated the images for the presence of intraluminal loss of signal intensity in the aortic arch and the proximal branch vessels.
Intravascular loss of signal intensity was present in at least one vessel on 23 of the 105 arterial phase 3D studies. Seventy-one of 91 left subclavian arterial segments had loss of signal intensity on the delayed 2D studies.
Intravascular signal intensity loss can be present on contrast-enhanced fat-saturated images of the aortic arch and proximal branch vessels, particularly the left subclavian artery. This phenomenon, which is to the authors' knowledge previously unreported and which is hypothesized to result from undesired water saturation, should not be misinterpreted as stenotic or occlusive vascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences reduce imaging time compared with conventional spin-echo (CSE) sequences, but may result in blurring. High-performance gradients permit shorter interecho spacing and use of the second echo as the effective TE (20 ms); both improvements reduce blurring. This randomized observer study compared a short TE, second-echo FSE sequence obtained using high-performance gradients and a CSE sequence with similar TR/TE for the detection of meniscal tears in the knee.
One hundred consecutive MR examinations of the knee using FSE and CSE sequences at 1.5 T were evaluated. The FSE sequence used an effective TE of 20 ms (centered on the second echo at 2 times minimal interecho spacing) and an echo train length of 4. FSE and CSE parameters were otherwise similar. Four independent, masked readers reviewed randomized sagittal FSE and CSE sequences.
Cases were assessed for the presence or absence of meniscal tears and, if present, whether tears were medial or lateral and anterior or posterior. Sequence concordance was 93.5% (1496 of 1600 meniscal segments); the intermethod kappa value was 0.78. Sequence quality was graded from 1 to 5. Average quality of CSE images was slightly but statistically significantly preferred by three of the four readers.
There was no statistically significant difference between CSE imaging and FSE imaging centered on the second echo (20 ms) using high-performance gradients for the detection of meniscal tears in the knee. There was a small preference for the quality of CSE images.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have both been assessed individually as staging modalities for pancreatic cancer. The aim of our study was to assess whether tumor staging by both EUS and MRI in the same cohort of patients could predict resectability and unresectability in patients with pancreatic cancer.
A review of 63 patients evaluated preoperatively with both EUS and MRI for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between January 1995 and December 1998 was done. Patients were staged as resectable or unresectable by predefined criteria. Preoperative staging by both modalities was compared to surgical outcome and the sensitivity and predictive values of each modality for determining resectability and unresectability was determined.
EUS did not allow for complete T- and N-staging in 10 patients; therefore, for EUS, the final analysis was done on 63 of 73 patients (86%). EUS correctly staged 22 of 36 patients with resectable tumors. The sensitivity of EUS for resectability was 61%, with a positive predictive value of 69%. All 73 patients had complete MRI examinations; therefore, the final analysis was done on all 73 patients. MRI correctly staged 30 of 41 patients with resectable tumors. The sensitivity of MRI for predicting resectability was 73% with a positive predictive value of 77%. MRI and EUS both predicted resectability in 18 patients, of whom 16 (89%) were found to be resectable on surgical exploration. MRI and EUS both predicted unresectability in 17 (27%) patients, of whom 4 (24%) were found to be resectable on surgical exploration. When both MRI and EUS agreed on resectability, the positive predictive value for resectability was 89%. When both MRI and EUS agreed on unresectability, the positive predictive value for unresectability was 76%.
Neither MRI nor EUS alone were highly sensitive or predictive of resectability. However, when both tests agreed on resectability, nearly all patients were found to be resectable on surgical exploration.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2000; 95(8):1926-31. · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with nipple discharge.
Between February 1992 and December 1998, 23 patients with nipple discharge underwent contrast material-enhanced MR imaging at 1.5 T. Mammographic findings were negative in 22 of 23 patients and revealed asymmetry in one patient. Galactography was attempted in two patients, with negative findings in one patient and no success in the other. Fifteen of 23 patients underwent excisional biopsy-seven of 15 with MR imaging-guided localization, and one of 15 with mammographic localization. Eight of 23 patients were followed up clinically (range, 7-24 months; mean, 20 months).
In 11 of the 15 (73%) patients who underwent excisional biopsy, MR imaging findings correlated with histopathologic findings. MR imaging demonstrated four of six benign papillomas and one of two fibroadenomas as circumscribed, enhancing subareolar masses. Findings of one MR imaging examination were negative, and benign tissue was found at excisional biopsy. MR imaging findings were suspicious in six of the seven patients with excisional biopsy findings of malignancy (regional enhancement [n = 2], ductal enhancement [n = 2], peripherally enhancing mass [n = 1], and spiculated mass [n = 1]). In one of the seven patients, a benign-appearing intraductal mass was identified at MR imaging; excisional biopsy revealed a benign papilloma with an adjacent focus of DCIS.
MR imaging can help identify both benign and malignant causes of nipple discharge. It potentially offers a noninvasive alternative to galactography.