[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corneal abrasion not only damages the epithelium but also induces stromal keratocyte death at the site of injury. While a coordinated cascade of inflammatory cell recruitment facilitates epithelial restoration, it is unclear if this cascade is necessary for keratocyte recovery. Since platelet and neutrophil (PMN) recruitment after corneal abrasion is beneficial to epithelial wound healing, we wanted to determine if these cells play a role in regulating keratocyte repopulation after epithelial abrasion. A 2 mm diameter central epithelial region was removed from the corneas of C57BL/6 wildtype (WT), P-selectin deficient (P-sel-/-), and CD18 hypomorphic (CD18hypo) mice using the Algerbrush II. Corneas were studied at 6h intervals out to 48h post-injury to evaluate platelet and PMN cell numbers; additional corneas were studied at 1, 4, 14, and 28 days post injury to evaluate keratocyte numbers. In WT mice, epithelial abrasion induced a loss of anterior central keratocytes and keratocyte recovery was rapid and incomplete, reaching ~70% of uninjured baseline values by 4 days post-injury but no further improvement at 28 days post-injury. Consistent with a beneficial role for platelets and PMNs in wound healing, keratocyte recovery was significantly depressed at 4 days post-injury (~30% of uninjured baseline) in P-sel-/- mice, which are known to have impaired platelet and PMN recruitment after corneal abrasion. Passive transfer of platelets from WT, but not P-sel-/-, into P-sel-/- mice prior to injury restored anterior central keratocyte numbers at 4 days post-injury to P-sel-/- uninjured baseline levels. While PMN infiltration in injured CD18hypo mice was similar to injured WT mice, platelet recruitment was markedly decreased and anterior central keratocyte recovery was significantly reduced (~50% of baseline) at 4-28 days post-injury. Collectively, the data suggest platelets and platelet P-selectin are critical for efficient keratocyte recovery after corneal epithelial abrasion.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118950. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118950 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: γδ T cells are resident in AT and increase during diet-induced obesity. Their possible contribution to the inflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice after a 5 to 10 week milk HFD. The HFD resulted in significant increases in CD44(hi), CD62L(lo), and TNF-α(+) γδ T cells in eAT of WT mice. Mice deficient in all γδ T cells (TCRδ(-/-)) or only Vγ4 and Vγ6 subsets (Vγ4/6(-/-)) were compared with WT mice with regard to proinflammatory cytokine production and macrophage accumulation in eAT. Obesity among these mouse strains did not differ, but obese TCRδ(-/-) and Vγ4/6(-/-) mice had significantly reduced eAT expression of F4/80, a macrophage marker, and inflammatory mediators CCL2 and IL-6 compared with WT mice. Obese TCRδ(-/-) mice had significantly reduced CD11c(+) and TNF-α(+) macrophage accumulation in eAT after 5 and 10 weeks on the HFD, and obese Vγ4/6(-/-) mice had significantly increased CD206(+) macrophages in eAT after 5 weeks on the diet and significantly reduced macrophages after 10 weeks. Obese TCRδ(-/-) mice had significant reductions in systemic insulin resistance and inflammation in liver and skeletal muscle after longer-term HFD feeding (10 and 24 weeks). In vitro studies revealed that isolated γδ T cells directly stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage TNF-α expression but did not stimulate inflammatory mediator expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings are consistent with a role for γδ T cells in the proinflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
High-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice is characterized by accumulation of αβ T cells in adipose tissue. However, the contribution of αβ T cells to obesity-induced inflammation of skeletal muscle, a major organ of glucose uptake, is unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of αβ T cells on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory state of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in obesity. Furthermore, we investigated whether CD4+IFNγ+ (TH1) cells are involved in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction that accompanies obesity.
Mice lacking αβ T cells (T cell receptor beta chain-deficient [TCRb-/-] mice) were fed HFD for 12 weeks. Obesity-induced skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. To investigate the effect of TH1 cells on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic functions, we injected 5×10(5) TH1 cells or PBS weekly over 12 weeks into HFD-fed TCRb-/- mice. We also cultured C2C12 myofibers and 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TH1-conditioned medium.
