Rainer Glass

University Hospital München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (32)164.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that glioma cells induce the expression of membrane-type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages and promote tumor growth, whereas MMP-14 expression in microglia under physiological conditions is very low. Here, we show that the increase in MMP-14 expression is also found in microglia/macrophages associated with neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathologies in mouse models as well as in human biopsies or post-mortem tissue. We found that microglial/macrophage MMP-14 expression was upregulated in Alzheimer's disease tissue, in active lesions of multiple sclerosis, and in tissue from stage II stroke as well as in the corresponding mouse models for the human diseases. In contrast, we observed no upregulation for MMP-14 in microglia/macrophages in the early phase of stroke or in the corresponding mouse model, in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tissue or in a mouse model of ALS as well as in human cases of acute brain trauma. These data indicate that MMP-14 expression is not a general marker for activated microglia/macrophages but is upregulated in defined stages of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and that there is generally a good match between mouse models and human brain pathologies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 12/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that glioma cells induce the expres-sion of membrane-type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages and promote tumor growth, whereas MMP-14 expression in microglia under physiological conditions is very low. Here, we show that the increase in MMP-14 expression is also found in microglia/macrophages associated with neurode-generative and neuroinflammatory pathologies in mouse models as well as in human biopsies or post-mortem tissue. We found that microglial/macrophage MMP-14 expression was upregulated in Alzheimer's disease tissue, in active lesions of multiple sclerosis, and in tissue from stage II stroke as well as in the corresponding mouse mod-els for the human diseases. In contrast, we observed no upregulation for MMP-14 in microglia/macrophages in the early phase of stroke or in the corresponding mouse model, in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tissue or in a mouse model of ALS as well as in human cases of acute brain trauma. These data indicate that MMP-14 expression is not a general marker for activated microglia/ macrophages but is upregulated in defined stages of neu-roinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and that there is generally a good match between mouse models and human brain pathologies. V C 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: Data from transgenic mouse models show that neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) migrate towards experimental brain tumors and modulate the course of pathology. However, the pathways whereby NPCs are attracted to CNS neoplasms are not fully understood and it is unexplored if NPCs migrate towards brain tumors (high-grade astrocytomas) in humans. We analyzed the tumor-parenchyma interface of neurosurgical resections for the presence of (NPCs) and distinguished these physiological cells from the tumor mass. We observed that PSA-NCAM-positive NPCs accumulate at the border of high-grade astrocytomas and display a marker profile consistent with immature migratory neuronal progenitor cells. Importantly, these high-grade astrocytoma-associated NPCs did not carry genetic aberrations that are indicative of the tumor. Additionally, we observed NPCs accumulating in CNS metastases. These metastatic tumors are distinguished from neural cells by defined sets of markers. Transplanting murine glioma cells embedded in a cell-impermeable hollow fiber capsule into the brains of nestin-gfp reporter mice showed that diffusible factors are sufficient to induce a neurogenic reaction. In vitro, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted from glioma cells increases the migratory and proliferative behavior of adult human brain derived neural stem and progenitor cells via stimulation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). In vivo, inhibiting VEGFR-2 signaling with a function-blocking antibody led to a reduction in NPC migration towards tumors. Overall, our data reveal a mechanism by which NPCs are attracted to CNS tumors and suggest that NPCs accumulate in human high-grade astrocytomas. Stem Cells 2013.
    Stem Cells 10/2013; · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S.L.); Department of Neuropathology, University of Gö ttingen, Gö ttingen, Germany (U-K.H.); Department of Neurosurgery, Charité Universitä tsmedizin, Berlin, Germany (M.S.); Department of Neurosurgery, Helios Clinic, Berlin, Germany (D.M.) Present affiliation: Neurosurgical Research, Clinic for Neurosurgery, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany (R. G.) Background. Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor cor-relates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of mem-brane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP). This upregulation depends on signaling via the Toll-like recep-tor (TLR) adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Methods. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling micro-glial MT1-MMP expression and promoting microglia-assisted glioma expansion. Results. The implantation of mouse GL261 glioma cells into TLR2 knockout mice resulted in significantly smaller tumors, reduced MT1-MMP expression, and en-hanced survival rates compared with wild-type control mice. Tumor expansion studied in organotypic brain slices depended on both parenchymal TLR2 expression and the presence of microglia. Glioma-derived soluble factors and synthetic TLR2 specific ligands induced MT1-MMP expression in microglia from wild-type mice, but no such change in MT1-MMP gene expression was observed in microglia from TLR2 knockout mice. We also found evidence that TLR1 and TLR6 cofunction with TLR2 as heterodimers in regulating MT1-MMP expres-sion in vitro. Conclusions. Our results thus show that activation of TLR2 along with TLRs 1 and/or 6 converts microglia into a glioma supportive phenotype.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor correlates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP). This upregulation depends on signaling via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88).Methods Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling microglial MT1-MMP expression and promoting microglia-assisted glioma expansion.ResultsThe implantation of mouse GL261 glioma cells into TLR2 knockout mice resulted in significantly smaller tumors, reduced MT1-MMP expression, and enhanced survival rates compared with wild-type control mice. Tumor expansion studied in organotypic brain slices depended on both parenchymal TLR2 expression and the presence of microglia. Glioma-derived soluble factors and synthetic TLR2 specific ligands induced MT1-MMP expression in microglia from wild-type mice, but no such change in MT1-MMP gene expression was observed in microglia from TLR2 knockout mice. We also found evidence that TLR1 and TLR6 cofunction with TLR2 as heterodimers in regulating MT1-MMP expression in vitro.Conclusions Our results thus show that activation of TLR2 along with TLRs 1 and/or 6 converts microglia into a glioma supportive phenotype.
    Neuro-Oncology 09/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma cells with stem-like properties control brain tumour growth and recurrence. Here, we show that endogenous neural precursor cells perform an anti-tumour response by specifically targeting stem-like brain tumour cells. In vitro, neural precursor cells predominantly express bone morphogenetic protein-7; bone morphogenetic protein-7 is constitutively released from neurospheres and induces canonical bone morphogenetic protein signalling in stem-like glioblastoma cells. Exposure of human and murine stem-like brain tumour cells to neurosphere-derived bone morphogenetic protein-7 induces tumour stem cell differentiation, attenuates stem-like marker expression and reduces self-renewal and the ability for tumour initiation. Neurosphere-derived or recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-7 reduces glioblastoma expansion from stem-like cells by down-regulating the transcription factor Olig2. In vivo, large numbers of bone morphogenetic protein-7-expressing neural precursors encircle brain tumours in young mice, induce canonical bone morphogenetic protein signalling in stem-like glioblastoma cells and can thereby attenuate tumour formation. This anti-tumour response is strongly reduced in older mice. Our results indicate that endogenous neural precursor cells protect the young brain from glioblastoma by releasing bone morphogenetic protein-7, which acts as a paracrine tumour suppressor that represses proliferation, self-renewal and tumour-initiation of stem-like glioblastoma cells.
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma cells with stem-like properties control brain tumour growth and recurrence. Here, we show that endogenous neural precursor cells perform an anti-tumour response by specifically targeting stem-like brain tumour cells. In vitro, neural precursor cells predominantly express bone morphogenetic protein-7; bone morphogenetic protein-7 is constitutively released from neurospheres and induces canonical bone morphogenetic protein signalling in stem-like glioblastoma cells. Exposure of human and murine stem-like brain tumour cells to neurosphere-derived bone morphogenetic protein-7 induces tumour stem cell differentiation, attenuates stem-like marker expression and reduces self-renewal and the ability for tumour initiation. Neurosphere-derived or recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-7 reduces glioblastoma expansion from stem-like cells by down-regulating the transcription factor Olig2. In vivo, large numbers of bone morphogenetic protein-7-expressing neural precursors encircle brain tumours in young mice, induce canonical bone morphogenetic protein signalling in stem-like glioblastoma cells and can thereby attenuate tumour formation. This anti-tumour response is strongly reduced in older mice. Our results indicate that endogenous neural precursor cells protect the young brain from glioblastoma by releasing bone morphogenetic protein-7, which acts as a paracrine tumour suppressor that represses proliferation, self-renewal and tumour-initiation of stem-like glioblastoma cells.
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    ABSTRACT: Primary astrocytomas of grade 3 or 4 according to the classification system of the World Health Organization (high-grade astrocytomas or HGAs) are preponderant among adults and are almost invariably fatal despite the use of multimodal therapy. Here we show that the juvenile brain has an endogenous defense mechanism against HGAs. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) migrate to HGAs, reduce glioma expansion and prolong survival time by releasing endovanilloids that activate the vanilloid receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 or TRPV1) on HGA cells. TRPV1 is highly expressed in tumor and weakly expressed in tumor-free brain. TRPV1 stimulation triggers tumor cell death through the branch of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway that is controlled by activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3). The antitumorigenic response of NPCs is lost with aging. NPC-mediated tumor suppression can be mimicked in the adult brain by systemic administration of the synthetic vanilloid arvanil, suggesting that TRPV1 agonists have potential as new HGA therapeutics.
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    ABSTRACT: High-grade gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their malignancy is promoted by the complex crosstalk between different cell types in the central nervous system. Microglia/brain macrophages infiltrate high-grade gliomas and contribute to their progression. To identify factors that mediate the attraction of microglia/macrophages to malignant brain tumors, we established a glioma cell encapsulation model that was applied in vivo. Mouse GL261 glioma cell line and human high-grade glioma cells were seeded into hollow fibers (HF) that allow the passage of soluble molecules but not cells. The glioma cell containing HF were implanted into one brain hemisphere and simultaneously HF with non-transformed fibroblasts (controls) were introduced into the contralateral hemisphere. Implanted mouse and human glioma- but not fibroblast-containing HF attracted microglia and up-regulated immunoreactivity for GFAP, which is a marker of astrogliosis. In this study, we identified GDNF as an important factor for microglial attraction: (1) GL261 and human glioma cells secret GDNF, (2) reduced GDNF production by siRNA in GL261 in mouse glioma cells diminished attraction of microglia, (3) over-expression of GDNF in fibroblasts promoted microglia attraction in our HF assay. In vitro migration assays also showed that GDNF is a strong chemoattractant for microglia. While GDNF release from human or mouse glioma had a profound effect on microglial attraction, the glioma-induced astrogliosis was not affected. Finally, we could show that injection of GL261 mouse glioma cells with GDNF knockdown by shRNA into mouse brains resulted in reduced tumor expansion and improved survival as compared to injection of control cells.
    Acta Neuropathologica 01/2013; · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary astrocytomas of grade 3 or 4 according to the classification system of the World Health Organization (high-grade astrocytomas or HGAs) are preponderant among adults and are almost invariably fatal despite the use of multimodal therapy. Here we show that the juvenile brain has an endogenous defense mechanism against HGAs. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) migrate to HGAs, reduce glioma expansion and prolong survival time by releasing endovanilloids that activate the vanilloid receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 or TRPV1) on HGA cells. TRPV1 is highly expressed in tumor and weakly expressed in tumor-free brain. TRPV1 stimulation triggers tumor cell death through the branch of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway that is controlled by activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3). The antitumorigenic response of NPCs is lost with aging. NPC-mediated tumor suppression can be mimicked in the adult brain by systemic administration of the synthetic vanilloid arvanil, suggesting that TRPV1 agonists have potential as new HGA therapeutics.
    Nature medicine 07/2012; · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-grade brain tumors are heterogeneous with respect to the composition of bona fide tumor cells and with respect to a range of intermingling parenchymal cells. Glioblastomas harbor multiple cell types, some with increased tumorigenicity and stem cell-like capacity. The stem-like cells maybe the cells of origin for tumor relapse. However, the tumor-associated parenchymal cells such as vascular cells,microglia, peripheral immune cells, and neural precursor cells also play a vital role in controlling the course of pathology.In this review, we describe the multiple interactions of bulk glioma cells and glioma stem cells with parenchymal cell populations and highlight the pathological impact as well as signaling pathways known for these types of cell-cell communication. The tumor-vasculature not only nourishes glioblastomas, but also provides a specialized niche for these stem-like cells. In addition, microglial cells,which can contribute up to 30% of a brain tumor mass,play a role in glioblastoma cell invasion. Moreover, non-neoplastic astrocytes can be converted into a reactive phenotype by the glioma microenvironment and can then secrete a number of factors which influences tumor biology. The young brain may have the capacity to inhibit gliomagenesis by the endogenous neural precursor cells, which secrete tumor suppressive factors. The factors, pathways, and interactions described in this review provide a new prospective on the cell biology of primary brain tumors, which may ultimately generate new treatment modalities. However, our picture of the multiple interactions between parenchymal and tumor cells is still incomplete.
    Glia 03/2012; 60(3):502-14. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioma cells release soluble factors, which induce the expression of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) in tumor associated microglia and then exploit MT1-MMP mediated matrix degradation for invasion. Here, we show that minocycline blocked the increase in MT1-MMP expression and activity in cultivated microglia stimulated with glioma conditioned medium. Glioma growth within an organotypic brain slice preparation was reduced by minocycline and this reduction depended on the presence of microglia. Glioma growth in an experimental mouse model was strongly reduced by the addition of minocycline to drinking water, compared to untreated controls. Coherently, we observed in our orthotopic glioma implantation model, that MT1-MMP was abundantly expressed in glioma associated microglia in controls, but was strongly attenuated in tumors of minocycline treated animals. Overall, our study indicates that the clinically approved antibiotic minocycline is a promising new candidate for adjuvant therapy against malignant gliomas.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 02/2011; 25(4):624-8. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma cells with stem-like properties control brain tumour growth and recurrence. Here, we show that endogenous neural precursor cells perform an anti-tumour response by specifically targeting stem-like brain tumour cells. In vitro, neural precursor cells predominantly express bone morphogenetic protein-7; bone morphogenetic protein-7 is constitutively released from neurospheres and induces canonical bone morphogenetic protein signalling in stem-like glioblastoma cells. Exposure of human and murine stem-like brain tumour cells to neurosphere-derived bone morphogenetic protein-7 induces tumour stem cell differentiation, attenuates stem-like marker expression and reduces self-renewal and the ability for tumour initiation. Neurosphere-derived or recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-7 reduces glioblastoma expansion from stem-like cells by down-regulating the transcription factor Olig2. In vivo, large numbers of bone morphogenetic protein-7-expressing neural precursors encircle brain tumours in young mice, induce canonical bone morphogenetic protein signalling in stem-like glioblastoma cells and can thereby attenuate tumour formation. This anti-tumour response is strongly reduced in older mice. Our results indicate that endogenous neural precursor cells protect the young brain from glioblastoma by releasing bone morphogenetic protein-7, which acts as a paracrine tumour suppressor that represses proliferation, self-renewal and tumour-initiation of stem-like glioblastoma cells.
    Brain 07/2010; 133(Pt 7):1961-72. · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for dynamic cellular processes. Decreased actin turnover and rigidity of cytoskeletal structures have been associated with aging and cell death. Gelsolin is a Ca(2+)-activated actin-severing protein that is widely expressed throughout the adult mammalian brain. Here, we used gelsolin-deficient (Gsn(-/-)) mice as a model system for actin filament stabilization. In Gsn(-/-) mice, emigration of newly generated cells from the subventricular zone into the olfactory bulb was slowed. In vitro, gelsolin deficiency did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation of adult neural progenitors cells (NPCs) but resulted in retarded migration. Surprisingly, hippocampal neurogenesis was robustly induced by gelsolin deficiency. The ability of NPCs to intrinsically sense excitatory activity and thereby implement coupling between network activity and neurogenesis has recently been established. Depolarization-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases and exocytotic neurotransmitter release were enhanced in Gsn(-/-) synaptosomes. Importantly, treatment of Gsn(-/-) synaptosomes with mycotoxin cytochalasin D, which, like gelsolin, produces actin disassembly, decreased enhanced Ca(2+) influx and subsequent exocytotic norepinephrine release to wild-type levels. Similarly, depolarization-induced glutamate release from Gsn(-/-) brain slices was increased. Furthermore, increased hippocampal neurogenesis in Gsn(-/-) mice was associated with a special microenvironment characterized by enhanced density of perfused vessels, increased regional cerebral blood flow, and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-III) expression in hippocampus. Together, reduced filamentous actin turnover in presynaptic terminals causes increased Ca(2+) influx and, subsequently, elevated exocytotic neurotransmitter release acting on neural progenitors. Increased neurogenesis in Gsn(-/-) hippocampus is associated with a special vascular niche for neurogenesis.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2010; 30(9):3419-31. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sorting protein-related receptor with A-type repeats (SORLA) is a major risk factor in cellular processes leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It acts as sorting receptor for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) that regulates intracellular trafficking and processing into amyloidogenic-beta peptides (A beta). Overexpression of SORLA in neurons reduces while inactivation of gene expression (as in knock-out mouse models) accelerates amyloidogenic processing and senile plaque formation. The current study aimed at identifying molecular pathways that control SORLA gene transcription in vivo and that may contribute to low levels of receptor expression in the brain of patients with AD. Using screening approaches in primary neurons, we identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a major inducer of Sorla that activates receptor gene transcription through the ERK (extracellular regulated kinase) pathway. In line with a physiological role as regulator of Sorla, expression of the receptor is significantly impaired in mouse models with genetic (Bdnf(-/-)) or disease-related loss of BDNF activity in the brain (Huntington's disease). Intriguingly, exogenous application of BDNF reduced A beta production in primary neurons and in the brain of wild-type mice in vivo, but not in animals genetically deficient for Sorla. These findings demonstrate that the beneficial effects ascribed to BDNF in APP metabolism act through induction of Sorla that encodes a negative regulator of neuronal APP processing.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2009; 29(49):15472-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

489 Citations
559 Downloads
2k Views
164.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005–2013
    • Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin
      • • Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.)
      • • Research Team Cellular Neurosciences
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2012
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Division of Cancer Biology & Genetics
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Urology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2008
    • HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany