M Fenchel

University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (195)486.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess feasibility of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (wbDWI) for very early evaluation of response to therapy in different lymphoma subtypes. Materials and Methods 20 patients (10 male, 10 female; mean age 50.7 ± 16.1 ± 17.2 years) underwent wbDWI (calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] with b = 0, 800 sec/mm2) at baseline and within a median of 7 days after therapy onset. Lymphoma manifestations were evaluated with respect to changes in ADC and size at follow-up with up to six of the largest lesions per patient undergoing quantification. An increase in ADC as well as a decrease in size at follow-up was classified as responder, whereas neither change in ADC nor in size (or progression) was considered non-responder. Results were confirmed at interim measurements (after 3-4 chemotherapy cycles) and 6 months after treatment. Results 90 lymphoma lesions were analyzed. 18 patients were classified as responders and 2 as non-responder at FU (mean, 1 week). DWI results accurately (100%) correlated with the subsequent interim course of all lesions. meanbaseline ADC was 0.79 ± 0.28 × 10−3 sec/mm2. For responders mean follow-upADC increased by 64.6 ± 56.5% (p < 0.001) whereas lesions size decreased by mean14.4 ± 13.3% (p < 0.001). In the non-responder, both values did not significantly change. In patients classified as responders six months after treatment, meanADC increase at FU was 70.3 ± 57.8% (p < 0.001) whereas mean size decrease vs. baseline was 15.8 ± 13.6% as compared to non-responders (22.4 ± 39.9%) and 5.4 ± 0.9%, respectively. Conclusion wbDWI with ADC analysis represents a feasible diagnostic tool for very early response assessment in lymphoma patients enabling also prediction of long-term response.
    European Journal of Radiology 09/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Iterative reconstruction has recently been revisited as a promising concept for substantial CT dose reduction. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefit of sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality at reduced tube current with standard dose filtered back projection (FBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-contrast reduced dose head CT (255mAs, CTDIvol 47.8mGy) was performed in thirty consecutive patients and reconstructed with SAFIRE and FBP. Images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality and compared with FBP of standard dose acquisitions (320mAs, CTDIvol 59.7mGy). RESULTS: In reduced dose CT examinations, use of SAFIRE versus FBP resulted in 47% increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (2.49 vs. 1.69; p<0.0001). While reduction of tube current was associated with 13% decrease in CNR, quantitative degradation of image quality at lower dose was more than compensated through SAFIRE (2.49 vs. 1.96; p=0.0004). Objective measurements of image sharpness were comparable between FBP and SAFIRE reconstructions (575.9±74.1 vs. 583.4±74.7 change in HU/Pixel; p=0.28). Compared to standard dose FBP, subjective grading of noise as well as overall image quality scores were significantly improved when SAFIRE was used in reduced dose exams (1.3 vs. 1.6, p=0.006; 1.3 vs. 1.7, p=0.026). CONCLUSION: At 20% dose reduction, reconstruction of head CT by SAFIRE provides above standard objective and subjective image quality, suggesting potential for more vigorous dose savings in neuroradiology CT applications.
    European journal of radiology 04/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: High-pitch CT angiography (CTA) is a recent innovation that allows significant shortening of scan time with volume coverage of 43 mm per second. The aim of our study was to assess this technique in CTA of the head and neck. METHODS: CTA of supra-aortic arteries was performed in 50 patients using two acquisition protocols: conventional single-source 64-slice (pitch 1.2) and high-pitch dual-source 128-slice CT (pitch 3.2). Subjective and objective image quality of supra-aortic vessel ostia as well as intra- and extra-cranial segments was retrospectively assessed by blinded readers and radiation dose compared between the two protocols. RESULTS: Conventional and high-pitch CTA achieved comparable signal-to-noise ratios in arterial (54.3 ± 16.5 versus 57.3 ± 14.8; p = 0.50) and venous segments (15.8 ± 6.7 versus 18.9 ± 8.9; p = 0.21). High-pitch scanning was, however, associated with sharper delineation of vessel contours and image quality significantly improved at the level of supra-aortic vessel ostia (p < 0.0001) as well as along the brachiocephalic trunk (p < 0.0001), the subclavian arteries (p < 0.0001), proximal common carotid arteries (p = 0.01), and vertebral V1 segments (p < 0.0001). Using the high-pitch mode, the dose-length product was reduced by about 35 % (218.2 ± 30 versus 141.8 ± 20 mGy × cm). CONCLUSIONS: Due to elimination of transmitted cardiac motion, high-pitch CTA of the neck improves image quality in the proximity of the aortic arch while significantly lowering radiation dose. The technique thus qualifies as a promising alternative to conventional spiral CTA and may be particularly useful for identification of ostial stenosis.
