Y. Sakamoto

Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Muramatsu, Niigata, Japan

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Publications (247)477.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a need for assuring safety of fusion energy has grown in the Japanese (JA) fusion research community. DEMO safety research has been launched as a part of Broader Approach DEMO Design Activities (BA-DDA). This paper reports progress in the fusion DEMO safety research conducted under BA-DDA. Safety requirements and evaluation guidelines have been, first of all, established based on those established in the Japanese ITER site invitation activities. The radioactive source terms and energies that can mobilize such source terms have been assessed for a reference DEMO concept. This concept employs in-vessel components that are cooled by pressurized water and built of a low activation ferritic steel (F82H), contains solid pebble beds made of lithium-titanate (Li2TiO3) and beryllium–titanium (Be12Ti) for tritium breeding and neutron multiplication, respectively. It is shown that unlike the energies expected in ITER, the enthalpy in the first wall/blanket cooling loops is large compared to the other energies expected in the reference DEMO concept. Reference accident event sequences in the reference DEMO in this study have been analyzed based on the Master Logic Diagram and Functional Failure Mode and Effect Analysis techniques. Accident events of particular concern in the DEMO have been selected based on the event sequence analysis and the hazard assessment.
    Fusion Engineering and Design 10/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relations between a net electrical output power and dimensions of components in radial build are investigated based on the ITER plasma performance to develop a conceptual design of DEMO with the net electrical output power of several hundred MW. Reducing the dimensions of in-vessel components and increasing the thickness of the toroidal field coil contribute to strengthen the toroidal magnetic field at plasma, which brings about increase in a net electrical output power. The relation between the minimum plasma major radius and the maximum net electrical output power is clarified. Furthermore effects of improvements in the ITER plasma performance on the net electricity are also analyzed; indicating the increase of normalized beta could have advantage from the viewpoint of the divertor heat load because the increase of synchrotron radiation loss power contributes to reduce the divertor heat load, though the higher energy confinement is required.
    Nuclear Engineering and Design Fusion 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An exceptional high ferroelectric remnant polarization (P r) was observed in BaTiO 3 ceramics owing to the formation of micron-sized grains possessing nano-scale mosaicity. Such a structural hierarchy was developed via a novel crystal-growth mechanism, namely ordered coalescence of nano-crystals achieved by synergetic atomic epitaxial growth and self-assembly of nano-crystals. The accommodating lattice defects in sub-grain boundaries due to the imperfect assembly of nano-crystals significantly contribute to the P r enhancement by stimulating the dynamics of ferroelectric domain formation and switching. This finding defines a new approach to nanopowder sintering leading to enhanced properties sensitive to lattice defects.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 11/2012; 22(44):23547. · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies of the paramagnetic (Mn,Co)-codoped ZnO [ZnO:(Mn,Co)] and ferromagnetic (Fe,Co)-codoped ZnO[ZnO:(Fe,Co)] nano-particles. Both the surface-sensitive total-electron-yield mode and the bulk-sensitive total-fluorescence-yield mode have been employed to extract the valence and spin states of the surface and inner core regions of the nano-particles. In the case of paramagnetic ZnO:(Mn,Co) nano-particles, the doped Mn and Co atoms are in a mixed-valence (2+, 3+, and 4+) state and the relative concentrations of the high-valence (3+ and 4+) Mn and Co ions are higher in the surface region than in the inner core region. In the case of the ferromagnetic ZnO:(Fe,Co) nano-particles, the doped Fe and Co atoms are found to be in a mixed-valence (2+ and 3+) state and the relative concentrations of the Fe 3+ and Co 3+ ions are higher in the surface region than in the inner core region. The XMCD spectra show that the Fe 3+ ions in the surface region mainly give rise to the ferromagnetism while the doped Co ions in the surface region show only paramagnetic behaviors. The transition-metal atoms in the inner core region do not show magnetic signals, meaning that they are nonmagnetic states due to antiferromagnetic coupling. The present result combined with the previous results on transition-metal-doped ZnO nano-particles suggest that doped holes, probably due to Zn vacancy formation at the surfaces of the nano-particles, rather than doped electrons are involved in the occurrence of ferromagnetism in these systems. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2012.594]
    e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology 11/2012; 3(10):594-598.