We showed that similar to adipose tissue, skeletal muscle of obese mice have higher αβ T cell content, including TH1 cells. TCRb-/- mice were protected against obesity-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. We also demonstrated suppressed macrophage infiltration and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of TCRb-/- mice on HFD compared to wild-type obese controls. Adoptive transfer of TH1 cells into HFD-fed TCRb-/- mice resulted in increased skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation and impaired glucose metabolism. TH1 cells directly impaired functions of C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro.
We conclude that reduced adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation in obese TCRb-/- mice is partially attributable to the absence of TH1 cells. Our results suggest an important role of TH1 cells in regulating inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As an early responder to an inflammatory stimulus, neutrophils (PMNs) must exit the vasculature and migrate through the extravascular tissue to the site of insult, which is often remote from the point of extravasation. Following a central epithelial corneal abrasion, PMNs recruited from the peripheral limbal vasculature migrate into the avascular corneal stroma. In vitro studies suggest PMN locomotion over 2-D surfaces is dependent on integrin binding while migration within 3-D matrices can be integrin-independent. Electron micrographs of injured mouse corneas show migrating PMNs make extensive surface contact not only with collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but also keratocytes. Evidence supporting involvement of integrins in corneal inflammation has prompted research and development of integrin blocking agents for use as anti-inflammatory therapies. However, the role of integrin binding (cell-cell; cell-ECM) during stromal migration in the inflamed cornea has previously not been clearly defined. In this study in vivo time lapse imaging sequences provided the means to quantify cell motility while observing PMN interactions with keratocytes and other stromal components in the living eye. The relative contribution of β1, β2 and β3 integrins to PMN locomotion in the inflamed mouse cornea was investigated using blocking antibodies against the respective integrins. Of the 3 integrin families (β1, β2 and β3) investigated for their potential role in PMN migration, only β1 antibody blockade produced a significant, but partial, reduction in PMN motility. The preferential migration of PMNs along the keratocyte network was not affected by integrin blockade. Hence, the dominant mechanism for PMN motility within the corneal stroma appears to be integrin-independent as does the restriction of PMN migration paths to the keratocyte network.
Experimental Eye Research 01/2014; 120. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2014.01.004 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cells, particularly CD8(+) T cells, are major participants in obesity-linked adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. We examined the mechanisms of CD8(+) T-cell accumulation and activation in AT and the role of CD11a, a β2 integrin.
CD8(+) T cells in AT of obese mice showed activated phenotypes with increased proliferation and interferon-γ expression. In vitro, CD8(+) T cells from mouse AT displayed increased interferon-γ expression and proliferation to stimulation with interleukin-12 and interleukin-18, which were increased in obese AT. CD11a was upregulated in CD8(+) T cells in obese mice. Ablation of CD11a in obese mice dramatically reduced T-cell accumulation, activation, and proliferation in AT. Adoptive transfer showed that CD8(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not from CD11a-deficient mice, infiltrated into AT of recipient obese wild-type mice. CD11a deficiency also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α-producing and interleukin-12-producing macrophages in AT and improved insulin resistance.
Combined action of cytokines in obese AT induces proliferative response of CD8(+) T cells locally, which, along with increased infiltration, contributes to CD8(+) T-cell accumulation and activation in AT. CD11a plays a crucial role in AT inflammation by participating in T-cell infiltration and activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT). In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1) in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HI)CD11b(HI) macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75147. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075147 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have become highly prevalent in developed countries. Environmentally triggered exaggerated immune responses against the intestinal microbiome are thought to mediate the disorders. The potential dietary origins of the disease group have been implicated. However, the effects of environmental influences on prenatal developmental programming in respect to orchestrating postnatal microbiome composition and predilection towards mammalian colitis have not been examined. We tested how transient prenatal exposure to methyl donor micronutrient (MD) supplemented diets may impact predilection towards IBD in a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. Prenatal MD supplementation was sufficient to modulate colonic mucosal Ppara expression (3.2 fold increase; p=0.022) and worsen DSS colitis in young adulthood. The prenatal dietary exposure shifted the postnatal colonic mucosal and cecal content microbiomes. Transfer of the gut microbiome from prenatally MD supplemented young adult animals into germ free mice resulted in increased colitis susceptibility in the recipients compared to controls. Therefore, the prenatal dietary intervention induced the postnatal nurturing of a colitogenic microbiome. Our results show that prenatal nutritional programming can modulate the mammalian host to harbor a colitogenic microbiome. These findings may be relevant for the nutritional developmental origins of IBD.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e73162. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073162 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: TH2-dependent diseases vary in severity according to genotype, but relevant gene polymorphisms remain largely unknown. The integrin CD11a is a critical determinant of allergic responses, and allelic variants of this gene might influence allergic phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine major CD11a allelic variants in mice and human subjects and their importance to allergic disease expression. METHODS: We sequenced mouse CD11a alleles from C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains to identify major polymorphisms; human CD11a single nucleotide polymorphisms were compared with allergic disease phenotypes as part of the international HapMap project. Mice on a BALB/c or C57BL/6 background and congenic for the other strain's CD11a allele were created to determine the importance of mouse CD11a polymorphisms in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Compared with the C57BL/6 allele, the BALB/c CD11a allele contained a nonsynonymous change from asparagine to aspartic acid within the metal ion binding domain. In general, the BALB/c CD11a allele enhanced and the C57BL/6 CD11a allele suppressed TH2 cell-dependent disease caused by the parasite Leishmania major and allergic lung disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Relative to the C57BL/6 CD11a allele, the BALB/c CD11a allele conferred both greater T-cell adhesion to CD54 in vitro and enhanced TH2 cell homing to lungs in vivo. We further identified a human CD11a polymorphism that significantly associated with atopic disease and relevant allergic indices. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in CD11a critically influence TH2 cell homing and diverse TH2-dependent immunopathologic states in mice and potentially influence the expression of human allergic disease.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2013; 133(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.03.049 · 11.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs, normally present during and after epithelial wound closure. Transfer (i.v.) of spleen NK cells into NK cell-depleted mice significantly restored levels of corneal epithelial DCs (P<0.01). Immigrated NK cells were predominately positive for IFN-γ, and topical corneal anti-IFN-γ reduced epithelial DCs by 79% (P<0.01). IFN-γ(-/-) mice had 69% fewer DCs than WT controls (P<0.01), and topical rIFN-γ applied to NK cell-depleted corneas increased epithelial DCs significantly (P<0.01). The contribution of ICAM-1, an adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte migration, expressed on healing corneal epithelium, was evaluated. ICAM-1(-/-) mice exhibited >70% reduction in epithelial DC recovery in the first 48 h after epithelial abrasion (P<0.01). These interventions reveal an early turnover of DCs in the epithelium after injury, and ICAM-1, NK cells, and IFN-γ are necessary for the immigration phase of this turnover.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Histones are small, nuclear proteins that serve to package DNA. Recent reports suggest that extracellular histones, including histone H4, may contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis; they promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis when released into the circulation during inflammation or cell death. The mechanisms by which the body minimizes the deleterious effects of circulating histones are unclear. Because histones can bind to plasma proteins, including albumin, we hypothesized that normal albumin can prevent histones from activating platelets.
Materials and methods:
Platelets and platelet-free plasma were obtained from healthy, adult subjects. The dose-dependent effects of histone H4 on platelet aggregation were studied by optical aggregometry. The effects of native and albumin-depleted plasma (prepared by affinity chromatography) on histone-induced platelet aggregation were also assessed. The effects of normal and surface-neutralized albumin (through modification of carboxyl groups) on histone-induced platelet activation and aggregation were evaluated using flow cytometry and aggregometry.
Histone H4 induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. This histone-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by both plasma and human serum albumin in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, depletion of albumin from plasma reduced its ability to inhibit aggregation. Finally, surface neutralization of albumin decreased its ability to inhibit histone-induced activation and aggregation.
These data suggest that normal albumin serves a role in preventing histone-induced platelet aggregation in a charge-dependent manner.
Thrombosis Research 05/2013; 132(1). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2013.04.018 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DECREASED CONSUMPTION OF DIETARY FIBERS, SUCH AS CELLULOSE, HAS BEEN PROPOSED TO PROMOTE THE EMERGENCE OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56685. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056685 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. Copyright: ß 2013 Nagy-Szakal et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad v1.0 BeadChips. All analyses were performed in SOLAR using a linear regression-based test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for the relatedness of family members via a kinship variance component. The strongest association for MCP-1 levels was found with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12075, resulting in an amino acid substitution (Asp42Gly) in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene product (minor allele frequency=43.6%, p=1.3×10(-21)) on chromosome 1. Four other DARC SNPs were also significantly associated with MCP-1 levels (p<10(-16)-10(-6)). The Asp42Gly variant was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 and accounted for approximately 10% of its variability. In addition, MCP-1 levels were significantly associated with SNPs in chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9). In summary, the association of the DARC Asp42Gly variant with MCP-1 levels replicates previous GWA results substantiating a potential role for DARC in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that have crucial cytotoxic and regulatory roles in adaptive immunity and inflammation. Herein, we consider a role for these cells in corneal wound healing. After a 2-mm central epithelial abrasion of the mouse cornea, a subset of classic NK cells migrated into the limbus and corneal stroma, peaking at 24 hours with an eightfold increase over baseline. Depletion of γδ T cells significantly reduced NK cell accumulation (>70%; P < 0.01); however, in neutrophil-depleted animals, NK cell influx was normal. Isolated spleen NK cells migrated to the wounded cornea, and this migration was reduced by greater than 60% (P < 0.01) by ex vivo antibody blocking of NK cell CXCR3 or CCR2. Antibody-induced depletion of NK cells significantly altered the inflammatory reaction to corneal wounding, as evidenced by a 114% increase (P < 0.01) in neutrophil influx at a time when acute inflammation is normally waning. Functional blocking of NKG2D, an activating receptor for NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion, did not inhibit NK cell immigration, but significantly increased neutrophil influx. Consistent with excessive neutrophil accumulation, NK depletion and blocking of NKG2D also inhibited corneal nerve regeneration and epithelial healing (P < 0.01). Findings of this study suggest that NK cells are actively involved in corneal healing by limiting the innate acute inflammatory reaction to corneal wounding.
American Journal Of Pathology 06/2012; 181(2):452-62. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.04.010 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in TGRLs, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity.
Male apoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice fed HFD for 12 weeks were assessed for metabolic and inflammatory parameters. ApoE(-/-) and WT mice were orally gavaged with [(3)H]palmitic acid to examine the role of apoE in fat delivery to adipose tissue. VLDL from obese apoE(-/-) mice were intravenously injected into lean WT or apoE(-/-) mice to test potential contribution of TGRLs-derived fat delivery to inflammation in adipose tissue and the role of apoE.
ApoE(-/-) mice gained less body weight, and had less fat mass and lower triglyceride levels in skeletal muscle than WT. ApoE(-/-) mice on HFD had better insulin sensitivity than WT even when comparing body weight-matched mice. Compared to WT mice, apoE(-/-) mice on HFD had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and CD11c in adipose tissue, and lower levels of inflammatory markers in skeletal muscle. At 6 h after oral gavage with [(3)H]palmitic acid, incorporation of [(3)H]palmitic acid into adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was lower in apoE(-/-) mice. After repeated daily injection for 3 days, VLDL from obese apoE(-/-) mice induced inflammation in adipose tissue of recipient WT but not apoE(-/-) mice.
In HFD-induced obesity, apoE plays an important role in inflammation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, likely by mediating TGRL-derived fat delivery to these tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) permits leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and transmigration during inflammation. Membrane-bound ICAM-1 knockout mice have been used to understand this molecule's role in wound-healing, but expressed spliced isoforms of ICAM-1 that may have impacted results. We aimed to characterize wound-healing in an ICAM-1 null model devoid of all ICAM-1 isoforms.
Full-thickness 8-mm wounds were created on C57/BL6 wild-type (n = 24) and ICAM-1 null (n = 24) mice. Wound area was calculated using daily photographs. Histologic samples were harvested on postoperative Days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Wound margins were evaluated for mRNA expression of 13 inflammatory cytokines. A separate group of wild-type and ICAM-1 null mice (n = 24) received full-thickness incisions with tensiometry measured at Day 14. Separately, complete blood counts were measured in unwounded wild-type (n = 4) and ICAM-1 null mice (n = 4).
Wound-closure was significantly delayed in ICAM-1 null mice through Day 7 by gross and histologic measurement. mRNA expression of VEGF-A was increased in ICAM-1 null mice on Day 3, although no increase in VEGF-A was observed in the wound bed by immunohistochemistry. ICAM-1 null wounds demonstrated higher stiffness by tensiometry on Day 14 compared to the wild-type (1880 ± 926 kPa versus 478 ± 117 kPa; P < 0.01), and had higher counts of white blood cells (10,009 versus 5720 cells/μL, P < 0.05), neutrophils (2130 versus 630 cells/μL, P < 0.01), and lymphocytes (7130 versus 4,740 cells/μL, P < 0.05).
ICAM-1 null mice demonstrate delayed wound-healing and decreased wound elasticity compared to wild-type controls. This lag, however, was less than observed in earlier membrane-bound ICAM-1 knockouts, suggesting that other ICAM-1 isoforms may promote delayed wound-healing.
Journal of Surgical Research 07/2011; 171(1):e1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2011.06.053 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet (ND) or restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue (AT), and blood monocytes of obese mice.
In mice with HFD-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from HFD to ND and maintaining on ND ad libitum or by restricting HFD intake to match body weight of mice with ND-induced weight loss. After diet interventions for 4 weeks, hepatic steatosis, hepatic and AT inflammation, and blood CD11c(+) monocytes were examined.
At 4 weeks after switching diets, body weight was reduced by 23% from baseline. To achieve the same reduced body weight required restricting calorie intake from HFD. Weight loss with either ND or HFD restriction decreased body fat mass and ameliorated liver steatosis; both effects were greater with ND-induced weight loss than HFD restriction-induced weight loss. Weight loss with ND but not HFD restriction normalized blood CD11c(+) monocytes and attenuated hepatic inflammation assessed by chemokine and CD11c expression. In contrast, weight loss with HFD restriction significantly reduced chemokine levels and CD11c(+) cells in AT compared to obese controls, and tended to reduce AT chemokines and CD11c(+) cells more than ND-induced weight loss.
In mice with diet-induced obesity, weight loss with ND was superior in alleviating hepatic inflammation and steatosis, whereas weight loss with HFD calorie restriction provided greater amelioration of AT inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During and after transendothelial migration, neutrophils undergo a number of phenotypic changes resulting from encounters with endothelium-derived factors. This report uses an in vitro model with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and isolated human neutrophils to examine the effects of two locally derived cytokines, granulocyte (G)-macrophage (M) colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF, on oncostatin M (OSM) expression. Neutrophils contacting activated HUVEC expressed and released increased amounts of oncostatin M (OSM), a proinflammatory cytokine known to induce polymorphonuclear neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis. Neutrophil transendothelial migration resulted in threefold higher OSM expression and protein levels compared with nontransmigrated cells. Addition of anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody reduced OSM expression level but anti-G-CSF was without effect. GM-CSF but not G-CSF protein addition to cultures of isolated neutrophils resulted in a significant increase in OSM protein secretion. However, inhibition of β(2) integrins by neutralizing antibody significantly reduced GM-CSF-induced OSM production indicating this phenomenon is adhesion dependent. Thus cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells can produce sufficient quantities of GM-CSF to influence in an adhesion-dependent manner, the phenotypic characteristics of neutrophils resulting in the latter's transmigration. Both transmigration and adhesion phenomenon lead to increased production of OSM by neutrophils that then play a major role in inflammatory response.