    Neuroradiology 12/2012; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Computed tomographic angiography is the standard in routine follow-up after endovascular aneurysm repair, causing radiation exposure; thus, dose-saving strategies should be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the novel sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) algorithm in terms of clinical usability and potential reduction of radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients underwent computed tomographic angiographic follow-up after endovascular aneurysm repair. Data were acquired using a dual-source computed tomographic scanner running both x-ray tubes at the same voltage (120 kV). Raw data were reconstructed using projections of both tubes with filtered back projection (FBP) and of only one tube with FBP and SAFIRE, corresponding to synthetic acquisition with half the radiation dose of the clinical routine radiation dose. Image sets were objectively compared regarding signal-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness. Two radiologists independently assessed a set of subjective criteria, including diagnostic usability, depiction of contrasted vessels, and image noise. RESULTS: Half-dose (HD) SAFIRE images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise ratios compared to full-dose FBP images (P < .001), while having equal edge sharpness (P = .56). Most of the subjectively assessed parameters, such as diagnostic usability and depiction of contrasted vessels, were rated similar for HD SAFIRE and full-dose FBP images. Full-dose FBP images depicted fine anatomic structures more clearly (P < .05), while HD SAFIRE data sets showed less noise (P < .01). HD FBP images performed worse on all criteria (P < .001). Interrater agreement was good (κ = 0.74-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Using the SAFIRE algorithm, the radiation dose of high-contrast abdominal computed tomographic angiography is reducible from routine clinical levels by up to 50% while maintaining good image quality and diagnostic accuracy.
    Academic radiology 10/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide a practical review of the spectrum of imaging findings in patients with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and to address possible differential diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Imaging findings in TBE resemble those of other infections, such as meningoencephalitis. However, a predilection for the thalami, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and anterior horns of the spinal cord suggests the possibility of TBE.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 08/2012; 199(2):420-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify and compare T2 signal and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in pilocytic and pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PA and PMA) and correlate results with myxoid content. Echo-planar diffusion weighted images (DWI) and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were reviewed retrospectively in patients with PA (n=34) and PMA (n=8). Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on ADC maps within tumor parts with lowest ADC values. Apparent diffusion coefficient values in tumor were normalized to those in cerebrospinal fluid (ADC/CSF). The ratio of T2 signal intensity in solid tumor parts to CSF (T2/CSF) was registered. Myxoid matrix was histologically quantified retrospectively in 8 PMAs and 17 PAs and correlated with imaging findings. Mean ADC/CSF for PA and PMA was 0.53±0.10 and 0.69±0.10 (p<0.01). Mean T2/CSF for PA and PMA was 0.78±0.19 and 0.93±0.09 (p<0.01). Mean proportion of myxoid tumor matrix in PA was 50% (range, 10-100%) and 93% (range, 90-100%) in PMA (p=0.004). Eight patients (32%; all PA) had less than 50% myxoid content and 17 (68%; 8 PA; 9 PMA) had more. There was positive correlation of ADC/CSF, T2/CSF and ADC (r2=0.61, 0.65 and 0.60 respectively) and significant difference between the groups with more and less than 50% myxoid content (p=0.01 for ADC/CSF and T2/CSF and p=0.02 for ADC). General imaging features of PA and PMA are non-specific, ADC values and T2 signal intensity are generally higher in the latter, reflecting the proportion of myxoid matrix in these tumors.
    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 07/2012; 39(4):491-8. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To retrospectively determine which features of urinary calculi are associated with their detection after virtual elimination of contrast medium at dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) urography by using a novel tin filter. The institutional ethics committee approved this retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. A total of 152 patients were examined with single-energy nonenhanced CT and dual-energy CT urography in the excretory phase (either 140 and 80 kV [n=44] or 140 and 100 kV [n=108], with tin filtration at 140 kV). The contrast medium in the renal pelvis and ureters was virtually removed from excretory phase images by using postprocessing software, resulting in virtual nonenhanced (VNE) images. The sensitivity regarding the detection of calculi on VNE images compared with true nonenhanced (TNE) images was determined, and interrater agreement was evaluated by using the Cohen k test. By using logistic regression, the influences of image noise, attenuation, and stone size, as well as attenuation of the contrast medium, on the stone detection rate were assessed. Threshold values with maximal sensitivity and specificity were calculated by means of receiver operating characteristic analyses. Eighty-seven stones were detected on TNE images; 46 calculi were identified on VNE images (sensitivity, 52.9%). Interrater agreement revealed a κ value of 0.95 with TNE images and 0.91 with VNE data. Size (long-axis diameter, P=.005; short-axis diameter, P=.041) and attenuation (P=.0005) of the calculi and image noise (P=.0031) were significantly associated with the detection rate on VNE images. As threshold values, size larger than 2.9 mm, maximum attenuation of the calculi greater than 387 HU, and image noise less than 20 HU were found. After virtual elimination of contrast medium, large (>2.9 mm) and high-attenuation (>387 HU) calculi can be detected with good reliability; smaller and lower attenuation calculi might be erased from images, especially with increased image noise.
    Radiology 05/2012; 264(1):119-25. · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 05/2012; 184(5):397-401. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 03/2012; 184(3):191-5. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IR has recently demonstrated its capacity to reduce noise and permit dose reduction in abdominal and thoracic CT applications. The purpose of our study was to assess the potential benefit of IR in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality with standard FBP at various dose levels. Ninety consecutive patients were randomly assigned to undergo nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced head CT at a standard dose (320 mAs; CTDI, 60.1) or 15% (275 mAs; CTDI, 51.8) and 30% (225 mAs; CTDI, 42.3) dose reduction. All acquisitions were reconstructed with IR in image space, and FBP and images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative IQ. Compared with FBP, IR resulted in lower image noise (P ≤ .02), higher CNR (P ≤ .03), and improved subjective image quality (P ≤ .002) at all dose levels. While degradation of objective and subjective IQ at 15% dose reduction was fully compensated by IR (CNR, 1.98 ± 0.4 at 320 mAs with FBP versus 2.05 ± 0.4 at 275 mAs with IR; IQ, 1.8 versus 1.7), IQ was considerably poorer at 70% standard dose despite using the iterative approach (CNR, 1.98 ± 0.3 at 320 mAs with FBP versus 1.85 ± 0.4 at 225 mAs with IR, P = .18; IQ, 1.8 versus 2.2, P = .03). Linear regression analysis of CNR against tube current suggests that standard CNR may be obtained until approximately 20.4% dose reduction when IR is used. Compared with conventional FBP, IR of head CT is associated with significant improvement of objective and subjective IQ and may allow dose reductions in the range of 20% without compromising standard image quality.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2012; 33(2):218-24. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 02/2012; 184(02). · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To estimate effective dose and organ equivalent doses of prospective ECG-triggered high-pitch CTCA. Materials and Methods. For dose measurements, an Alderson-Rando phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP 103. Exposure was performed on a second-generation dual-source scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). The following scan parameters were used: 320 mAs per rotation, 100 and 120 kV, pitch 3.4 for prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch CTCA, scan range of 13.5 cm, collimation 64 × 2 × 0.6 mm with z-flying focal spot, gantry rotation time 280 ms, and simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute. Results. Depending on the applied tube potential, the effective whole-body dose of the cardiac scan ranged from 1.1 mSv to 1.6 mSv and from 1.2 to 1.8 mSv for males and females, respectively. The radiosensitive breast tissue in the range of the primary beam caused an increased female-specific effective dose of 8.6%±0.3% compared to males. Decreasing the tube potential, a significant reduction of the effective dose of 35.8% and 36.0% can be achieved for males and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The radiologist and the CT technician should be aware of this new dose-saving strategy to keep the radiation exposure as low as reasonablly achievable.
    Radiology research and practice. 01/2012; 2012:724129.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. The aim of the present work was to test the feasibility of the time-resolved MR-angiography (TWIST-MRA) of cervical arteries using double bolus injection. Material and Methods. TWIST-MRA with a temporal resolution of 8.4 seconds for each frame and a spatial resolution with a voxel size of 0.61 × 0.58 × 0.8 mm(3) was performed in 24 patients. A biphasic bolus injection protocol was used with the second injection being started 21 seconds after the first contrast dye bolus. Diagnostic image quality was rated according to a 4-point scale. Results. In 12 patients (50%) no clear separation between the cervical venous and arterial vessels was evident after the first bolus injection. Using TWIST-MRA data acquired after the second bolus a sufficient diagnostic image quality (rating ≥3, mean 3.5) could be obtained in 22 of 24 patients (92%). Discussion. The double bolus injection protocol using TWIST-MRA allows for very good separation of the cervical arteries.
    Radiology research and practice. 01/2012; 2012:203538.
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 12/2011; 183(12):1093-6. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) accurate preoperative assessment is essential to determine indication and surgical procedure to ensure optimal outcome. Purpose of our study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy (DA) of multiphasic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to determine the extent of PC in correlation with surgical and histopathological findings. 14 Patients with proven PC were examined on a 1.5T system before peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Patient preparation included oral application of 2000 mL mannitol solution and 40 mg butylscopolaminiumbromid i.v. Coronal contrast-enhanced multiphasic dynamic T1w 3D gre sequences (T1W DCE) (0.15 mmol Gd-chelate/kg bw) covering the whole abdomen were acquired (TR 2.9 ms, TE 1.1 ms, resolution 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.8 mm, FOV 400 × 400 mm). MRI was assessed by two radiologists and correlated with surgical exploration (SE) and histopathology for each segment based on the peritoneal cancer index proposed by Sugarbaker et al. In total, 182 segments were evaluated. PC was found in 118/121 of 182 segments (reader 1/2) by MRI and in 131 segments by SE. In 4/7 segments MRI was false positive. False negative segments 17/17 in MRI did not result in irresectability. The positive predictive value for PC per segment of MRI was 97%/94%, the negative predictive value 73%/72%, the sensitivity 87%/87% and the specificity 92%/86%. The DA was 88%/87%. T1W DCE is an accurate and clinical valuable tool for the preoperative assessment of peritoneal tumor spread.
    Abdominal Imaging 11/2011; 37(5):834-42. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Evaluation of the detectability of urinary calculi after virtual elimination of contrast media in dual energy CT (DECT) urography using the novel tin filter. METHOD AND MATERIALS 143 patients received a single energy non-enhanced CT and a DECT urography in excretory phase (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany; tin filter technology; Sn140kV/80kV and Sn140kV/100kV). Using postprocessing software (Syngo Dual Energy, Siemens AG), the contrast media in the renal pelvis was virtually removed from DECT excretory phase images, resulting in virtual non-enhanced (VNE) images. The visibility of the calculi in the renal pelvis in VNE images was compared to the true non-enhanced (TNE) images. Using logistic regression, the influences of image noise, density and size of the calculi as well as the density of the contrast media onto the stone detection rate was assessed. By means of ROC analyses, threshold values were calculated. RESULTS In the TNE and VNE data, 77 and 33 stones were detected, respectively. As significant predictors for the successful detection of calculi in the VNE images, the size (p=0.0196) and the density (p=0.0007) of the calculi as well as the image noise (p=0.0031) could be determined. The maximum density of the contrast media did not significantly influence the detection rate (p=0.28643). As threshold values, size of the calculi >2.9 mm, a maximum HU-value of the calculi of >340 HU and an image noise of <20 HU were found. CONCLUSION After virtual elimination of contrast media from DECT images, large (>2.9 mm) and dense (>340 HU) calculi can be detected with good reliability. Smaller and less dense calculi might be erased from the images, especially with increased image noise. In order to meet the stone detection rates of TNE imaging even in adverse conditions, the iodine subtraction technique still requires further developments. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION Virtual nonenhanced images generated at pyelographic-phase dual-energy CT can help to detect calculi in the presence of contrast media in the filling system.
    Radiological Society of North America 2011 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 11/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Calcifications adjacent to the vessel lumen often limit the assessment of stenoses at the carotid bifurcation in 3D multi intensity projection images (3D-MIP) using conventional single energy CT. Aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 3D-MIP images after subtraction of bone and calcified plaques (PBS) using dual energy CT for the assessment of carotid bifurcation stenoses. 36 patients with a total of 46 stenoses at the carotid bifurcation were examined with a dual energy CT system. Grade of the stenoses and plaque morphology were assessed in axial multi planar projections (axMPR) and freely rotatable 3D-MIP images before and after PBS and compared with results from DSA. Grade of the stenosis could be evaluated in all 46 cases in DSA, axMPR and 3D-MIP after PBS. However, in 25 cases grade of the stenosis was not assessable prior to PBS. The average grade of the stenosis increased from DSA (81.4%) to axMPR (83.5%) to 3D-MIP before and after PBS (86.5% and 85.6%). The amount of pseudo-occlusions increased in concordance with the grade of the stenosis (0<9<16). Using 3D-MIP reconstructions, plaque morphology could be evaluated in 32/46 stenoses before PBS and in 44/46 cases after PBS. PBS facilitated the evaluation of grade of the stenosis in all cases. Nevertheless, after PBS stenoses were overrated in 3D-MIP in comparison to DSA and axMPR. Moreover, plaque morphology, as an independent risk factor for stroke, can be evaluated even in calcified plaques after PBS. Therefore dual energy CTA with plaque subtraction has the potential to identify patients with vulnerable plaques better than conventional CTA.
    European journal of radiology 11/2011; 80(2):e120-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 10/2011; 183(10):893-5. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate radiation exposure and image quality in thoracic computed tomography (CT) using a new dose-saving algorithm to protect radiosensitive organs. For dose measurements, an Alderson RANDO phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used. The effective dose was calculated according to the International Commission on Radiologic Protection 103. Exposure was performed on a second-generation dual-source CT. The following parameters for thoracic CT were used: 160 effective mAs, 120 kV, scan range of 30 cm, collimation of 128 × 0.6 mm. For the acquisition, the tube current modulation type XCare was used, which reduces the tube current for anterior tube position to minimize direct exposure to anterior located organs. To compare differences, scans with and without XCare were performed. Objective signal-to-noise measurements were evaluated, and the subjective noise perception was rated in a 3-point scale (1: excellent, 3: affecting diagnostic accuracy) in 30 patients with a standard thoracic examination and a follow-up using XCare. A substantial dose reduction in radiosensitive tissues was evident using the dose-saving algorithm XCare. Specifically, reductions of 35.2% for the female breast and 20.1% for the thyroid gland were measured, resulting in a decreasing effective whole-body dose of 8.0% and 14.3% for males and females, respectively. The objective and subjective evaluation of image quality showed no significant differences between both scan protocols (P > 0.05). Mean signal-to-noise ratio was 1.3 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 in scan protocols without and with XCare, respectively. The subjective scores at the level of the pulmonary trunk were 1.2 ± 0.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5 in standard chest scan and scans with the dose-saving algorithm XCare, respectively. The XCare technique protects radiosensitive organs like the female breast and the thyroid gland without affecting image quality. Therefore, this dose-saving algorithm may be used in thoracic CT examinations in male and female patients.
    Investigative radiology 09/2011; 47(2):148-52. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to describe MR imaging findings of spinal cord pilocytic astrocytomas at first presentation and following neurosurgery and to discuss briefly some of the most common differential diagnoses. CONCLUSION: MR imaging findings in medullary pilocytic astrocytomas consist generally of focal or diffuse cord-enlarging masses that are irregularly shaped, accompanied by cystic elements and hydromyelia, present different degrees of contrast enhancement, high water diffusivity and a propensity for the thoracic and cervical cord.
    European journal of radiology 09/2011; 79(3):389-99. · 2.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
486.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Institute for Physiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007–2012
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • • Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology
      • • Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Radiology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006
    • Antioch University, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States