G Lallement

University of Grenoble, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (123)266.81 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µg.kg(-1) of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants.
    Human & Experimental Toxicology 06/2011; 30(6):491-8. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)).
    Human & Experimental Toxicology 06/2011; 30(6):470-90. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of reports have substantiated to date, a beneficial influence of cytokine treatment on neurogenesis processes in damaged rodent brains. Most of these investigations further revealed that cytokine treatment induces either partial or full recovery of cognitive behavior impaired by cerebral lesions. Hence, we investigated the effects of a cytokine treatment on neuronal regeneration and cognitive behavior in mice subjected to nerve agent exposure. Subcutaneous injection of a mixture of 40 μg/kg fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) was administered daily over 8 days to soman-poisoned mice (1.2 LD50 soman). Memory performances (T-maze and Morris water maze) and emotional behavior (elevated plus maze; auditory and contextual response in a fear conditioning task) were assessed on post-soman days 30 and 90. Brains were collected on post-soman days 9, 30 and 90 so as to perform NeuN-immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus and amygdala (neuronal regeneration quantification). Following soman-induced brain lesions, a spontaneous neuronal regeneration occurred in both the hippocampus and amygdala. Cytokine treatment enhanced neuronal regeneration in the hippocampus however not in the amygdala. Soman poisoning fostered altogether memory impairments as well as anxiety or fear-like behavioral disturbances in mice. A spontaneous recovery of standard emotional behavior occurred overtime. Such a recovery displayed significantly enhanced speed under cytokine treatment. Unfortunately, no memory performance recovery was evidenced in soman-intoxicated mice whether treated or not with cytokines.
    Behavioural brain research 03/2011; 221(1):261-70. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of organophosphate poisoning with pralidoxime needs to be improved. Here we have studied the pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime after its intramuscular injection alone or in combination with avizafone and atropine using an auto-injector device. The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, two-way, cross-over design. At each period, each subject received either intramuscular injections of pralidoxime (700 mg), or two injections of the combination: pralidoxime (350 mg), atropine (2 mg), avizafone (20 mg). Pralidoxime concentrations were quantified using a validated LC/MS-MS method. Two approaches were used to analyse these data: (i) a non-compartmental approach; and (ii) a compartmental modelling approach. The injection of pralidoxime combination with atropine and avizafone provided a higher pralidoxime maximal concentration than that obtained after the injection of pralidoxime alone (out of bioequivalence range), while pralidoxime AUC values were equivalent. Pralidoxime concentrations reached their maximal value earlier after the injection of the combination. According to Akaike and to goodness of fit criteria, the best model describing the pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime was a two-compartment with a zero-order absorption model. When avizafone and atropine were injected with pralidoxime, the best model describing pralidoxime pharmacokinetics becomes a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. The two approaches, non-compartmental and compartmental, showed that the administration of avizafone and atropine with pralidoxime results in a faster absorption into the general circulation and higher maximal concentrations, compared with the administration of pralidoxime alone.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2010; 161(8):1857-67. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel analytical method has been developed to detect and quantify VX (O-ethyl S-(2(diisopropylamino) ethyl) (methylphosphonothioate)) in plasma using an LC-MS/MS technique. VX detection and quantification in plasma following percutaneous exposure represent a formidable challenge and it is an important part of the ongoing struggle against chemical warfare agents. Liquid-liquid extraction of VX from plasma was performed and it generated a recovery rate of approximately 65% followed by an LC-MS/MS analysis in a 100% organic phase. An Allure biphenyl column (Restek) was tested with detection limit at 0.5 pg/mL (5 μL injected). Initial application was focused on human skin grafted on nude mice as an experimental model with proper adjustments done for very small quantities of plasma.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2010; 878(30):3059-66. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been highlighted as a contributing factor in epileptic seizures and subsequent neuronal cell death. Soman is an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, triggering epileptic seizures leading to massive neuronal cell death in brain areas, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymatic assays were performed in hippocampus and cerebral cortex homogenates from mouse brains collected 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days after soman poisoning. Our results suggest that mitochondrial enzymatic alterations stem more likely from secondary effects of the poisoning, rather than from any fallout effect from neuronal cell death.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 10/2009; 32(4):405-10. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of diazepam after administration of diazepam itself or as a water-soluble prodrug, avizafone, in humans. The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, three-way, cross-over design. Each subject received intramuscular injections of avizafone (20 mg), diazepam (11.3 mg) or avizafone (20 mg) combined with atropine (2 mg) and pralidoxime (350 mg) using a bi-compartmental auto-injector (AIBC). Plasma concentrations of diazepam were quantified using a validated LC/MS-MS assay, and were analysed by both a non-compartmental approach and by compartmental modelling. The maximum concentration (C(max)) of diazepam after avizafone injection was higher than that obtained after injection of diazepam itself (231 vs. 148 ng.mL(-1)), while area under the curve (AUC) values were equal. Diazepam concentrations reached their maximal value faster after injection of avizafone. Injection of avizafone with atropine-pralidoxime (AIBC) had no effect on diazepam C(max) and AUC, but the time to C(max) was increased, relative to avizafone injected alone. According to the Akaike criterion, the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after injection as a prodrug was best described as a two-compartment with zero-order absorption model. When atropine and pralidoxime were injected with avizafone, the best pharmacokinetic model was a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. Diazepam had a faster entry to the general circulation and achieved higher C(max) after injection of prodrug than after the parent drug. Administration of avizafone in combination with atropine and pralidoxime by AIBC had no significant effect on diazepam AUC and C(max).
    British Journal of Pharmacology 09/2009; 157(8):1390-7. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2009; 238(2):188; author reply 189. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical weapons represent an ever-growing threat, not only for military forces but also for civilian populations. Nerve agents such as those used in terrorist attacks by the Aum sect in Tokyo are among the deadliest of those non conventional weapons. The French military health service has developed a new auto-injector presenting as a self-usable dual-chamber syringe and successfully obtained a new drug approval to provide this new emergency treatment for the military and civilians. After a short review of the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of acute nerve agent, the authors report the development and the process of new drug application. They finally suggest a clinical guideline for practical use in case of terrorist attack.
    Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation 05/2009; 28(5):482-8. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a dynamically working in vitro model with real-time determination of membrane-bound human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was shown to be a versatile model to investigate oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of organophosphate- (OP) inhibited enzyme. In this assay, AChE was immobilized on particle filters which were perfused with acetylthiocholine, Ellman's reagent and phosphate buffer. Subsequently, AChE activity was continuously analyzed in a flow-through detector. Now, it was an intriguing question whether this model could be used with erythrocyte AChE from other species in order to investigate kinetic interactions in the absence of annoying side reactions. Rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocytes were a stable and highly reproducible enzyme source. Then, the model was applied to the reactivation of sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE by obidoxime or HI 6 and it could be shown that the derived reactivation rate constants were in good agreement to previous results obtained from experiments with a static model. Hence, this dynamic model offers the possibility to investigate highly reproducible interactions between AChE, OP and oximes with human and animal AChE.
    Toxicology 05/2009; 258(2-3):79-83. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Against highly toxic chemicals that are quickly absorbed in the skin, topical formulations could adequately complement specific protective suits and equipments. In this work, we evaluated in vitro and compared the skin protection efficacy against the nerve agent VX of four different topical formulations: oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions, a perfluorinated-based cream and a hydrogel. Semi-permeable silicone membrane, pig-ear and human abdominal split-thickness skin samples mounted in diffusion cells were compared as in vitro permeation tests. The results showed that silicone membrane could be used instead of skin samples to screen for potentially effective formulations. However, the results indicated that due to potentially significant interactions between formulations and skin, relevant ranking of formulations according to their protective efficacy could require tests with skin samples. The main phase of emulsions, water or oil, was not found to be critical for skin protective efficacy against VX. Instead, specific film-forming ingredients such as perfluorinated-based polymers and silicones could significantly affect the skin protective efficacy of formulations. We showed that a hydrogel containing specific hydrophilic polymers was by far the most effective of the formulations evaluated against VX skin permeation in vitro.
    Toxicology in Vitro 05/2009; 23(3):539-45. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of exposure to the neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OP) is a major concern both for pesticide users and soldiers. Skin barrier creams are being developed to complement or replace uncomfortable chemical protective suits. Quick evaluation of formulations efficacy mainly relies on in vitro tests which lead to consistent, complementary and relevant results. The objectives of this work were to determine the consistency of results from in vitro tests and importance of the formulation composition in the skin protective efficacy. The efficacy of three formulations, i.e. oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions and perfluorinated compounds-based cream, was evaluated against the OP paraoxon in vitro. Our results indicated that the least effective formulations could be quickly identified by performing in vitro permeation tests with silicone membrane and by evaluating interfacial interactions between formulations and OP. Among the tested formulations, the perfluorinated compounds-based cream could have a broader spectrum of efficacy than emulsions against OP and other toxic chemicals.
    Toxicology in Vitro 11/2008; 23(1):127-33. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, studies on soman-induced neuropathology mainly focused on the hippocampus, since this brain region is a well-delimited area with easily detectable pyramidal neurons. Moreover, the hippocampus is severely damaged after soman exposure leading to a substantial alteration of behavioral mnemonic processes. The neuropathology described in the hippocampus, however, and its behavioral consequences cannot be extrapolated to all other limbic damaged brain areas such as the amygdala. Accordingly, in this inaugural paper, using hemalun-phloxin staining and NeuN immunohistochemistry, the number of damaged and residual healthy neurons was quantified in the amygdala in mice over a 90-day period after soman injection (1.2LD(50) of soman). On post-soman day 1, a moderate neuronal cell death (about 23% of the whole neurons) was evidenced. In parallel, a large quantity of degenerating neurons (about 36% of the whole neurons) occurred in this brain region and survived from post-soman day 1 to day 15. The death of these damaged neurons was initiated on post-soman day 30, and ended on post-soman day 90. Concomitantly, as quantified by NeuN immunohistochemistry, a clear neuronal regeneration was demonstrated in the amygdala of soman-poisoned mice between 60 and 90 days after neurotoxicant exposure. In the companion paper (see part 2), the possible effects of both long-term neuropathology and delayed neuronal regeneration were evaluated on amygdala-driven emotional processes.
    Behavioural Brain Research 09/2008; 191(1):88-94. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of diazepam from avizafone, atropine and pralidoxime in human plasma is described. Sample pretreatment consisted of protein precipitation from 100microl of plasma using acetonitrile containing the internal standard (diazepam D5). Chromatographic separation was performed on a X-Terra MS C8 column (100mmx2.1mm, i.d. 3.5microm), with a quick stepwise gradient using a formate buffer (pH 3, 2mM) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.2ml/min. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring was used for drug quantification. The method was validated over the concentration ranges of 1-500ng/ml for diazepam, 0.25-50ng/ml for atropine and 5-1000ng/ml for pralidoxime. The coefficients of variation were always <15% for both intra-day and inter-day precision for each analyte. Mean accuracies were also within +/-15%. This method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the three compounds after intramuscular injection of an avizafone-atropine-pralidoxime combination, in healthy subjects.
    Journal of Chromatography B 09/2008; 874(1-2):42-50. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The organophosphorus compound soman produces long-lasting epileptic seizure activity which is associated to brain damage, more particularly in the hippocampus and the amygdala. The companion paper (see part 1 in the same journal issue) describes the neuropathology in the amygdala of soman-poisoned mice. The present paper examines the long-term effects of soman poisoning on emotional reactivity in mice, 30 or 90 days after intoxication using behavioral tasks involving amygdala function. The emotional behavior was estimated in animal tests of unconditioned fear (light/dark boxes, elevated plus-maze) and conditioned fear (auditory and contextual response). In the light/dark boxes and elevated plus-maze, mice intoxicated with soman (110 μg/kg, 1.2 LD50) showed an anxiety-like behavior profile at post-poisoning days 30 and 90. In conditioned fear, results showed that both auditory and contextual conditioned responses are increased on post-soman day 30 but no longer on post-soman day 90, evidencing behavioral recovery overtime. This latter behavioral result is in accordance with the delayed neuronal regeneration patterns described in the companion paper (part 1).
    Behavioural Brain Research 08/2008; 191(1):95–103. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • I Boudry, Y Trescos, V Vallet, C Cruz, G Lallement
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphates are highly toxic compounds, mainly penetrating the organism through the percutaneous route. In this context, having topical skin protectant capable of limitating their percutaneous penetration is of crucial importance for exposed people. Knowledge of the toxicokinetic parameters corresponding to the percutaneous penetration of these compounds is a key step for the development of these protective formulations. The different experimental approaches, in vivo and ex vivo, used to predict percutaneous penetration of these toxics are presented. The relevance and reliability of cutaneous experimental models are analysed.
    Pathologie Biologie 08/2008; 56(5):292-9. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined and compared the percutaneous penetration and absorption of an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, parathion (PA), using three experimental skin models: namely the human abdominal- and pig-ear skin in vitro models and the Human Skin grafted onto a nude mouse (HuSki) in vivo model. The percentage of topically applied dose absorbed and the doses present in the stratum corneum and skin were systematically determined at 24 h under similar experimental conditions. The three experimental skin models were first compared. Then, the advantages of the HuSki model for in vivo PA skin absorption studies were evaluated compared with the pig in vivo model previously used by others. Lastly, the relevance of each skin model to predict the permeability of human skin to PA in vivo was assessed by comparing our results with previously published in vivo human volunteer values. It was demonstrated that (a) pig-ear skin is relevant for predicting the in vitro human abdominal skin absorption taking into account a 2-3 times higher skin permeability to PA, (b) using ethanol as the vehicle, the absorption of PA was 4-5 times higher in the HuSki model than in the pig model but supports the usefulness of the HuSki model to easy mass balance studies, (c) both human in vitro and HuSki models closely predict the in vivo human volunteer absorption at 24 h when acetone is used as a vehicle but the HuSki model overcomes the known limitations of in vitro models for studying the fate of PA in the different skin layers after topical application.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 08/2008; 28(5):645-57. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) are to be feared in military operations as well as in terrorist attacks. Among them, VX (O-ethyl-S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) is a low volatility liquid that represents a percutaneous as well as an inhalation hazard if aerosolized. It is a potent irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor that causes severe signs and symptoms, including respiratory dysfunction that stems from different mechanisms. VX-induced pulmonary oedema was previously reported in dogs but mechanisms involved are not well understood, and its clinical significance remains to be assessed. An experimental model was thus developed to study VX-induced cardiovascular changes and pulmonary oedema in isoflurane-anaesthetized swine. In the course of this study, we observed a fast and unexpected rebound of plasma ChE activity following inhibition provoked by the intravenous injection of 6 and 12 microg kg(-1) of VX. In whole blood ChE activity, the rebound could stay unnoticed. Further investigations showed that the rebound of plasma esterase activity was neither related to spontaneous reactivation of ChE nor to VX-induced increase in paraoxonase/carboxylesterase activities. A bias in Ellman assay, haemoconcentration or severe liver cytolysis were also ruled out. All in all, these results suggest that the rebound was likely due to the release of butyrylcholinesterase into the blood stream from ChE producing organs. Nature of the organ(s) and mechanisms involved in enzyme release will need further investigations as it may represent a mechanism of defence, i.e. VX scavenging, that could advantageously be exploited.
    Toxicology 07/2008; 248(2-3):151-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The organophosphorus (OP) chemical warfare V agent O-ethyl-S-[2(di-isopropylamino)ethyl] methyl phosphonothioate (VX), is a highly toxic compound which mainly penetrates the body via percutaneous pathways. Hence, the following prerequisite: to ascertain compound absorption and percutaneous profile distribution with a view to further assessing the efficacy of topical skin protectants. We first selected the most appropriate receptor fluid to carry out in vitro VX absorption experiments, namely: Hanks's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS). After a 24-h topical exposure time lapse, we measured altogether the percentage of applied dose unabsorbed and absorbed, penetration rate, lag time, permeability coefficient (K(p)), and dose of VXeq present in skin. To such an end, we used full-thickness and split-thickness pig-ear or human abdominal skin membranes. Further, we scrutinised the potential use of two specific molecules as suitable surrogates for VX percutaneous penetration analyses: thus, we compared the present VX toxicokinetic parameters to earlier findings from our research unit, with respect to OP insecticides demethon-S-methyl (DSM) and paraoxon (POX). Within the framework of our study, we wish to highlight the following evidence: (a) pig-ear skin proves a relevant model to predict in vitro human abdominal skin, taking into account a 2-fold higher skin permeability to VXeq; (b) both full or split-thickness skin membranes may be used indiscriminately to gauge penetration rate and absorbed dose; (c) DSM applied on full-thickness pig-ear skin is the most relevant model to mimic the in vitro VX absorption through full-thickness skin model.
    Toxicology 05/2008; 246(1):73-82. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphates are highly toxic compounds, mainly penetrating the organism through the percutaneous route. In this context, having topical skin protectant capable of limitating their percutaneous penetration is of crucial importance for exposed people. Knowledge of the toxicokinetic parameters corresponding to the percutaneous penetration of these compounds is a key step for the development of these protective formulations. The different experimental approaches, in vivo and ex vivo, used to predict percutaneous penetration of these toxics are presented. The relevance and reliability of cutaneous experimental models are analysed.
    Pathologie Biologie - PATHOL BIOL. 01/2008; 56(5):292-299.