[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF) is a systemic amyloid disease associated with the deposition of proteolytic fragments of mutant (D187N/Y) plasma gelsolin. We report a mouse model of FAF featuring a muscle-specific promoter to drive D187N gelsolin synthesis. This model recapitulates the aberrant endoproteolytic cascade and the aging-associated extracellular amyloid deposition of FAF. Amyloidogenesis is observed only in tissues synthesizing human D187N gelsolin, despite the presence of full-length D187N gelsolin and its 68-kDa cleavage product in blood-demonstrating the importance of local synthesis in FAF. Loss of muscle strength was progressive in homozygous D187N gelsolin mice. The presence of misfolding-prone D187N gelsolin appears to exacerbate the age-associated decline in cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), reflected by the intracellular deposition of numerous proteins, a characteristic of the most common degenerative muscle disease of aging humans, sporadic inclusion body myositis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2009; 106(27):11125-30. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein aggregate formation in muscle is thought to be pathogenic and associated with clinical weakness. Over-expression of either wild type or a mutant form of myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) in transgenic mouse skeletal muscle and in cultured cells resulted in aggregate formation. Aggregates were detected in MLF1 transgenic mice at 6 weeks of age, and increased in size with age. However, histological examination of skeletal muscles of MLF1 transgenic mice revealed no pathological changes other than the aggregates, and RotaRod testing did not detect functional deficits. MLF1 has recently been identified as a protein that could neutralize the toxicity of intracellular protein aggregates in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease (HD). We also demonstrate that MLF1 interacts with MRJ, a heat shock protein, which can independently neutralize the toxicity of intracellular protein aggregates in the Drosophila HD model. Our data suggest that over-expression of MLF1 has no significant impact on skeletal muscle function in mice; that progressive formation of protein aggregates in muscle are not necessarily pathogenic; and that MLF1 and MRJ may function together to ameliorate the toxic effects of polyglutamine or mutant proteins in myodegenerative diseases such as inclusion body myositis and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, as well as neurodegenerative disease.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 02/2008; 264(1-2):77-86. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many types of inclusions have been described in human myopathies including but not limited to nemaline rod bodies, cylindrical spirals, tubular aggregates, cytoplasmic bodies, reducing bodies, and fingerprint bodies, and hyaline inclusions in myofibrillar myopathy and inclusion body myositis. There are very few reports describing inclusions in spontaneously occurring myopathies in cats, and these reports are limited to nemaline rod myopathy. A myopathy with tubulin-reactive crystalline inclusions has recently been reported in a human patient with a clinical presentation of myalgia and fatigue. Similarly, a myopathy with chronic, slowly progressive muscle weakness has been identified here in two unrelated cats. Inclusions were the only pathological change in skeletal muscle biopsies and, ultrastructurally, groups of crystalline structures were evident that had a subsarcolemmal or central location, rhomboid or rectangular shapes, lacked orientation, and were not membrane bound. The crystalline structures reacted positively with an antibody against tubulin. This feline myopathy may be the equivalent of the human myopathy with tubulin-positive crystalline inclusions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperalgesia to noxious stimuli is accompanied by increased spinal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein in diabetic rats. The present studies were initiated to establish causality between increased spinal COX-2 activity and hyperalgesia during diabetes and to assess the potential involvement of polyol pathway activity in the pathogenesis of spinally mediated hyperalgesia. Rats with 1, 2, or 4 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes exhibited significantly increased levels of spinal COX-2 protein and activity, along with exaggerated paw flinching in response to 0.5% paw formalin injection. Increased flinching of diabetic rats was attenuated by intrathecal pretreatment with a selective COX-2 inhibitor immediately before formalin injection, confirming the involvement of COX-2 activity in diabetic hyperalgesia. Chronic treatment with insulin or ICI222155, an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) previously shown to prevent spinal polyol accumulation and formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in diabetic rats, prevented elevated spinal COX-2 protein and activity in diabetic rats. In contrast, the ARI IDD676 had no effect on spinal polyol accumulation, elevated spinal COX-2, or hyperalgesia to paw formalin injection. In the spinal cord, aldose reductase immunoreactivity was present solely in oligodendrocytes, which also contained COX-2 immunoreactivity. Polyol pathway flux in spinal oligodendrocytes provides a pathogenic mechanism linking hyperglycemia to hyperalgesia in diabetic rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose metabolism by aldose reductase (AR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications, including neuropathy. We have re-evaluated the distribution of AR in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of normal rats, expanded these observations to describe the location of AR in the spinal cord and footpad skin, and investigated whether diabetes alters the distribution of AR. In sciatic nerve, AR was restricted to cytoplasm of myelinated Schwann cells and endothelial cells of epineurial, but not endoneurial, blood vessels. AR immunoreactivity (IR) was present in satellite cells in the DRG. In skin, AR-IR was detected in vascular endothelial cells, Schwann cells of myelinated fibers, and axons of perivascular sympathetic nerves. AR was localized selectively to oligodendrocytes of the white matter of spinal cord. The distribution of AR-IR in sciatic nerve, DRG, skin, and spinal cord was not altered by up to 12 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Identification of perineuronal satellite cells, oligodendrocytes, and perivascular sympathetic nerves as AR-expressing cells reveals them as cellular sites with the potential to contribute to diabetic neuropathy.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 01/2007; 11(4):274-85. · 2.57 Impact Factor