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    ABSTRACT: The first detailed measurements of ion-impurity dynamics for NBI-heated ELMy H-modes at the edge of the JT-60U tokamak are reported. We investigated the ability of external momentum/power input to modify and control the radial electric field, Er, and pedestal structures. The relationship between Er and pedestal structures of ion-impurity density, ni, and temperature, Ti, during the ELMing H-mode phase for various momentum input directions (i.e. co-, balanced- and counter-NBI) and input powers from perpendicular NBI are compared with the ELM-free phase. The observed trend is that the edge Er-well width increases in the co-NBI discharge, while the Er value at the base of the Er-well becomes more negative in the counter-NBI discharge. The scale length for both ni and Ti in the pedestal is ~2 cm and values are ~1 for both ELM-free and ELMing phases with different magnitudes of Er (and/or Er shear). Characteristics of the turbulent density fluctuation, in addition to a uniform toroidal MHD oscillation (i.e. n = 0), during both ELM-free and ELMing phases are also reported.
    Nuclear Fusion 10/2012; 52(11):114010. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies of the paramagnetic (Mn,Co)-co-doped ZnO and ferromagnetic (Fe,Co)-co-doped ZnO nano-particles. Both the surface-sensitive total-electron-yield mode and the bulk-sensitive total-fluorescence-yield mode have been employed to extract the valence and spin states of the surface and inner core regions of the nano-particles. XAS spectra reveal that significant part of the doped Mn and Co atoms are found in the trivalent and tetravalent state in particular in the surface region while majority of Fe atoms are found in the trivalent state both in the inner core region and surface region. The XMCD spectra show that the Fe$^{3+}$ ions in the surface region give rise to the ferromagnetism while both the Co and Mn ions in the surface region show only paramagnetic behaviors. The transition-metal atoms in the inner core region do not show magnetic signals, meaning that they are antiferromagnetically coupled. The present result combined with the previous results on transition-metal-doped ZnO nano-particles and nano-wires suggest that doped holes, probably due to Zn vacancy formation at the surfaces of the nano-particles and nano-wires, rather than doped electrons are involved in the occurrence of ferromagnetism in these systems.
    e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology 08/2012;
  • K. Ida, K. Kamiya, A. Isayama, Y. Sakamoto
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    ABSTRACT: A peaked ion temperature profile is observed inside the magnetic island during mode locking after the back transition from H mode to L mode in JT-60U. The thermal diffusivity evaluated inside the magnetic island is 0.1 m2/s, which is much smaller than that outside the magnetic island by an order of magnitude. The present experiment gives clear evidence that ion heat transport inside a magnetic island can bifurcate and the transport level can be suppressed to the very low level associated with the strong flow shear at the boundary.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2012; 109(6). · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. Two electrostatic tandem accelerators and three cyclotrons delivered by commercial companies have offered various life science tools; these include proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE), micro beam irradiation, neutron exposure, and radioisotope tracers and probes. A duoplasmatron, a multicusp ion source, a penning ion source (PIG), and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) are in operation for these purposes. The Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is an accelerator complex for heavy-ion radiotherapy, fully developed by NIRS. HIMAC is utilized not only for daily treatment with the carbon beam but also for fundamental experiments. Several ECRISs and a PIG at HIMAC satisfy various research and clinical requirements.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2012; 83(2):02A332. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between toroidal rotation velocities (Vt) in the core and edge regions is investigated in H-mode plasmas with a small external torque input from the viewpoint of momentum transport. The toroidal rotation velocity in the core region (core-Vt) gradually varies on a timescale of ~20 ms after a rapid change in the toroidal rotation velocity in the edge region (edge-Vt) at the L–H transition. This timescale of ~20 ms is consistent with a transport timescale using the momentum diffusivity (χ) and convection velocity (Vconv). In steady state, a linear correlation between the core- and edge-Vt is observed in H-mode plasmas when the ion pressure gradient (∇Pi) is small. This relation between core- and edge-Vt is also explained by momentum transport. The Vt profiles with a large ∇Pi are reproduced in the core region of r/a ~ 0.2–0.7 by adopting a residual stress term 'Πres = αkχ∇Pi' proposed in this paper. Here r/a is the normalized plasma radius and αk1 is a radial constant. Using this formula, Vt profiles are reproduced over a wide range of plasma conditions. Parameter dependences of the edge-Vt are investigated at a constant ripple loss power, ripple amplitude and plasma current. A reduction in the CTR-rotation is observed with decreasing ion temperature gradient (∇Ti). Here CTR refers to the counter-IP direction.
