[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have found type 2 diabetes-associated variants in the HNF1B gene to exhibit reciprocal associations with prostate cancer risk. We aimed to identify whether these variants may have an effect on cancer risk in general versus a specific effect on prostate cancer only.
In a collaborative analysis, we collected data from GWAS of cancer phenotypes for the frequently reported variants of HNF1B, rs4430796 and rs7501939, which are in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.76, HapMap CEU). Overall, the analysis included 16 datasets on rs4430796 with 19,640 cancer cases and 21,929 controls; and 21 datasets on rs7501939 with 26,923 cases and 49,085 controls. Malignancies other than prostate cancer included colorectal, breast, lung and pancreatic cancers, and melanoma. Meta-analysis showed large between-dataset heterogeneity that was driven by different effects in prostate cancer and other cancers. The per-T2D-risk-allele odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for rs4430796 were 0.79 (0.76, 0.83)] per G allele for prostate cancer (p<10(-15) for both); and 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) for all other cancers. Similarly for rs7501939 the per-T2D-risk-allele odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.80 (0.77, 0.83) per T allele for prostate cancer (p<10(-15) for both); and 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) for all other cancers. No malignancy other than prostate cancer had a nominally statistically significant association.
The examined HNF1B variants have a highly specific effect on prostate cancer risk with no apparent association with any of the other studied cancer types.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(5):e10858. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a genome-wide association study on 969 bladder cancer cases and 957 controls from Texas. For fast-track validation, we evaluated 60 SNPs in three additional US populations and validated the top SNP in nine European populations. A missense variant (rs2294008) in the PSCA gene showed consistent association with bladder cancer in US and European populations. Combining all subjects (6,667 cases, 39,590 controls), the overall P-value was 2.14 x 10(-10) and the allelic odds ratio was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.10-1.20). rs2294008 alters the start codon and is predicted to cause truncation of nine amino acids from the N-terminal signal sequence of the primary PSCA translation product. In vitro reporter gene assay showed that the variant allele significantly reduced promoter activity. Resequencing of the PSCA genomic region showed that rs2294008 is the only common missense SNP in PSCA. Our data identify rs2294008 as a new bladder cancer susceptibility locus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TP53 abnormalities in breast carcinomas and inherited TP53 changes in breast cancer patients and in Li-Fraumeni-like families were looked for. Tumours were screened for mutations in the TP53 gene by means of the PCR-CDGE method followed by PCR and direct sequencing. Allelic loss was determined by polymorphic markers, by comparing normal and tumour DNA. Abnormal protein expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining. TP53 abnormalities in the tumours were examined in relation to genetic instability, clinical data and family history. Genetic instability was studied by detection of oncogene amplification, allelic loss, karyotype analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH. Our studies showed that TP53 abnormalities were significantly associated with amplification of the erbB2 oncogene and allelic loss on chromosome 17. Chromosomal abnormalities were also significantly more common in tumours with TP53 abnormalities. Looking at clinical data we found significant association between TP53 abnormalities and poor prognosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common sequence variants that have recently been associated with cancer risk are particular to a single cancer type or at most two. Following up on our genome-wide scan of basal cell carcinoma, we found that rs401681[C] on chromosome 5p15.33 satisfied our threshold for genome-wide significance (OR = 1.25, P = 3.7 x 10(-12)). We tested rs401681 for association with 16 additional cancer types in over 30,000 cancer cases and 45,000 controls and found association with lung cancer (OR = 1.15, P = 7.2 x 10(-8)) and urinary bladder, prostate and cervix cancer (ORs = 1.07-1.31, all P < 4 x 10(-4)). However, rs401681[C] seems to confer protection against cutaneous melanoma (OR = 0.88, P = 8.0 x 10(-4)). Notably, most of these cancer types have a strong environmental component to their risk. Investigation of the region led us to rs2736098[A], which showed stronger association with some cancer types. However, neither variant could fully account for the association of the other. rs2736098 corresponds to A305A in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein and rs401681 is in an intron of the CLPTM1L gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field Obesity results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. To search for sequence variants that affect variation in two common measures of obesity, weight and body mass index (BMI), both of which are highly heritable, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study with 305,846 SNPs typed in 25,344 Icelandic, 2,998 Dutch, 1,890 European Americans and 1,160 African American subjects and combined the results with previously published results from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative (DGI) on 3,024 Scandinavians. We selected 43 variants in 19 regions for follow-up in 5,586 Danish individuals and compared the results to a genome-wide study on obesity-related traits from the GIANT consortium. In total, 29 variants, some correlated, in 11 chromosomal regions reached a genome-wide significance threshold of P < 1.6 x 10(-7). This includes previously identified variants close to or in the FTO, MC4R, BDNF and SH2B1 genes, in addition to variants at seven loci not previously connected with obesity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To search for new sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conducted a genome-wide SNP association study of 930 Icelanders with BCC and 33,117 controls. After analyzing 304,083 SNPs, we observed signals from loci at 1p36 and 1q42, and replicated these associations in additional sample sets from Iceland and Eastern Europe. Overall, the most significant signals were from rs7538876 on 1p36 (OR = 1.28, P = 4.4 x 10(-12)) and rs801114 on 1q42 (OR = 1.28, P = 5.9 x 10(-12)). The 1p36 locus contains the candidate genes PADI4, PADI6, RCC2 and ARHGEF10L, and the gene nearest to the 1q42 locus is the ras-homolog RHOU. Neither locus was associated with fair pigmentation traits that are known risk factors for BCC, and no risk was observed for melanoma. Approximately 1.6% of individuals of European ancestry are homozygous for both variants, and their estimated risk of BCC is 2.68 times that of noncarriers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a genome-wide SNP association study on 1,803 urinary bladder cancer (UBC) cases and 34,336 controls from Iceland and The Netherlands and follow up studies in seven additional case-control groups (2,165 cases and 3,800 controls). The strongest association was observed with allele T of rs9642880 on chromosome 8q24, 30 kb upstream of MYC (allele-specific odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; P = 9.34 x 10(-12)). Approximately 20% of individuals of European ancestry are homozygous for rs9642880[T], and their estimated risk of developing UBC is 1.49 times that of noncarriers. No association was observed between UBC and the four 8q24 variants previously associated with prostate, colorectal and breast cancers, nor did rs9642880 associate with any of these three cancers. A weaker signal, but nonetheless of genome-wide significance, was captured by rs710521[A] located near TP63 on chromosome 3q28 (allele-specific OR = 1.19; P = 1. 15 x 10(-7)).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out a genome-wide association study of breast cancer predisposition with replication and refinement studies involving 6,145 cases and 33,016 controls and identified two SNPs (rs4415084 and rs10941679) on 5p12 that confer risk, preferentially for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors (OR = 1.27, P = 2.5 x 10(-12) for rs10941679). The nearest gene, MRPS30, was previously implicated in apoptosis, ER-positive tumors and favorable prognosis. A recently reported signal in FGFR2 was also found to associate specifically with ER-positive breast cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult human height is one of the classical complex human traits. We searched for sequence variants that affect height by scanning the genomes of 25,174 Icelanders, 2,876 Dutch, 1,770 European Americans and 1,148 African Americans. We then combined these results with previously published results from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative on 3,024 Scandinavians and tested a selected subset of SNPs in 5,517 Danes. We identified 27 regions of the genome with one or more sequence variants showing significant association with height. The estimated effects per allele of these variants ranged between 0.3 and 0.6 cm and, taken together, they explain around 3.7% of the population variation in height. The genes neighboring the identified loci cluster in biological processes related to skeletal development and mitosis. Association to three previously reported loci are replicated in our analyses, and the strongest association was with SNPs in the ZBTB38 gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death, causing about 5 million premature deaths worldwide each year. Evidence for genetic influence on smoking behaviour and nicotine dependence (ND) has prompted a search for susceptibility genes. Furthermore, assessing the impact of sequence variants on smoking-related diseases is important to public health. Smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer (LC) and is one of the main risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Here we identify a common variant in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24 with an effect on smoking quantity, ND and the risk of two smoking-related diseases in populations of European descent. The variant has an effect on the number of cigarettes smoked per day in our sample of smokers. The same variant was associated with ND in a previous genome-wide association study that used low-quantity smokers as controls, and with a similar approach we observe a highly significant association with ND. A comparison of cases of LC and PAD with population controls each showed that the variant confers risk of LC and PAD. The findings provide a case study of a gene-environment interaction, highlighting the role of nicotine addiction in the pathology of other serious diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a genome-wide SNP association study on prostate cancer on over 23,000 Icelanders, followed by a replication study including over 15,500 individuals from Europe and the United States. Two newly identified variants were shown to be associated with prostate cancer: rs5945572 on Xp11.22 and rs721048 on 2p15 (odds ratios (OR) = 1.23 and 1.15; P = 3.9 x 10(-13) and 7.7 x 10(-9), respectively). The 2p15 variant shows a significantly stronger association with more aggressive, rather than less aggressive, forms of the disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association scan to search for sequence variants conferring risk of prostate cancer using 1,501 Icelandic men with prostate cancer and 11,290 controls. Follow-up studies involving three additional case-control groups replicated an association of two variants on chromosome 17 with the disease. These two variants, 33 Mb apart, fall within a region previously implicated by family-based linkage studies on prostate cancer. The risks conferred by these variants are moderate individually (allele odds ratio of about 1.20), but because they are common, their joint population attributable risk is substantial. One of the variants is in TCF2 (HNF1beta), a gene known to be mutated in individuals with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5. Results from eight case-control groups, including one West African and one Chinese, demonstrate that this variant confers protection against type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial clustering studies indicate that breast cancer risk has a substantial genetic component. To identify new breast cancer risk variants, we genotyped approximately 300,000 SNPs in 1,600 Icelandic individuals with breast cancer and 11,563 controls using the Illumina Hap300 platform. We then tested selected SNPs in five replication sample sets. Overall, we studied 4,554 affected individuals and 17,577 controls. Two SNPs consistently associated with breast cancer: approximately 25% of individuals of European descent are homozygous for allele A of rs13387042 on chromosome 2q35 and have an estimated 1.44-fold greater risk than noncarriers, and for allele T of rs3803662 on 16q12, about 7% are homozygous and have a 1.64-fold greater risk. Risk from both alleles was confined to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. At present, no genes have been identified in the linkage disequilibrium block containing rs13387042. rs3803662 is near the 5' end of TNRC9 , a high mobility group chromatin-associated protein whose expression is implicated in breast cancer metastasis to bone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the BRCA2 gene are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, but it is not known whether they are associated with progression of the disease. We compared prostate cancer-specific survival, disease stage, and tumor grade between prostate cancer patients carrying the Icelandic BRCA2 999del5 founder mutation and noncarriers.
Using population-based registries, we identified all 596 prostate cancer patients who were diagnosed in Iceland during 1955 through 2004 among 29603 male relatives of unselected breast cancer probands. BRCA2 mutation status could be determined for 527 patients (88.4%). Stage and grade were abstracted from original records, blindly with respect to mutation status, for a subgroup of 89 patients that included all mutation carriers and, for each carrier, two control patients without the BRCA2 999del5 mutation who were matched to the carrier on years of diagnosis and birth. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer-specific survival were estimated using multivariable regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
The mutation was carried by 30 patients (5.7%). Compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 999del5 mutation carriers had a lower mean age at diagnosis (69.0 years versus 74.0 years; P = .002), more advanced tumor stage (stages 3 or 4, 79.3% versus 38.6%; P < .001), higher tumor grade (grades G3-4, 84.0% versus 52.7%, P = .007), and shorter median survival time (2.1 years, 95% CI = 1.4 to 3.6 years, versus 12.4 years, 95% CI = 9.9 to 19.7 years). Carrying the BRCA2 999del5 mutation was also associated with an increased risk of dying from prostate cancer (adjusting for year of diagnosis and birth, HR = 3.42, 95% CI = 2.12 to 5.51); the association remained after adjustment for stage and grade (HR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.08 to 5.11). The prognosis of BRCA2 999del5 mutation carriers was not associated with period of diagnosis or with relatedness to breast cancer probands.
The Icelandic BRCA2 999del5 founder mutation was strongly associated with rapidly progressing lethal prostate cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterizing the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genome is a pre-requisite for association mapping studies. Patterns of LD also contain information about the past demography of populations. In this study, we focus on the Icelandic population where LD was investigated in 12 regions of approximately 15 cM using regularly spaced microsatellite loci displaying high heterozygosity. A total of 1753 individuals were genotyped for 179 markers. LD was estimated using a composite disequilibrium measure based on unphased data. LD decreases with distance in all 12 regions and more LD than expected by chance can be detected over approximately 4 cM in our sample. Differences in the patterns of decrease of LD with distance among genomic regions were mostly due to two regions exhibiting, respectively, higher and lower proportions of pairs in LD than average within the first 4 cM. We pooled data from all regions, except these two and summarized patterns of LD by computing the proportion of pairs of loci exhibiting significant LD (at the 5% level) as a function of distance. We compared observed patterns of LD with simulated data sets obtained under scenarios with varying demography and intensity of recombination. We show that unphased data allow to make inferences on scaled recombination rates from patterns of LD. Patterns of LD in Iceland suggest a genome-wide scaled recombination rate of rho* = 200 (130-330) per cM (or an effective size of roughly 5000), in the low range of estimates recently reported in three populations from the HapMap project.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 10/2006; 14(9):1044-53. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the familial nature of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Iceland. Risk ratio was used to estimate the risk among relatives of all CMM index cases diagnosed in Iceland over a 45-year period (1955-1999), using data from the National Cancer Registry and a genealogy database that covers the whole of Iceland's population. First-, second-, and third-degree relatives of CMM patients did not have an increased risk of the disease, and no added risk of other types of cancer among relatives was observed, except for thyroid cancer in first-degree male relatives. Seven individuals were diagnosed with two or more primary CMM in this period; none of these individuals had a first or second-degree relative with CMM. Altogether, 2.4% of cases were familial, as defined by commonly used criteria. In conclusion, high-penetrance susceptibility genes do not contribute much to CMM in the Icelandic population. The great majority of CMM cases in Iceland are most likely caused by the interplay between environmental causes and low-risk genes.
European Journal of Cancer 06/2006; 42(7):922-6. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent report estimated the breast cancer risks in carriers of the three Ashkenazi founder mutations to be higher than previously published estimates derived from population based studies. In an attempt to confirm this, the breast and ovarian cancer risks associated with the three Ashkenazi founder mutations were estimated using families included in a previous meta-analysis of populatrion based studies. The estimated breast cancer risks for each of the founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were similar to the corresponding estimates based on all BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in the meta-analysis. These estimates appear to be consistent with the observed prevalence of the mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.
Journal of Medical Genetics 08/2005; 42(7):602-3. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A single founder mutation in each of the BRCA genes has been identified in Iceland. The frequency of the BRCA1 G5193A and BRCA2 999del5 mutations in all ovarian cancer patients diagnosed over the period 1991-2000 was determined. Mutation status was correlated with family history, tumour morphology and age at diagnosis. Samples from 86% of cases (179 carcinomas and 74 borderline tumours) were available. In the carcinomas, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were present in 1.2% and 6% of cases, respectively. No BRCA mutations were found in the borderline tumours. Odds Ratio (OR) of developing ovarian cancer was 20.65 for BRCA2 carriers. Family history of breast/ovarian cancer was present for 70% of BRCA2 carriers and approximately 14% for non-carriers with carcinoma. In conclusion, BRCA2 999del5 is present in 6% of ovarian cancer cases in Iceland and is associated with a 20-fold increase in the risk of the disease. The BRCA1 G5193A mutation is too rare to contribute significantly to ovarian cancer in Iceland.
European Journal of Cancer 01/2005; 40(18):2788-93. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer initiation and progression require a complex interaction of genetic, environmental and clinical factors. Most research, however, has been focused on only a narrow aspect of the disease process. Data generated by the Human Genome Project, as well as large-scale molecular analysis of tumours, have indicated that a more systematic approach, in which the biological information is integrated with clinical features, is warranted. There are many aspects of the Icelandic population that make it well suited for such a broad-based approach. The Icelandic Cancer Project was therefore initiated to build a population-based clinical genomics database and biobank that can be used to study cancer — from genetic predisposition to clinical outcome.
Nature reviews. Cancer 07/2004; 4(6):488-92. · 35.00 Impact Factor