Estrella Zapata

Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico

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Publications (10)28.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins has the ability to form transmembrane pores large enough to allow cytochrome c (Cyt c) release, as well as to activate the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP); however, no differential study has been conducted to clarify which one of these mechanisms predominates over the other in the same system. In the present study, we treated isolated mitochondria from MCF7 cells with recombinant protein Bax and tested the efficacy of the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) and of the Bax channel blocker (Bcb) to inhibit cytochrome c release. We also, induced apoptosis in MCF7 cell cultures with TNF-α plus cycloheximide to determine the effect of such compounds in apoptosis induction via mPTP or Bax oligomerization. Cytochrome c release was totally prevented by CsA and partially by Bcb when apoptosis was induced with recombinant Bax in isolated mitochondria from MCF7 cells. CsA increased the number of living cells in cell culture, as compared with the effect of Bax channel blocker. These results indicate that mPTP activation is the predominant pathway for Bax-induced cytochrome c release from MCF7 mitochondria and for apoptosis induction in the whole cell.
    Journal of Bioenergetics 03/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity, a risk factor for insulin resistance, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between increased levels of free fatty acids in the liver mitochondria, mitochondrial function, and ROS generation in rat model of obesity induced by a high-sucrose diet was not sufficiently established. We determined how the bioenergetic functions and ROS generation of the mitochondria respond to a hyperlipidemic environment. Mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats generated H(2)O(2) at a higher rate than the control mitochondria. Adding fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin to mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats significantly reduced the rate of H(2)O(2) generation. In contrast, adding exogenous oleic or linoleic acid exacerbated the rate of H(2)O(2) generation in both sucrose-fed and control mitochondria, and the mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats were more sensitive than the control mitochondria. The increased rate of H(2)O(2) generation in sucrose-fed mitochondria corresponded to decreased levels of reduced GSH and vitamin E and increased levels of Cu/Zn-SOD in the intermembrane space. There was no difference between the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in the two types of mitochondria. In addition to the normal activity of Mn-SOD, GPX and catalase detected an increased activity of complex II, and upregulation of UCP2 was observed in mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats, all of which may accelerate respiration rates and reduce generation of ROS. In turn, these effects may protect the mitochondria of sucrose-fed rats from oxidative stress and preserve their function and integrity. However, in whole liver these adaptive mechanisms of the mitochondria were inefficient at counteracting redox imbalances and inhibiting oxidative stress outside of the mitochondria.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2011; 301(6):E1198-207. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the probability to develop DM and endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) isolated from healthy newborns with familiar background of diverse diseases show early alterations such as less resistance to shear stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apoptosis by flow cytometry in HUVECs obtained from healthy newborns with (experimental) and without (control) a strong family history of DM, exposed to different glucose concentrations.
    Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 01/2010; 4(3):168-173.
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    ABSTRACT: Women under hormone replacement therapy carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), mostly during the first year. Despite great efforts devoted to hormone therapy research, VTE remains a major drawback of estrogenic therapy, and the search for new compounds continues. We have synthesized and evaluated prolame, an aminoestrogen with anticoagulant properties. The aim of our work was to elucidate the anticoagulant mechanism of prolame. We studied the effects of prolame on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in cultured endothelial cells and platelets using flow cytometry, on NO metabolites using a modified Griess method, on NO formation in vivo using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, on participation of nuclear estrogen receptors using flow cytometry, and on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression using RT-PCR. We also studied the impact of prolame-treated endothelial cells (EC) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation, as well as the ability to prevent occlusive thrombi in an in vivo mice thrombosis model. (a) Prolame induces NO production in ECs, platelets, and in a mouse model in vivo. (b) The NO-elevating effect of prolame can only be partially attributed to the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) since endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) is slightly induced (37%) in ECs treated with prolame. (c) Platelets become 60% less responsive to aggregation induced by 10muM ADP when in suspension with prolame-treated ECs. (d) Prolame reduces the formation of thrombi in an in vivo thrombosis model. Prolame could be a preferred alternative to other estrogens because of its reduced thromboembolic risk.
    Atherosclerosis 07/2009; 208(1):62-8. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Statins have antiproliferative and anti-tumoral effects in MCF-7 cells. We determined the effect of statins upon MCF-7 cell cycle, toxicity, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential. Fluvastatin, simvastatin and atorvastatin inhibited cell proliferation. Antiproliferation was associated with a decrease in the DNA synthesis and a cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases. A loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed with fluvastatin. Statins induced increase in ROS production that was associated with cell death, which was abrogated by the antioxidant NAC. Our results suggest that the cytotoxic effect observed is mediated by an oxidative stress.
    Cancer Investigation 07/2008; 26(7):698-707. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women, especially those in reproductive age. Genetic contributions to disease susceptibility as well as immune dysregulation, particularly persistent inflammatory responses, are considered essential features. Our aim was to determine whether human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) isolated from healthy newborns to women with inactive SLE show inflammation-related abnormalities that might lead to an early development of SLE in the offsprings. HUVEC isolated from six women with inactive SLE were stimulated with 2.5 ng/mL of TNF-alpha and/or physiological and pharmacological doses of 17-I(2) estradiol (E2). Then the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP90 were measured. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were also determined in maternal serum and in TNF-alpha stimulated and non-stimulated HUVEC culture supernatant. HUVEC from children with no family history of autoimmune disease served as controls. Our results showed that in HUVEC from SLE+ mothers, a constitutively low expression of adhesion molecules was enhanced by TNF-alpha treatment. The E2 (1 ng/mL) increased the expression of adhesion molecules but had no effect upon TNF-alpha-treated cells. IL-6 was constitutively higher in SLE+ HUVEC, whereas IL-8 was lower; E2 treatment diminished the latter. The E2 had no effect upon IL-6 and IL-8 secretions in TNF-alpha-treated cells. SLE+ HUVEC showed a disordered cytoskeleton and overexpressed HSP70, HSP90, and TLR-9. Our results indicate that endothelial cells of newborns to SLE+ mothers are in a proinflammatory condition which can be upregulated by estrogens.
    Lupus 02/2008; 17(12):1086-95. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A deficient synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in the early endothelial dysfunction of healthy humans with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this study, we evaluate the intracellular synthesis of NO and the expression of eNOS transcripts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), exposed to high glucose concentrations, of healthy newborns with (experimental) and without (control) a strong family history of DM2. HUVECs were incubated in M-199 culture media (containing a 5 mmol/L physiological glucose concentration) or supraphysiological glucose concentrations (15 or 30 mmol/L), for 48 h. Flow cytometry, reactive of Griess and RT-PCR were used to determine intracellular NO synthesis, presence of NO metabolites, and expression of eNOS, GLUT1 or p53 transcripts. NO synthesis in experimental HUVECs showed a progressive reduction in the presence of increasing glucose concentration (11% for 5 mmol to 8% for 30 mmol; p < 0.01), whereas control HUVECs showed an increase in NO synthesis (3% for 5 mmol to 31% for 30 mmol; p < 0.001). In experimental HUVECs, we found a diminished expression of eNOS and p53, and also an enhanced expression of GLUT1 mRNA transcripts. Control HUVECs showed an increase in eNOS, and no modifications in p53 or GLUT1 mRNA transcripts. Our results show how HUVECs, isolated from healthy newborns with a strong family history of DM2, have an abnormal intracellular synthesis of NO and an impaired expression of eNOS, GLUT1 and p53 genes, all associated with NO synthesis.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 11/2007; 23(7):559-66. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a protective role against atherosclerosis. We determined the effect of pharmacological doses of DHEA upon the adhesion of monocytic U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as well as the expression of adhesion and chemoattractant molecules, the translocation of NF-kappaB, the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HUVEC. Adhesion of U937 cells to DHEA-treated HUVEC was evaluated by co-culture experiments using [(3)H]-thymidine-labeled U937 cells. The expression of adhesion and chemoattractant molecules was evaluated by flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively; NF-kappaB translocation was determined by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and IkappaB-alpha degradation by Western blot. ROS production was determined by the reduction of fluorescent DCFDA. TNF-alpha was used to induce inflammatory responses in HUVEC. One hundred micromolar of DHEA-treatment inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced expression of ICAM-1, E-selectin, ROS production and U937 cells adhesion to HUVEC, and interfered with NF-kappaB translocation and IkappaB-alpha degradation. DHEA at the above mention concentration also inhibited the mRNA expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 in basal conditions but not in TNF-alpha-stimulated conditions. Our results suggest that DHEA inhibits the expression of molecules involved in the inflammatory process, therefore it could be used as an alternative in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 02/2007; 190(1):90-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the probability to develop DM and endothelial dysfunction. The probable mechanism involves augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of ROS in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) obtained from healthy newborns with (experimental) and without (control) a strong family history of type 2 DM, exposed to different glucose concentrations. HUVECs were exposed to various glucose concentrations for 24 and 48 h periods, before cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined. Intracellular ROS synthesis in the presence or absence of the mitochondrial uncoupler CCCP, cytochalasin B, or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was also evaluated. As opposed to control HUVECs, we found that experimental HUVECs exposed to 30 mmol/L glucose showed a 50% decrease in cell proliferation, a 90% reduction in mitochondrial activity, and a statistically significant inhibition of ROS synthesis in the presence of CCCP or cytochalasin B; DPI had no effect. Our results suggest that mitochondria and NAD(P)H-oxidase from HUVECs obtained from healthy newborns with a family history of DM have an innate deficient response to high glucose concentrations.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 02/2007; 23(1):71-80. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid hormone, modified the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Its inactive sulfate ester (DHEA-S) and two of its metabolites -- estradiol and testosterone -- had no inhibitory effect at physiological concentrations. Antiproliferation was associated with arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but not with cell death, as evaluated by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and exposure of phosphatidylserine. The effect was not blocked by inhibitors of androgen or estrogen receptors. DHEA diminished the levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein and increased the expression of p53 and p21 mRNAs. These results show that DHEA inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle relevant proteins through a cytoplasmic steroid hormone-independent pathway.
    FEBS Journal 04/2005; 272(6):1343-53. · 4.25 Impact Factor