    Nuclear Fusion 01/2012; 52(2):023024. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t We have studied the electronic structure of the molecular ferromagnet β-Mn phthalocyanine (β-MnPc) in a polycrystalline form, which has been reported to show ferromagnetism at T < 8.6 K, by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the experimental results and subsequent cluster-model calculation, we find that the ferromagnetic Mn ion in β-MnPc is largely in the 4 E g ground state arising from the (e g) 3 (b 2g) 1 (a 1g) 1 [(d xz,yz) 3 (d xy) 1 (d z 2) 1 ] configuration of the Mn 2+ state. Considering that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of MnPc with the 4 E g ground state originates from the a 1g orbital of the Mn 2+ ion, it is proposed that a 1g –a 1g exchange coupling via the π orbitals of the phthalocyanine ring plays a crucial role in the ferromagnetism of β-MnPc.
    Solid State Communications 01/2012; 152:806-809. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the electronic structure of ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn,N thin films using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and resonance-photoemission spectroscopy. From the Mn 2$p$$\rightarrow3d$ XMCD results, it is shown that, while XMCD signals only due to paramagnetic Mn$^{2+}$ ions were observed in ZnO:Mn, nonmagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic Mn$^{2+}$ ions coexist in ZnO:Mn,N. XMCD signals of ZnO:Mn,N revealed that the localized Mn$^{2+}$ ground state and Mn$^{2+}$ state hybridized with ligand hole coexisted, implying $p$-$d$ exchange coupling. In the valence-band spectra, spectral weight near the Fermi level was suppressed, suggesting that interaction between magnetic moments in ZnO:Mn,N has localized nature.
    Applied Physics Letters 12/2011; 99(13). · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on the edge pedestal characteristics were examined in the TF ripple scan experiments at the plasma current Ip of 1.1 MA in JET and JT-60U. The TF ripple amplitude δR was defined as a value averaged over the existing ripple wells at the separatrix on the outer midplane. By the installation of ferritic inserts (FIs), δR was reduced from 1% to 0.6% at 3.2T (0.5% at 2.2 T) in JT-60U. In JET, δR was varied from 0.08% to 1% by feeding different currents to the odd and even set of coils out of 32 TF coils. The pedestal pressure pped was similar for the cases before and after the installation of FIs in JT-60U. Similarly, no clear difference in pped was also observed in the variation of δR in JET. The core and edge toroidal rotation clearly shifted in the counter-direction by increased δR. However, there were no changes in the spatial profiles of electron density, electron temperature and ion temperature. By the installation of FIs in JT-60U, the ELM frequency fELM decreased by ~20%, while the ELM energy loss increased by 50–150%. The increased ELM loss power by 30% suggests a reduction of inter-ELM transport with the reduced δR. In JET, fELM increased only slightly with increased δR while the edge toroidal rotation frequency decreased as δR increased. From the inter-machine similarity experiment at 1.1 MA, TF ripple less than 1% does not strongly affect the pedestal pressure. However, in the single TF ripple scan at the higher Ip of 2.6 MA in JET, it clearly decreases with the increased δR, accompanying with a strong density pump out at large TF ripple. These results suggests that the effect of TF ripple on H-mode properties becomes stronger in the plasmas with higher Ip or lower edge collisionality of ripple diffusion.
    Nuclear Fusion 10/2011; 51(11):113004. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection, with the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, of a very high energy gamma-ray signal from the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1614–518, which was discovered in the H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey. Diffuse gamma-ray emission was detected above 760 GeV at the 8.9σ level during an effective exposure of 54 hr from 2008 May to August. The spectrum can be represented by a power law: (8.2 ± 2.2stat ± 2.5sys) × 10–12 × (E/1 TeV)–γ cm–2 s–1 TeV–1 with a photon index γ of 2.4 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys, which is compatible with that of the H.E.S.S. observations. By combining our result with multiwavelength data, we discuss the possible counterparts for HESS J1614–518 and consider radiation mechanisms based on hadronic and leptonic processes for a supernova remnant (SNR), stellar winds from massive stars, and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Although a leptonic origin from a PWN driven by an unknown pulsar remains possible, hadronic-origin emission from an unknown SNR is preferred.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2011; 740(2):78. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paper compares the transport properties of a set of dimensionless identity experiments performed between JET and JT-60U in the advanced tokamak regime with internal transport barrier, ITB. These International Tokamak Physics Activity, ITPA, joint experiments were carried out with the same plasma shape, toroidal magnetic field ripple and dimensionless profiles as close as possible during the ITB triggering phase in terms of safety factor, normalized Larmor radius, normalized collision frequency, thermal beta, ratio of ion to electron temperatures. Similarities in the ITB triggering mechanisms and sustainment were observed when a good match was achieved of the most relevant normalized profiles except the toroidal Mach number. Similar thermal ion transport levels in the two devices have been measured in either monotonic or non-monotonic q-profiles. In contrast, differences between JET and JT-60U were observed on the electron thermal and particle confinement in reversed magnetic shear configurations. It was found that the larger shear reversal in the very centre (inside normalized radius of 0.2) of JT-60U plasmas allowed the sustainment of stronger electron density ITBs compared with JET. As a consequence of peaked density profile, the core bootstrap current density is more than five times higher in JT-60U compared with JET. Thanks to the bootstrap effect and the slightly broader neutral beam deposition, reversed magnetic shear configurations are self-sustained in JT-60U scenarios. Analyses of similarities and differences between the two devices address key questions on the validity of the usual assumptions made in ITER steady scenario modelling, e.g. a flat density profile in the core with thermal transport barrier? Such assumptions have consequences on the prediction of fusion performance, bootstrap current and on the sustainment of the scenario.
    Nuclear Fusion 06/2011; 51(7):073020. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An integrated plasma profile control strategy, ARTAEMIS, is being developed for extrapolating present-day advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios to steady-state operation. The approach is based on semi-empirical modelling and was initially explored on JET (Moreau et al 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 106001). This paper deals with the general applicability of this strategy for simultaneous magnetic and kinetic control on various tokamaks. The determination of the device-specific, control-oriented models that are needed to compute optimal controller matrices for a given operation scenario is discussed. The methodology is generic and can be applied to any device, with different sets of heating and current drive actuators, controlled variables and profiles. The system identification algorithms take advantage of the large ratio between the magnetic and thermal diffusion time scales and have been recently applied to both JT-60U and DIII-D data. On JT-60U, an existing series of high bootstrap current (~70%), 0.9 MA non-inductive AT discharges was used. The actuators consisted of four groups of neutral beam injectors aimed at perpendicular injection (on-axis and off-axis), and co-current tangential injection (also on-axis and off-axis). On DIII-D, dedicated system identification experiments were carried out in the loop voltage (Vext) control mode (as opposed to current control) to avoid feedback in the response data from the primary circuit. The reference plasma state was that of a 0.9 MA AT scenario which had been optimized to combine non-inductive current fractions near unity with 3.5 < βN < 3.9, bootstrap current fractions larger than 65% and H98(y,2) = 1.5. Actuators other than Vext were co-current, counter-current and balanced neutral beam injection, and electron cyclotron current drive. Power and loop voltage modulations resulted in dynamic variations of the plasma current between 0.7 and 1.2 MA. It is concluded that the response of essential plasma parameter profiles to specific actuators of a given device can be satisfactorily identified from a small set of experiments. This provides, for control purposes, a readily available alternative to first-principles plasma modelling.
    Nuclear Fusion 05/2011; 51(6):063009. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied magnetism in Ti(1-x)Co(x)O(2-δ) thin films with various x and δ by soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Co L(2, 3) absorption edges. The estimated ferromagnetic moment by XMCD was 0.15-0.24 µ(B)/Co at the surface, while in the bulk it was 0.82-2.25 µ(B)/Co, which is in the same range as the saturation magnetization of 1.0-1.5 µ(B)/Co. These results suggest an intrinsic origin of the ferromagnetism. The smaller moment of the Co atom at the surface is an indication of a magnetically dead layer of a few nanometers thick at the surface of the thin films.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 05/2011; 23(17):176001. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution have made the evaluation of the radial electric field (Er) in the JT-60U tokamak peripheral region possible with a better signal-to-noise ratio. In a very low density ( 0.94 started to become negative, down to -40 kV m-1 (similar to Vphi), the steepening of the Ti profile in the same region accelerated. Even though the numerical value of Vphi was considerably smaller than that of Vtheta, its contribution to shear could be significant: while for r/a >= 0.90 Vphi became increasingly negative; it simultaneously became increasingly positive for r/a < 0.90. Clean bifurcations in the edge Er values between weak negative and strong negative ones were observed in the later ELM-free H-mode phase, with essentially the same confinement properties corresponding to two very different E × B shearing rates. The 'normal' ELMy H-mode took place only after the bifurcations. The results indicate that energy confinement improvement may not necessarily be connected to E × B shear suppression of turbulence.
    Nuclear Fusion 05/2011; 51(5). · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detailed characteristics of the precursor of the type I edge localized mode (ELM) have been studied in JT-60U using diagnostics with high temporal and spatial resolution such as a microwave reflectometer, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) heterodyne radiometer and grating polychromator. Coherent density and temperature precursors have been observed before the collapse phase of type I ELM. The growth rate of the precursor is evaluated to be γ/ωA ~ 10−3 for several edge pedestal conditions. From the phase delay between ECE signals measured at two toroidal locations and the frequency of the precursor, the toroidal mode number is experimentally evaluated as n = 8–10 or 14–16 assuming that the precursor rotates toroidally with the same toroidal rotation speed of carbon impurity. It is found that the dominant n varies with each ELM under the same plasma condition. The ratio of the pressure gradient inside the pedestal (∇pin) to the pressure gradient within the pedestal (∇pped) has been confirmed as an important parameter in determining the ELM energy loss (ΔWELM) normalized to the pedestal stored energy (Wped), ΔWELM/Wped. From the comparison of the reduction rate in the ion temperature profile due to ELMs, a larger reduction rate within the pedestal and a wider ELM affected area are observed in the plasma with larger ∇pin/∇pped. When the plasma near the top of the pedestal on the high-field side is heated by an electron cyclotron wave (ECW) power of 1.57 MW, the ΔWELM/Wped is reduced by ~35%, together with an increase in the ELM frequency. The increasing rate of the ELM frequency with the heating power is about four times larger in the ECW injection case than the natural power dependence observed in the neutral beam injection case.
    Nuclear Fusion 03/2011; 51(3):033009. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For contributing to the ITER project and promoting a possible early realization of DEMO, since 2007 the International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) shall perform the activities on (1) DEMO Design and R&D Coordination, (2) Computational Simulation Centre, and (3) ITER Remote Experimentation Centre in the framework under the agreement between the Government of Japan and the European Atomic Energy Community for the joint implementation of the Broader Approach Activities in the field of fusion energy.The DEMO Design activity aims at establishing a common basis for DEMO Design, including design features of DEMO, possible common concepts of DEMO, a roadmap for DEMO, and so on.Based on the common interest of EU and Japan toward DEMO, the DEMO R&D activities have been planned and carried out for the areas which are related to DEMO blanket development: SiC/SiC composites, tritium technology, materials engineering, advanced neutron multiplier, and advanced tritium breeders for DEMO blanket.In the activity of the Computational Simulation Centre, the objective is to provide and exploit a supercomputer for large scale simulation activities to analyse experimental data on fusion plasmas, prepare scenarios for ITER operation, predict the performance of the ITER facilities and contribute to the DEMO Design.
    Fusion Engineering and Design 12/2010; 85(10):2196-2202. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms in Co-rich Co 2 MnGe Heusler alloy thin films facing an MgO barrier were studied by means of soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism XMCD. In particular, the Co 2 MnGe film-thickness dependence of the Mn and Co magnetic moments was investigated. With a decrease in the Co 2 MnGe film thickness to 1–2 monolayers MLs, the spin magnetic moment of Mn decreased and the Mn L 2,3 -edge x-ray absorption spectra XAS showed a Mn 2+ -like multiplet structure in MnO, in contrast to samples thicker than 4 ML, indicating that the Mn atoms of the 1 and 2 ML samples were oxidized. The Co spin magnetic moment increased slightly with decreasing thickness. A Co 2+ -like multiplet structure in CoO was not observed in all the Co L 2,3 -edge XAS and XMCD, indicating that, even in the ultrathin samples, the Co atoms were not oxidized, and were more strongly spin polarized than those in the thicker samples. Co spin magnetic moments of 1.40– 1.77 B larger than the theoretical value for ideal stoichiometric Co 2 MnGe 1 B and the Co-rich film composition imply the presence of Co antisites that would lower the spin polarization.
    Physical Review B 11/2010; 82:184419. · 3.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
477.56 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • Japan Atomic Energy Agency
      • Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate
      Muramatsu, Niigata, Japan
  • 2012
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2009–2012
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2012
    • National Institute for Fusion Science
      • Department of Helical Plasma Research
      Tokitsu-chō, Gifu, Japan
  • 2008–2011
    • Tokai University
      • Department of Physics
      Hiratsuka, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 2004–2008
    • National Institute of Radiological Sciences
      • Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 2001–2007
    • High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
      • Accelerator Laboratory
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2006
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Physics
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 1994–2002
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Applied Physics
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1989–1999
    • Kanazawa Medical University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1997
    • Tokyo Junshin Women's College
      • Department of Hygiene and Public Health
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1987
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 1982
    • Nagoya University
      • Department of Energy Engineering and Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan